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iDterW otlhi TimpV Qinr 






CII.— THE TEMPLE CHURCH. No. II. . . . » • 







CIX.— COVENT GARDEN J. Saunders & J. 












SOCIETIES J. Saundbbs 





LUNATIC ASYLUMS . • • . . J. C. Platt 


C. Platt 

























Doctors' Commons, a mysterious locality . 
The Lodge of Doctors' Commons • . 
The Porters at Doctors* Commons • • 
The Royal Wardrobe .... 
The Fair Maid of Kent .... 
Knight Rider Street • • • . 

Hcraid*8 College 

The Prerogative Will Office . 

Scene in tiie interior of Doctors' Commons 

The two Prerogative Courts . . • 

Introduction of the Funding System 

Increase in the business of Doctors' Commons 

since the year 1789 • • • • 

Shakepere's Will 

Original Wills in Doctors' Commons . 

Connexion between the Church and Wills 
Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction in Testamentary Causes 
Endeavours of the Priesthood, after the Ksta 

blishment of Christianity, to obtain authority 

in temporal, as well as in spiritual, affairs 
Earliest English Ecclesiastical Courts established 

by William the Conqueror • « • 
The partial authority of the Canon Law osta 

blished by the Ecclesiastics ... 
The Court of Arches .... 
The Consistory Court of the Bishop of London 
The Court of Admiralty • . • • 

Interior of the Common Hall of the College 
Cases brought before the Court of Arches • 
Penance for Defamation, still in practice in some 

parts of England • • • . 

RejKirt of the nature of the business in the Court 

of Arches %••••• 






' 6 



Mode of procedure in the Arches' Court • • 8 
Chaucer's Sumpnour • • • • . • 8 

Statement of tlie Bank Solicitor to Iho Commis- 
sioners • ••••••9 

Value of Cross- Examination in Courts of Justice 9 

Doctors of Civil Law 10 

Dr. Henry Harvey, the founder of Doctors' Com- 
mons •....•• 10 

Ceremony of the admission of Doctors to practise 

as Advocates at Doctors' Commons . . 10 
Admission of Proctors to practise at Doctors' 
Commons .••••••10 

The system of Appeal one of the legal beauties of 

the Ecclesiastical Courts . . • .10 
Stages through which an Appeal sometimes passes 11 
Bill brought before Parliament for abolishing the 

abuses of Doctors' Commons • . .11 

Outline of the measure of Reform of the Eccle- 
siastical Courts now before Parliament . .11 
Jurisdiction of the High Court of Admiralty . 12 

The Instance Court 12 

The Prize Court .12 

Peculiar position of the Judge of the Admiralty 13 
Lord Stowell at the head of the Admiralty Court 
through the most eventful period of the last 

great ^var . 13 

Case of the ship < Minerva/ as related by Lord 

Stowell • 11 

Judgment of Lord Stowell in the ' Minerva* suit 15 
The name of Arches' Court derived from the 

arches below Bow Church, Cheapside . .16 
Original connexion between the Court of Arches 
and Bow Church • . . • .16 


1. Prerogative Will Office • • • • • 

2. Hall of Docton' Commons ••...< 

3. Yestrj'-roomy formerly Court of Arches, St. Mary-le-Bow 





• 1 



. 7 


99 • 

. 16 



Impulse to the public taste given by the Restora- 
tion of the Temple Church • • • • 

Character of the Exterior of the Temple Church 
accordant with the character of its founders • 

Differences of style which prevail in the Rotunda 
and Chancel of the Temple Church . . • 

The Round •••••.. 

Restoration of the Effigies in the Temple Church 

EfEgy of William Pembroke the younger, in the 
Temple Church •••••• 

Sarcophagi discovered beneath the pavement of 
the Temple Church 

Present arrangement of the Effigies in the Temple 
Church 21 






Aisles of the Round . • • • .21 
Heads in the left Aisle of the Round . . 22 

Idea that the heads in the Round are probably 

intended to convey . • • . .23 

Pillars in the Round 24 

Pavement in the Round . • • • .25 
Taste for Eastern magnificence acquired by the 

Crusaders in their visits to the Holy Land . 25 
The early Church Reformers . . . .20 
The oblong portion of the Temple Church • 26 

First Impression on entering the Temple Church 27 
Banners in the Temple Church • • .27 

Inscriptions on the walls of the Temple Church . 28 
Decormlons of the roof of the Temple Church • 28 



The central Window of tlie Temple Church • 
History attached to the Organ in the Temple 


Present position of the Organ • » . • 
Bust of Lord Thurlow in the Vestry-room of the 

Temple Church •.•••• 
E%yofPlowden ••...• 




Portraits of the Kings, in the arches between the 
Chancel and the Rotunda • • • • 

Persons employed in the decorations of the 
Temple Church • 

Present state o( the Cathedrals in England • 

Possible progress of Art in England • • • 






4. The Temple Church from the South • • 

5. The Temple Church Interior from the Entrance 
6« The Eastern WindoWf Altar, &c.. Temple Church 





»» • 
tf • 

• n 

• 24 

• 32 



31 I 


34 I 

External Paper-hangers' Stations • • .33 
The * Hanging Committee * of London . • 33 
Most fashionable places in London for the exhi« 

bitions of the Hanging Committee • • 

Attractive character of the objects exhibited by the 

Hanging Committee • • . • . 
Liberties taken by modem Playwrights with the 

Chronicles of contemporary Newspapers • 

Utility of the Ornaments which adorn the stations 

of the external Paper*hangers • • • 
Heralds, the first adTertising mediums • • 
Town Drummers •••••• 

Town Bellmen • 

Manuscript Placards . . • • • 
Refinement to which the art of Advertising has 

been carried in London • • . • 
Advertisements, direct and indirect, explicit and 

by iuuendo •••••• 

Various vehicles of Advertisements, and forms 

which Advertisements assume in London in the 

present day 

The appearance of the external Paper-hanger . 
Distinction between the real Ailist and the mere 

mechanical external Paper-hanger • • 

Bill-distributors •••••# 

Distinction between the Bill-sticker and the Bill- 
distributor • ••••• 

Peripatetic Placards • • • • • 

Vehicular Placards • # • . • 

The Advertising Hat 38 

Advertising Vans • . • • • • 38 
Newspaper Advertisements • • . .39 
Dramatic interest connected with the Advertising 

columns of a Newspaper • • • .39 
Newspaper Advertisements not confined to matters 

of business alone • • • . •39 








Specimens of Newspaper Advertisements de« 
serving a place in the ' Romance of Real 

Life' 39 

Advertisement taken from the columns of the 

'Chronicle' in 1843 41 

Matrimonial Advertisements • • • •41 

School Advertisements • . • • • 42 
Medical Advertisements • • • • • 42 

George Robins's Advertisements • . .43 
Progressive improvement in the art of Advertis- 
ing in London •••••• 43 

Newspaper Advertisements in the reign of Queen 
Anne ••••••• 

Advertisements in the ' Tatler ' • • • 

The Advertisers of nil 

Advertisement by the Duchess of Buckingham in 


Advertisement by the Reverend Orator Henley, 

in 1726 • • . . . • 

Advertisement by Henley in November, 1728 • 

Medical Quackery at its height at the beginning 

of the Eighteenth Century • • • • 

Dr. Pechey's Advertisements • • • • 

Announcement by Dr. Herwig 
Advertisement by J. Moore, in the * Tatler ' of 
August, 1710 •••••• 

Bill-distributors lai^^ly employed by Quack 
Practitioners •••••• 

Mr. Baker's Advertisements in tlie * Tatler ' 
Advertisement in the <Tatier ' of April, 1710 
Advertisements of Private Lotteries « • 
Lotteries, the great school of mutual instruction 

Rafiles 48 

Little-goes for the sale of Printsellers* and Picture 
Dealers' unsaleable stock • • • • 48 








7. Procession of Placards 

8. Perambulating Hat 

9. Bill Sticker 





. 33 


>» • 

• 38 


»t • 

. 48 


Interesting associations connected with the East 
India House 49 

Burke*s familiarity with whatever related to 
India ••••••• 49 

Historical Recollections attached to the East 
India House •«••«• 60 

Progress of English Dominion in the East * 50 

Present and former state of Official Servants in 
India 50 

Nabobfl « 51 

Progress of good Gotemment evident in the Ad- 
ministration of India 51 

Length of the Yoyage to and from India Seventy 
Years back •••••• 51 




Uncertainty tnd Unfrequency of the Intercourse 
between EngUnd and India until the middle of 
the Eighteenth Century • • . • 

The Character and Objects of Indian Policy ele- 
Tated by the introduction of Steam Narigation 

Bombay now within Five Weeks' distance of Eng- 
land • ••#•••• 

Bapid Increase of PriTate Intercourse between 
England and India 

Capture of a Portuguese Ship in the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth 

Charter granted to the Earl of Cumberland in 
1600, for Trading to the East Indies 

Little progress made by the English in India dur- 
ing the Serenteenth Century • • • 

East India Company*s Charter Renewed in 1609 

The 'Trades Encrease' built by the East India 
Company in 1609 • • • • . 

Management of the business of the East India 

, Company committed in 161 2 to a few principal 
parties ••••••• 

The History of the East India Company, chiefly 
a NarratiTC of Mercantile transactions during 
the whole of the Serenteenth Century • 

The London History of the East India Company 
during the Seventeenth Century • • 

The sum of 10,000/. extorted from the East India 
Company by the Duke of Buckingham • • 

Licence granted to Captain John Weddell by 
Charles I. in 1635 

The Trade to India thrown open by the Repub- 
lican Goremment • • . • . 

Tea first an article of the East India Company's 
Trade in 1667-8 

Dispute as to whether the right of granting 
Charters to the East India Company doToWed 
upon the Sorereign or the Parliament • • 

New Charter granted to the East India Company 
by the King in 1693 

The Old East India Company' dissoWed in 1698 

A New Company, incorporated by the name of 
the * English Company,* inyested with the pri- 
Tileges of exclusive trade • • • • 

Act passed in 1702 for uniting the two Compa- 
nies ..••••.• 

Important changes made on the renewal of the 
Charter to the East India Company in 1781 • 

Establishment of the Board of Control in 1784 • 

Infringement made on the Company's Charter in 

Act by which the Company is now goTemed 
passed in 1833 •••••• 

First English Factory in India established at Ban- 
tam in 1002 
























Firman obtained by the English from the Great 
Mogul allowing certain privileges at Surat • 
Commercial privileges received by the English 
from the Sultan of Achin • # • • 
Erection of Fort St. George in 1639 . • 

The privilege of trading custom-free obtained by 

the English in 1680 

Bombay made over to the East India Company 
by Charles 11. in 1668 . • • • 

Calcutta founded in 1692 . • • • 

Bombay made in 1687 the head of all the Esta- 
blishments in India • . • . • 
Warren Hastings made Governor General in 1773 
The Home Government of the East India Com- 


The Court of Proprietors, or General Court • 
The Court of Directors • • • • 

Discussions of the Court of Directors conducted 
by the same rules as those of the House of 
Commons ■•••••• 

Proceedings of the Court of Proprietors In 1773 

Functions of the Court of Directors • 

The Committee of Secrecy • • • • 

Functions of the Board of Control . 
Routine of business between the Court of Direc- 
tors and the Board of Control • • • 
The Military department of the East India House 
Various offices of the East India House • • 
Sales of the East India Company . • • 
Facility in composition a necessary qualification 
in Public Men in India . • • • 
Testimony to the industry and ability of the East 
India Clerks borne by Mr. Canning in 1822 • 
The business of the East India Company pro- 
bably transacted first at the * Nag's Head 
Inn ••••••• 

Six William Craven's House in Leadenhall Street 

leased to the East India Company in 1701 • 

The Old East India House built in 1726 • 

Portico and Pediment of the present East India 

House ....••• 

Interior of the East India House • • • 
The General Court Room • • • # 
The Court Room •••••• 

Statues in the Court Room . • • • 
The Finance and Home Committee Room 
The Library of the East India House • 
The Museum of the East India House 
The Oriental curiosities in the Museum of the 
East India House • • • • • 

Piece of Mubical Mechanism, once belonging to 
Tippoo Sultan, preserved in the Museum of the 
East India House • • • • • 


















10. Exterior of East India House 
n. East India House of 1726 . 
12. The Museumi East India House 








. 49 

Sbars • 


. 61 



. C3 


Greatest events of ivhich Guildhall was the scene 
in former times •••••• 65 

No place throughout England so favourable as 

Guildhall for Royal and Political manoeuvres . 66 
Scene in Guildhall on the 24th of June, 1483 . 66 

Death of Edward lY 66 

Speech of the Duke of Buckingham at Guildhall 
on the 24th of June, 1483 . • . .06 

King Richard III. proclaimed • • .67 

First eflTects of the Reformation • . . 68 
Controversies between Henry VIII. and Cathe- 
rine Parr •••••••68 

Anne Askew favourably noticed by the Queen 
and the Court •••••• 66 

Arrest of Anne Askew 68 

Examination of Anne Askew • • . .08 


• •• 



Discharge of Anne Askew • • • • 
Anne Askew apprehended again, and committed 
to Newgate ••.... 

Anne Askew condemned to death for heresy • 
Torture and Martyrdom of Anne Askew . • 
$ir Thomas Wyatt'a Insurrection . • • 
The Gunpowder Plot • . • . • 
Sir Nicholas Throckmorton appointed Server to 
the King in 1543 • • « • • 

Rise of Sir Nicholas Throckmorton in the favour 

of the King 

Behaviour of Throckmorton at the Death of 

Edward VI 

Marriage of Queen Mary and Philip of Spain . 
Incident in the character of Philip of Spain 
Insurrection headed by Sir Thomas Carew • 

Throckmorton's attachment to Queen Elizabeth 

Trial of Throckmorton 

Judges on the Bench at the Trial of Throck- 
morton • •••••• 






72 I 

Charges brought against Throckmorton • 
Throckmorton charged with having devised to 

kill the Queen • • • • • • 

Deposition of John FiUwilliams at the Trial of 

Throckmorton •••#•• 
Throckmorton's answer to the Charges brought 

against him •••••• 

Legal learning of Throckmorton • • • 
Discharge of Throckmorton • • • • 

Effect of the Gunpowder Plot upon the mind of 

King James •••••• 

Proclamation issued for the apprehension of 

Gerard, Greenway, and Garnet • • • 
Hendltp House used as a place of concealment 

by Garnet ••••••• 

Search instituted at Hendlip House • • 

Committal of Garnet to the Tower • • • 
Trial of Garnet on the 28th of March, 1600 
Garnets Straw •••••• 

Trial ofWaller at Guildhall • • • • 


13. Guildhall, about 1750 

14. Martyrdom of Anne Askew and others 
16. Hendlip House, 1800 

















Ancient Saxon Law • • . • .81 

Trade Guilds • 82 

The Municipal GoTernment of England one of the 

great and still existing Institutions of Antiquity 82 
The exterior of Guildhall • . . .82 

Commencement of Guildhall in 1411 . • 82 

Modes adopted for obtaining the requisite moneys 

for the construction of Guildhall . . .82 

The Justice Room of Guildhall . • .83 

Courts of Queen's Bench and Common Pleas . 83 
Portraits of the Judges in tlie Courts of Queen's 

Bench and Common Pleas . • • .83 
Chapel or College formerly standing on the site 

of the Law Courts S3 

Interior of Guildhall . • • . .84 

Hall of Guildhall 84 

Crypt below the Hall • • . . .84 

Monuments of great Men in Guildhall . . 85 
Uses to which Guildhall is put . . • 85 

Corporation Banquets • • . . •85 

Feast at Guildhall iu 1814 • . . .85 
Banquet attended by Charles I. at Guildhall in 164 1 86 
Attempts of Charles I. to soften the harshness of 

the City politics 87 

Annual Feast in Guildhall on Lord Mayor's Day 87 
Election of the Lord Mayor • • • .87 
The Mayoralty of London an arduous and re- 
sponsible position S8 

Duties of the Lord Mayor of London • .88 

Oyerwhelming amount of business transacted by 

the Lord Mayor • • • . • .89 
History of the Lord Mayors of London four or 

five Centuries back 89 

Interference of Royalty in the earlier Elections of 

the Lord Mayors 89 

Chaucer, an Exile in the cause of Corporate 

Freedom 89 

The liberties of the City threatened with utter 

destruction by Richard II. . - . . .89 
Open Hostility shown by Richard II. towards the 

Citixenfl , £0 

Struggle between Richard II. and the Citizens for 
the right of electing the Mayor • • • 
Motives that actuated Chaucer to engage in the 
struggle between Richard II. and the popular 
party in the City • • • • • 

Defeat of the Citizens by Richard II. • • 

Proceedings against the principal Leaders of the 
defeated Party •..••! 
Flight of Chaucer to Zealand . .. • • 
Chaucer's return to London in 1386 • • 

Committal of Chaucer to the Tower • • 

Liberation of Chaucer in 1389 • . 

The Court of Aldermen • • • . • 

High rank and importance of Aldermen in former 
times .•.*••• 

The Wards of London the heritable property of 

the Aldermen of former times • • 
Present constitution of the Corporation of London 
The Council Chamber of Guildhall • . 
Functions of the Common Council • . • 
The Folkmote •...•• 
The Livery and Freemen of the City • • 
Analogy between the National and Civic Parlia- 
ment • ■••••» 
Works of Art in Guildhall • • • • 
The Old Court of King s Bench . • 
The Court of Hustings . • • • • 
The Lord Mayor*B Court • • • • 

The SherifTs Court 

The Chamberlain's Office • • • . 

Productions of Mr. Thomas Tomkins in the 
Chamberlain's Office . • • • • 
Duties of the Chamberlain . • • • 
The Waiting or Reading Room • . • 

Household and Expenditure of the Lord Mayor 
Erection of the Mansion House in 1753 . • 
The Justice Room at the Mansion House . • 

The Egyptian Hall 

Most important event of which the Annals of the 
Mansion House can yet boast • • • 












16. Conneil Chamber, Guildhall 

17. The Crypt, Guildhall 

18. Interior of Guildhall • 

19. The Mansion House, 1771 







• 81 
. 84 
. 86 
. 96 



The Officer of Excise . . . . • 97 

The Board of Stamps and Taxes • • • 97 
One-half of the Customs' Duty of the United 

Kingdom collected in the Port of London . 98 
Nature and Operations of the Excise • • 98 
History of the Excise System . • . 98 

Establishment of Excise Duties in England • 98 
Attempt to introduce Excise Duties in 1626 • 98 
Determination of the Parliament in 1641 not to 
lery Excise Duties • • • • • 98 

Ordinance issued in 1643 for the levying of Mo- 
neys for the Maintenance of the Forces raised 
by Parliament •••••• 99 

Establishment of the Office of Excise • • 99 
Appointment of the Commissioners of Excise • 99 
Biots in London created by the Excise Duty • 99 
Declaration of Parliament made in 1646 • • 99 
Endeavour of the Royalists to show that the Ex- 
cise iras a Scheme of the Republicans • . 100 
Abolition of Excise on all Articles of Consump- 
tion af^er the Restoration • • • .100 
The Hereditary and the Temporary Excise . 100 . 
The Temporary Excise granted for Life to 
James II. on his Accession • • • • 100 

Duty on Glsss and on Malt first imposed in the 

reignofWilUamlll lOl 

Laws for the Protection of the Excise • .101 
Sir Robert Walpole's Scheme for extending the 
Excise ••••••. 101 

Committee of the House of Commons appointed 
in 1732 for inquiring into the Frauds and 
Abuses committed in the Customs • .101 
Introduction in 1733 of Walpole's plan for the 

Correction of the Abuses of the Customs . 102 
Frauds committed in the Tobacco Trade • 102 

Discovery of the illegal practices of the Custom- 

House Officers in 1728 • . . .102 
The Laws of the Customs thought insufficient 

to prevent fraud • • • . • 102 

Proposal of Sir R. Walpole to have Tobacco 
subjected to the Laws of the Excise as ^Tell as 
to those of the Customs • • • • 102 

Opposition to Sir R. Walpole's scheme for ex- 
tending the Excise • . • • . 103 
Deputies from the Provincial Towns sent to Lon- 
don to oppose Sir R. Walpole's Measure • 103 
Debate on Sir R. Walpole's Bill . . • 103 
Meeting of the piincipal Supporters of Sir R. 

Walpole's Bill 103 

Abandonment of his Scheme by Sir R. Walpole 104 


Public demonstrations of joy at the Defeat of 
Sir R, Walpole's Project • # • • 

Rejoicings throughout England on the Receipt 
of the Intelligence of the Rejection of Wal- 
pole's Bill ..•••• 

Rejoicings at Oxford and Cambridge on the De- 
feat of Sir R. Walpole . • • • 

Extravagant ideas of Liberty entertained by the 
English satirized by Goldsmith's * Chinese 
Philosopher' •••••• 

Andrew Marvellj Blackstone, and Johnson great 
vilifiers of the Excise • • • . 

Commissioners of Excise Inquiry • • 

The Gin Act of 1736 

Fears entertained of an Insurrection of the Po- 
pulace in London after the passing of the Gin 
xVCt ^« • • • • • • 

Struggle against the Operations of the Gin Act 

Extensive Evasions of the Law after the passing 
of the Gin Act .••••. 

The Gin Act modified in 1742 

Excise Duty on Bricks imposed by Pitt in 1784 

Pitt's Plan for transferring the greater part of 
the Duty on Foreign Wine from the Customs 
to -the Excise .••... 

Transfer of the greater part of the Duty on To- 
bacco from the Customs to the Excise • • 

Number of Excise Officers employed in England 
in 1797 • • • . • 

Gross Excise Revenue for the United Kingdom 
in 1841 •••»... 

Number of Traders 8ur\'eycd periodically by 
Excise Officers in 1835 .... 

Duty on Spirits in the London Collection • 

Administrative Improvements in the Excise • 

Officers employed in the Collection and Manage- 
ment of the Excise Revenue • • 

Considerable reductions made in the Excise 
Office in the first twenty years after the Peace 

The out'door business of the Excise Office in 
London conducted by twelve general surveyors 

The Collector .•«... 

The Supervisor • . ' • • . 

The Surveying- General Examiner . . . 

The Excise Office previous to 1768, formerly the 
Mansion of Sir J. Frederick • • 

Gresham College pulled down in 17G8 • . 

Erection of the present Excise Office on the site 
of Gresham College . • • . • 

Arrangements of the interior of the Excise Office 


20. Excise Office, Broad Street 

21. Hall of Excise Office 

22. Excise Office Exchange « 



Sears • 
Nugent • 
Wra60 • 




















The once mighty Fellowsbips of London • 

Companies of London now in their Decline • 
The Musicians •••••• 

The Masons •••••• 

The Pin< Makers ....•• 

The Festival of Corpus Christi • . • 
The Skinners •••••• 

Banquet in the Hall of the Skinners* Company 

on the day of Corpus Christi . • • 

Election of the Master and Wardens of the 

Skinners* Company • • • • • 

Nature of the business transacted by the Master 
and Wardens •••••• 

Preventing or arranging Disputes among the 

Members an important branch of the Duties 

of the Officers of the London Companies • 

Apprentices directly under the Supenision and 

Control of the Master and Wardens • • 

Interference of the Companies in the matter of 

the Dress of the Apprentices 
Anxiety of Queen Elizabeth to restrain the love 

of Splendour amongst her Subjects • 
The Trade Searches . • • • • 

Petition presented to the Court of Aldermen by 
the Wax Chandlers' Company in the reign of 
Edward III. •••••• 

Chief places where the Trade Searches had ge- 
nerally to be pursued • • • . 
Localities of the different London Trades 
Jurisdiction of the Mayor and Aldermen over 
the Companies . . • • • 
Duties arising from the Connexion between the 
Companies and the Cine Corporation • 
Monopoly enjoyed by the Companies • • 
Richard Whittington • • • • • 

System of making presents to the Mayor # 

Most Important labours undertaken by the 
Companies and the City • . . • 
Supply of Com and Coal in times of scarcity to 
the poorer Citizens by the London Compa- 
nies • •••••• 

Arrangement respecting Com concluded be- 
tween the City and the Companies in 1578 « 
Letter f^om the Duke of Lennox in 1622 to the 
Master and Wardens of the Company of Gro- 
cers • •••••• 













119 ! 

119 ; 





Connexion of the Companies with 'the Govern- 
ment • •••■«• 
Application for Money from Queen Elizabeth to 

the Ironmongers • • • • • 
Establishment of the first Lottery in 1567 
Lottery for Armour established in 1585 • • 

Patents, a system of direct infringement upon 

the chief Powers and Rights of the Companies 
Patent obtained by Edwat^ Darcy to search and 

seal all the Leather through England • 
System of Patents at its highest point in the 

reign of James I. • • • • 
Liberality shown by the London Companies on 

any great public occasion • • • 
llie Army of the London Companies reviewed 

by Queen Elizabeth in 1572 
Origin and Rise of the London Companies 
Charter received by the Weavers of London in 

tlie reign of Henry IL • • . 
Origin of the Knighten Guild • 

Semi-religious Character of the London Com 

panics •••••• 

Incorporation of the Guilds in the reign of Ed 

ward III. . . • • . 

Edward III. enrolled a Member of the Mer 

chant Tailors' Company . • • 

Struggles for Precedence between the London 
' Companies • ■ • • • 
Endeavour of Charles II. to destroy the Inde 

pendence of the London Companies 
The Companies of London divided into three 

classes •••••• 

The Government of the Companies intrusted to 

Courts of Assistants • . • • 
Charities of the London Companies . 

Annual Payments of the Goldsmiths* Company 

to their roor 

The chartered Festivals of the London Com 

panies • • • . • ' • 
Halls of the London Companies . • 
The Fishmongers' Hall . . . 

Merchant Tailors' Hall • . • 

Drapers' Hall • • , • . 
Mercers' Hall • • • » • 
Clockmakers' Hall • « • » 
The Painter Stainers' Hall . 


23. Interior of Merchant Tailors' Hall, Threadneedle Street 

24. Front of Mercers' HalJ, Cheapside • • • • 

25. Leather-sellers' Hall, Bishopsgate Street . • • 

26. Arms of the Weavers' Company • • • • 

27. Fishmongers' Hall, London Bridge • • • • 





























Origin of Covent Garden • • • • 129 
Covent Garden in 1560 • . . .129 

Changes in the Metropolis caused by the Disso- 
lution of the Monasteries . • . • 130 
Long Acre granted by Edward VI. to the Earl 

of Bedford in 1552 130 

Southampton House built by the Earl of Be4- 

• ford in 1552 130 

Magnificent Improvements commenced by the 
Earl of Bedford in the early part of the reign 
of Charles I. • • • • « t 131 

Proclamation issaed by Queen Elizabeth in 1580 
respecting the Erection of Houses in London 131 

B uildings commenced by Inigo Jones at Lin- 
coln's Inn Fields . • • • .131 

Inigo Jones, the true Founder of the modem 
domestic Architecture of the Metropolis • 131 

Squares and Streets erected in London in the 
reigns of William and Anne • • .132 

Erection of the Chapel of St. Martin's . . 132 

Covent Garden formed into a Parish in 1645 . 13i 

AlterationB and Repairs of Covent Garden Church 132 


Dunaye done to CoTent Garden Church by Fire 

in 1795 •••.••• 133 
Bminent Men buried within the Walls or in the 

Churchyard of ^t. Paul's, CoTent Garden • 133 
Interesting Associations of Coyent Gaxden not 
eonfined to the Church • • • • 133 

Bryden waylaid and beaten in Rose Alley, Co- 
Tent Garden •••••• 134 

Duel between Sir H. Bellaases and Tom Por- 
ter 134 

Death of Bellasses • • • • • 134 

PoweU^s Theatre, Coyent Garden • • .134 
The Beefrteak Club . • • . • 135 
Lord Peterborough and Rich • • .135 

Distinguished Persons who haye been Members 

of the Beefsteak Club • • • .135 

Migrations of the Beefsteak Club . • • 136 
Aspect of Coyent Garden in the beginning of 

the last century 136 

Proposals made in 1654 for establishing a Herb- 

mnrket in Clement's Inn Fields , , .136 
Origin of Coyent Garden Market • • .136 
The Honey Lane Market . • . • 137 
Ad passed in 1824 for the establishment of Far- 

ringdon Market 137 

Company incorporated in 1830 for re-establish. 
Ing Hungerlbrd Market • • • • * 137 

Act passed for the estabUshment of Portman 

Market ..•••.. 137 
Coyent Garden Market seventy years ago . 137 

Act obtained by the Duke of Bedford in 1837 

for rebuilding Covent Garden Market • • 137 
Present Arrangements of Coyent Garden Market 1 38 

Farriogdon Market 138 

Provincial Markets 138 

Kztensiye System of Co-operation involved in 
the Supply of Fruit and Vegetables to the Po- 
pulation of London • . • • .139 
Marketrdays at Covent Garden • • .140 
Houses of Refreshment around Covent Garden *140 
The Vegeteble and Fruit Market at Covent 

Garden 141 

The Business of the Flower Market at Covent 
Garden ••••••• 141 

Covent Garden the Londoners' Flower-garden • 142 
The Costermongers • • • . .142 

The Borough Market 143 

Spiulfields the largest Potato Market in the^Me- 

tropolis . . . • « • " , 143 
Potato-salesmen in London • • • . 143 
Consumption of Potatoes in the Metropolis • 144 
London chiefly supplied with Potatoes from 

Essex and Kent 144 

Supply of Potatoes to London by Water • .144 


28. Covent Garden Market . • • • 

29. House built by Inigo Jones, in Great Queen Street 

30. Group of Market People • • . • 







Architecture of the Admiralty . • .145 

The Commissioneis of the Aumiralty • •145 
The Admiralty Telegraph . • . .146 
Interior of the Admiralty • • • •146 
Associations connected with the Admiralty • 147 
The AdmiralMr one of the most interesting Lo- 
calities in London • • • . • 147 
Duties of the * Amira! de la Mer du Bol d'Angle- 

terre'in 1297 147 

Attention paid to Nayal Affairs by Henry YII. 148 
The Admiralty and tlie Nayy Office instituted 

by Henry VIII 148 

Establishment of the Trinity House and the 

Dock-yards in the Reign of Henry YIXI. • 148 
Shipsof theTime of Henry YIII. . • • 148 
Nayy of the Time of Queen Elizabeth . • 148 
Progress of Nayal Architecture in the Reign of 

Elisabeth 148 

Phineas Pett the first scientific Ship-builder . 149 
Adymnce in Nayal Matters during the Reign of 

James L • . • • • • • 149 
Ccmsequences of the Growth of the Spirit of 
Maritime Enterpriie in England in the Time 

of Elizabeth 149 

Toyages of Diseoyery fitted out in the Reign of 

Elizabeth 149 

Burst of National Energy in the Reign of Eli- 
sabeth 149 

Michael Lok 149 

Frobiaher 8 Yoyage • • • . .ISO 
Englishmen a Nation of Mariners in the Age 
of Elizabeth •••••• 150 

ContBoyeisy between Charles I. and John 
Hampden ••.••• 150 

The Nayy under Charles 1 150 

The Nayigation Laws originated by Cromwell • 1 50 
The Nayy after the Restoration • • .150 
Improyements in the Nayy in the Reign of 

James II. •••••. 151 

The sailing and fighting Men of the Nayy not 

one Class under the Restoration • • • 151 
The Seamen of the Time of the Commonwealth 

and the Restoration . . • • • 151 
The Management of the Nayy permanently put 

into Commission in 1688 • . . .151 
The Affairs of the Nayy managed by a Com- 
mittee of Parliament during the Common* 

wealth . . • . • • • . 151 
The Duke of York Lord High Admiral during 

the greater Part of the Reign of Charles II. • 152 
The House of Judge Jefferies conyerted to the 

Use of the Commissioners of the Admiralty • 152 
Remoyal of the Admiralty to Wallingford House 152 
The present Admiralty erected on the Site of 

Wallingford House m the Reign of George II. 152 
Screen erected by Adam before the Admiralty in 

the Reign of George III 152 

Improyements made in the Nayy since the Reyo- 

lution . • • • ' . • .152 
An Hydrographer permanently annexed to the 

Admiralty Soard in 1795 . • . .153 
Important Improyements made of late Years in 

the Nayy •••...• 163 
Yessels composing the British Navy at present • 153 
The Peace-establishment of the Nayy . .153 
Peculiar Character attributed to' the British Tar 153 
Lord Anson •••••• 194 

The Nayal Colle^ « • • . . 155 




The Lower School At Greenwich • .• • 156 
The Hydrographer's Office • • • .155 
Difference between the Sailors of Harryat and 

those of Smollett and his Contemporaries • 155 

Branches of the Navy Office at Somerset House 155 

Vsrious Branches of the Management of the Navy 1 55 

The Characteristics of British GoTemment • 156 

The Trinity House 156 

Becords of the Trinity House destroyed by Fire 

early in the eighteenth Century • • . • 156 

The Holy Trinity of Deptford Strand . • 156 

Jurisdiction of tlie Trinity House . • • 156 

Charter granted to the Trinity House by James II. 1 57 

Corporation of the Trinity House 
The Board of the Trinity House • • • 
The Committee of Wardens • • • • 
Lighting, Beaconing, and Buoying of the Coasts, 
Branches of Maritime Police . • • • 



The Merchant Service • • • • • 

A valuable Branch of the Merchant \ Service 
formed by the East India Trade • • • 
High Character attained by the Mercantile Ma- 
rine of England • • • . • • 
Efficiencv of the English Marine . • • 
The Hydrographer's Office a connecting Link 
between the Admiralty Board and the Trinity 
Board • • • • % • • 

Habitations of the Naval Hulers of England in 
ancient Days •••••• 

The Navy Office in Crutched Friars 
Pursuit of "Mr. Penys by s Bum-Bslliff • • 
The Old Trinity House, in Water Lane • 
Mr. Pep3's of real Service to the Navy . • 
The Edifices of London, with few Exceptions, 
essentially modem • • • • • 



31. Tlie Admiralty ••#••••• Shbphero 

32. The Admiralty as it appeared before Adam's Screen was 

built B.Slt 

33. Old Trinity House, from an Ancmymous Print in the Pen- 

nant Collection • • . • • • • • 










. 145 



• 152 



• 160 

No.'L — Beporb the Fire. 

Tablet in the Church of St Peter, Comhill '. 161 
The Church of St. Peter supposed to have been 
founded by Lucius, the first Christian King of 

' England 161 

Information given by Stow regarding St. Peter*8, 
Comhill ••••••• 

Churches in London in the twelfth Century 

enumerated by Fitx-Stephen • • • 

Churches in and about London in the Time of 

Stow ••••••• 

Eighty-nine of the Metropolitan Churches de- 
stroyed by the Great Fire • • • • 

Buildings referred to by Stow almost identical 

, with the Buildings mentioned by Fitz-Ste- 

phen ••••••« 

Conventual Buildings mentioned by Fits-Ste- 
phen • . • • • • • • 

St. Martin's-le-Grand, founded in 700 • • 
St. Martin's the AUatia of early Days . 
Churches of London and the Suburbs before the 
Fire ••••••• 

Origin of the Names of some of the Metropoli- 
tan Churches ..•••• 

Many of the Churches of London rich in Memo- 
rials of the Dead • . . • • 
Inscription on a Tomb in St. Leonard's, Foster 
Lane ••••••• 

Existing Cliurches in London spared by the Fire 165 
The Dutch Church, Austin Friars . . • 166 
Persons buried in the Dutch Church, Austin 
Friars ••••••• 166 

The Church of AUhallows, Barking • . 166 

Image to the Virgin erected by Edward I. in 

AUhallows, Barking • . • • • 167 
Inscriptions and Monuments in AUhallows . 167 
The Earl of Surrey and the Bishops Fisher and 

Laud interred in AUhallows • . .167 
AUhallows injured by an Explosion of Gunpow- 
derinl6i9 •••«.. 167 








The Majority of the earliest Churches in Lon- 
don probably built of Wood • • • 168 

Tower of AUhallows Staining • • .168 

Visit of Queen Elisabeth to the Church of AU- 
hallows Staining • • • • • 1G8 

Entries in the Parish Books of AUhaUows 
Staining 168 

Festivals at AUhaUows Staining . . • 169 

Noticeable Signatures in the Parish Books of 
AUhaUows Staining • • • • • 1(>9 

St. Olave's, Hart Street • . . .170 

Interior of St. Andrew Undershaft • • 1 70 

Stow's Monument in St. Andrew Undershaft . 170 

The original Edifice of St. Katherine Cree, 
pulled down about 1107 • • • .170 

The Church of St. Katherine Cree rebuilt by 
Inigo Jones in 1 628 • . . • .170 

Distinguished Persons buried in the Church of 
St. Katherine Cree • • . . •170 

Consecration of St. Katherine Cree by Laud in 
1630 170 

Description given by Prynne of the Ceremony 
of the Consecration . • • • .171 

The Churchvard of St. Katherine Cree a popu- 
lar Place for the Exhibition of Dramatic In- 
terludes • • • • . • • 171 

Remnant of St Michael's Church existing be- 
neath a House in Aldgate • . • •173 

Remarkable Aspect of the Exterior of St. He- 
lenas, Bishopsgate 172 

Interior of St. Helen's 172 

Canonization of Helena, the Mother of Con- 
stantino the Great • • • . .173 

Priory of Benedictine Nuns, founded in 1212 
near St. Helen's, Bishopsgate . . • 173 

Monument of Sir John Crosby and his Lady in 
St. Helen's Church * 173 

Tomb of Sir W. Pickering in St Helen's . 173 

Tomb of Sir Thomas Gresham in St Helen's • 173 


Tablet to Sir William Bond and hit Son • 
Complaints made against the Nuns of St. Helen's 

by the Dean of St Paul's in 1 439 
Monument to Richard Bancroft in St Helen's 

Church • % , • « • • • 
Monument to Sir Julius Cesar in the ChanceL of 

St Helen's 

St. Giles's Cripplegate partially burnt in the 

Sixteenth Century 

Eminent Persons buried in the Church of St 

Giles's Cripplegate 







Interesting KecoUectiens of St. Giles's • • 
Marriage of OliTer Cromwell and Elizabeth 

Bouchier in St. Giles's Cripplegate • 
Archbishops interred in Lambeth Church 
Monument to the Tradescants in the Church 

yard of Lambeth Church • • • 
St. Margaret's, Westminster • • • 
Remarlcable Persons buried in St. Margaret's 

Westminster • • • • . 
The painted eastern Window of St. Margaret's 






31. Exterior of the Dutch Church, Austin Friars • • 

35. Procession of the Wooden Ass on Palm Sunday • 

36. Interior of St Helen's 

37. East Window of St Margaret's Church, Westminster 











No. n. — ^Wren's Churches. 

Poaition of the Citisens of London alter the 
Great Fire 177 

Erection of Places of Worship after the Fire • 178 

Earliest MoTement towards the rebuilding of 
Allhallows, Lombard Street • . .178 

Various Means of raising the Funds for rebuild- 
ing of AllhaUows . • • % • • 1 79 

Pecuniary Difficulties experienced by Wren 
during the Progress of the rebuilding of the 
Chnrdies of London after the Fire • • 179 

The Design of the London Churches materially 
affected by the pecuniary Difficulties encoun- 
tered by AYren 179 

Funds for rebuilding St. Mary Aldermary be- 
queathed by Mr. R<^rs . • • .179 

Presents given to Wren by the Churchwardens 
of St Clement's East Cheap and St Mary Al- 
dermanbury •••••• 180 

Wren the Inrentor of a Stvle of Ecclesiastical 
Architecture adapted to the Wants of a Pro- 
testant Community 180 

Exteriors of Wren's Churches • • .ISO 

Characteristics of the Interiors of Wren's 
Churches •••••• 180 

Donation to the Old Church of Mary Alder- 
mary by the Father of Chaucer . . .180 

Churches belonging to the Miscellaneous Class 
of Wren's Buildings . . • .181 

The Church of St. Lawrence, Jewry . .181 

Besidence of the Jews in the Old Jewry . • 181 

The Jews expelled from England by PMward I. 181 

Stained Glass in the Church of St. Edward the ••••••• 181 

Monoment of Anthony Monday in the Church 
of St Stephen, Coleman Street • . .182 

Inscription on the Monument to Thomas Tusser 
in St Mildred's, Poultry • • • .182 

Death of Inigo Jones in 1651 . . •182 

Architecture of the Church of AUhallows the 
Great ••••••• 182 

The Name of Whittington inseparably associ- 
ated with Uie Church of St. Michael's, Pater- 
noaterBow 182 

History of Whittlngton's Monument • • 182 

Hilton's Picture of Mary Magdalene in the mo- 
dem Church of St Michael's • . .182 

The Head of James IV. of Scotland buried in 
St Michaers, Wood Street . • , .182 

Chuic&es in l/^j^^pn of the Basilical Class • |83 

Miles CoTcrdale Rector of St Magnus till 1566 

The Church of St. Bartholomew • • • 

Eminent Men interred in Bride Church . • 

Monument to Bishop Newton in Bow Church • 

Associations connected with Bow Church • 

Accident to Queen Fhilippa at Bow Church • 

Murder of Lawrence Ducket in the Tower of 
Bow Church •••••• 

Taillage levied upon the City of London during 
the Absence of Bichard I. in the Holy Laud . 

The corrupt Practices of the Managers of the 
Tax denounced by William Fitz-Osbert 

Conspiracy in the Reign of Richard I., headed 
by William Fitx-Osbert .... 

The Tower of Bow Church barricaded and 
mainta'ned for three days by William Fitz- 
Osbert •.•...• 

Fitz-Osbert and his Followers hung at Smith- 
field • •.•••• 

Pilgrimages performed to the Place of Fitz-Os- 
bert' s Death •••.•. 

Interior of St Andrew's, Ilolbom • • 

Record of the Baptism of the Poet Savage in the 
Parish Register of St. Andrcw^s . • • 

Few literary Lives more truly melancholy than 
that of Savage .••••• 

Friendship of Johnson and Savage • • 

Death of Savage in 1743 • • • • 

Miseries and Death of Chatterton . 

Entry of the Burial of Chatterton in the Parish 
Register of St Andrew's • • . . 

Combination of the Italian and Gothic Styles 
in the Church of St. Michaers, Conihill 

Doubts of Wren as to the Stability of the Tower 
of St. Dunstan's in the East 

Quarrel in St. Dunstan's Church between the 
Ladies of Lord Strange and Sir John Trussel 
in the Year 1417 

Penance inflicted upon Lord and Lady Strange 

Features of the Interior of St. James's, West- 
minster «•••••• 

The Domed Class of Wren's Churches . 

Characteristics of the Architecture of St. Ste- 
phen's, Walbrook • % • • • 

The Church of St. Benet Fink 

Flocking of the Citizens of London to St An- 
thony's to hear the Sermons of Alexander 
Henderson Just before the Outbreak of the 
Civil War ••.«•, 

























Memorial to Sir T. Crisp in tb« Church of St. 

Mildred, Bread Street . . • .190 
Exertions of Sir Nicholas Crif p in the Cause of 

Charles II 190 

Corinthian Altar Piece in the Church of Bt« 

Mary Abchurch 191 


Ma^lficence of the former Church of St. Mary- 

at-Hill 191 

Costs of the Erection of Wren's Churches • 191 

Cost of the Erection of St. Stephen's, Wal- 



8. Interior of SL James's, Westminster 

39. Bow Church, Cheapside, 1750 

40. Interior of St. Stephen's, Walbrook 


Decignen. Engimrert. 

Brown Jackson 

Fairuolt Sly 
W. B .Claskb Jackson 

No, IIL—- Modern Churcbbs. 

Gibbs and Hawksmoor, the most eminent Suc- 
cessors of Wren . • • • • 

Great Reputation of Palladio in Italy • 

Introduction of the Italian- Roman style of Ar- 
chitecture into England by Inigo Jones • 

Act passed in the 10th Year of the Beign of 
Queen Anne for building fifty Churches in 
London ••••••• 

Birth and Education of James Gibbs . • 

Employment obtained by Gibbs from the 
Church Commissioners • • . • 

St. Mary's-in-the-Strand the first of Gibbs*s Ec- 
clesiastical Structures • • • • 

St Martin's-in-the-Fields the Building on which 
Gibbs*s Fame chiefly rests • • • 

Interior of St. Martin's . . • • . 

Notorious Persons buried in the Precincts of St. 
Martin s« • • « • • ■ 

St. Mary Woolnoth, the first Church built by 
Hawksmoor •••••• 

The Church of St. Anne, Limehouse • • 

St. George's Church, the Product of the united 
Genius of Gibbs and Hawksmoor • • 

St. George's, Bloomsbury Square • . . 

St. George's, UanoTer Square, completed in 
1724 ••••••• 

St. Luke's, Old Street, erected by James in 1732 198 

St John^s Church, Westminster, erected by 
Archer in 1728 

St Giles*s-in-the.Fields attributed to Hawks- 
moor • •••••• 

St. Giles's ascribed by Walpole to FHtcroft 

The Resurrection Gste at the Entrance of the 
Churchyard of St Giles • . • . 

Monument to Sir Roger L' Estrange in the Old 
Church of St Giles 

The Remains of Andrew Marrell interred in St 
Giles ••••••• 

Chapman the Poet buried in St. Giles's • 

Comparison between Cowper's and Chapman's 
Translation of Homer • • . • 

Burial of Flaxman in St Giles's in 1826 . . 

Interesting circumstance connected with the 
Death of Flaxman 

The ground on which St. Giles's stands formerly 
occupied by a Hospital • • • • 





















Sir Peter Paul Pindar buried in the Church of 

St Botolph, Bishopsgate Street . ..200 
Munificence ofSir Peter Paul Pindar • . 201 
Inscription on the Tomb of a Persian Merchant 

in the Churchyard of St Botolph . ' . 201 

Bishop Bonner interred in the Churchyard of St. 

George in the Borough • . • • 201 
Anecdote of Bonner on his Committal to Prison 201 
The Porch of St Alphage , • • .201 
Record in the Parish Register of St. Alphage of 
the persons touched by Charles II. for the 

evil '• • • 201 

Canterbury Defended by Elphege, Archbishop 

ofCanterbury in 1011 • . • .202 
Murder of Elphege bv the Danes, in 1012 • 202 
The Church of St Alphage Erected to the Me- 
mory of Elphege, on the place of his Death . 202 
Pause in the Erection of Churches in London 

during the reign of George III. . • • 202 
The Church of St. Pancras, New Road, an 
avowed Imitation of the Temple of Erech- 
theion, at Athens • • • . • 203 
Porches of St Pancras imitated from the Pan- 

drosium attached to the Erechtheion . • 203 
The Steeple of St. Pancras imitated from the 
Temple of the Winds, at Athens • • • 203 

Interior of St Pancras 204 

Chapel of St Mark, North Audley Street • 205 
Trinity Chapel, Poplar ..... 205 
New Church at Stepney, erected by Mr. Walters 
about 1822 •••••. 206 

St. Luke*s, Chelsea 206 

All Souls, Laugham Place • • • • 206 
St. Katherine's, Regent's Park . • • 206 
Benefactresses to the Convent of St Katherine. 206 
Distinguished Persons buried in the Old Church 

of St. Katherine's 207 

Disgraceful circumstance connected with the 
pulling down of the Old Church of St Ka- 
therine 207 

Clock of St Dunstan** in the West . . 207 

Booksellers' Shops In the Churchyard of St. 

Dunstan's 207 

St Dunstan's rebuilt by Mr. Shaw about 

1833 . . " 208 

Christ Church, Westminster • • • • 208 


41. St. Mary's, Southwark 

42. S. Martin's Church 

43. Interior of St Mary Woolnoth, Lombard Street • 

44. Female Caryatid Figure in the British Museum . 

45. Trinity Chapel, Poplar • • • . • 

46. St. Peter's Church, Bankside • , . • 

47. Christ Church, Weitminster • . • • 


B. Sly 


B. Sly' 


Wblcb • 

If • 


~ • 

Wrago • 







The Hone Guardi, built tbout tho middle of 

the Eighteenth Century • • « • 

Kent, the Architect of the Horse Guards • 

The Architectural Pretensions of the Horse 

Guards ••••••• 

Ceremony of Changing Guard at the Horse 
Guards ••••••• 

MoTements of the Queen's Guard of the House- 
hold Brigade of Caralry, regulated nominally 
by the Gold Stick in Waiting • 
Banacks in London where the Foot Guards are 
stationed #•••«•• 

The Guards • 

The Biuea •••••«• 
A Soldier*s not an Idle Life • • • • 
Bcsources of an Officer in London • • # 

The Guards' Club 

The Guards' Dinners at St. Jameses • • 
The Tower or Fort Major • • • • 

The Bank Piquet 

The Bank Dinners 

The Duke of York's Dinners at the Horse 

Guards ••#•••• 

Character of the Duke of York . • • 

Debt of gratitude owing by England to the Duke 

ofYork dI4 

Hie British Soldier of the present day • • 2U 
The Non-commissioned Officer • • • 214 
Qualities required to enable a man to fill a Sub- 
ordinate Situation with perfect efficiency • 214 
High Spirit and Honourable Ambition of the 
British Serjeant illustrated by Steele in the 

'TaUer' 214 

The Guards at Waterloo . • • .215 
Want of Centralised Authority in the manage- 
ment of the Army • • • • • 215 
The Guards of Charles IL and James II. • 215 

The Army of modem growth when compared 

with the Nayy 21G 

The Army of England made alter foreign models 216 
The Army of England equal, if not superior, to 
any in Europe • • • • • •216 

The Commander-in-Chief . . • .216 
The Master-General of the Ordnance • • 216 
Departments of GoYemment connected with the 

Administration of Military Affairs . . 216 
An power and control oTer the Army vested in 
the Crown 217 








Functions of the Secretary of State • .217 

The Secretary of State for the War Department 
and Colonies •••••• 217 

Financial Arrangements of the Army entrusted 
to the Secretary at War • • • • 21 7 

Duties of the Secretary at War • • • 217 
The Commander-in-Chief • • • • 218 

Duties of the Adjutant-General • . ,218 
Principal Duties of the Quarter-Master-Ge- 
neral • •••«•• 218 

Board of Topography attached ^to the Office of 
Quarter-Master-General • . • . 218 

The Ordnance Office 218 

Duties of the Master-General of the Ordnance • 219 
The Deputy-Adjutant-General of Artillery • 219 
The Royal Artillery Corps • • • .219 
The Worshipful Artillery Company of the City 
of London •••••• 219 

Corps subject to the Ordnance • • .219 
Origin of the present Organisation of the Royal 
Engineers •••••• 219 

The Artillery Regiment • • • .220 

The proceecUngs of the Board of Ordnance sub- 
ject to the control of the Master-General • 220 
Duties of the Board Officers of the Ordnance • 220 
Business of the Board of Ordnance . • • .220 
The Commissariat Kstabtisfament • • •221 
The Commissariat a peculiar and important 

senrice 221 

Part of the duties of the Commissariat department 

thrown upon the Ordnance , • .221 

Abolition of the Comptrollers of Army Accounts 221 
The Commissariat and Audit Board both 

branches of the Treasury . • • 221 

Proceedings of the Commissioners of Chelsea 

HospiUl 222 

The Secretary at War and the Commander-in* 
Chief the heart of the Military Organisation of 

Great Britain 222 

Answers of Sir Augustus Fraser to the questions 
of the Commissioners on the Ciyil Administra- 
tion of the Army in 1833 . • • .222 
The Horse Guards the centre of Yltality of an 

Army ' 222 

Military discipline • • • . • 223 

Superiority of an organised Army over the £n- 
Uiusiasm of Indiylduals or Nations • • 223 


48. Principal front of the Horse Guards 

49. Park front of the Horse Guards 







The Sale of Books probably not a regular Trade 
till after the invention of Printing • . 225 

Bibles and other Books sold at Fairs In many of 
the principal Cities of the Continent • • 225 

The Religious Treatises of Wycliffe the first 
Books sold to any extent in London • • 226 

No Book Shops in London till after the Four- 
teenth Century 226 

Printing Press set up by William Caxton in 1474 226 

Stationers' Company Incorporated in 1557 • 226 

Influence of the Bookseller on Literature • 226 

Bookselling in London till the middle of the 

Seyenteenth Century . • • • • 

Paternoster Row before the Fire of London • 

Booksellers' Shops principally in St. Paul's 

Churchyard before and at the time of the Great 

Fire •.#•••• 

Pepys*s Visits to the Booksellers' Shops in St. 

Paul's Churchyard • . • . • 

Destruction of Books by the Great Fire • • 

Rise in the Price of Books after the Fire • 

Booksellers* Shops near Westminster HaU • 







Pepys's iDcffectual endeaTOun to comprehend 

the wit of Hudihras 228 

Beturn of the Booktellera to St. Paul's Church- 
yard on the re-buUdiug of the City after the 

Fire • 229 

Scott the first London Bookseller in the time of 

Fepy 229 

Scott said to have been, in his time, the greatest 

Librarian in Europe • . . • • 229 

Little Britain and Duck Lane mainly inhabited 

by Booksellers in the end of the Seyenteenth 

and beginning of the Eighteenth Century • 230 

Paternoster Row began to be occupied by Book- 

^ sellers about the middle of the Eighteenth 

Century ..••••• 230 
Benjamin Franklin and James Ralph in Little 

Britain 230' 

' Life and Errors' of John Dunton • • • 231 
Birth and Education of John Dunton • . 231 
A Bookseller's Shop established by Dunton in 
1685 ••••••• 231 

Picture given by Dunton of Literature and its 

followers in London 231 

Sermons and other Religious disquisitions the 
roost saleable of all Publications in the time 
of Dunton •••••• 232 

Marriage of Dunton with Elizabeth Annesley • 232 
Dunton's Journey to New England • • 232 
Dunton's rambling propensities • • . 232 
Death of Dunton's Wife in 1697 • . . 233 
Marriage of Dunton with Sarah Nicholas • 233 
Dunton's latter years passed in quiet and ob- 
scurity 233 

Death of Dunton in 1721 • • • .233 

Dunton's ' Athenian Mercury ' • • 
Comparison between Dunton and Defoe • 
Estimation in which Booksellers were held about 

the end of the Seventeenth Century • . 
Review by Dunton of his Literary Contempora- 

ries in his * Life and Errors' • • • 
Extent and activity of the publishing business in 

London at the end of the Seventeenth Century 
Mr. Richard Cbiswell • • • • • 
Thomas Guy, the Founder of Guy's Hospital • 
Superior acquirements of the Booksellers of the 

time of Dunton •••••• 

Distinguished Booksellers noticed by Dunton • 
Mr. George Sawbridge, according to Dunton, the 

greatest Bookseller that had been in England 

for many years •••«.. 
Jacob Tonson and Bernard Lintott immortalized 

by the association of their names with the 

writings and wranglings of Dryden and Pope 
Mr. Ballard tlie last survivor of the Booksellers 

of Little Britain • . • • • 

Thomas Osborne celebrated as the publisher of 

the Harleian Miscellany • • . • 
Castigat ion bestowed on Edmund Curll in Pope's 

* Dunciad' • 

The early part of the Eighteenth Century still 

an age of pamphleteering • • • • 
First Number of the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' 

brought out by Cave in 1731 . • • 
Revolution in the Commercial system of English 

Literature brought about by James Lackington 
Lackington's * Memoirs of the first Forty -five 

Years of his Life '••••• 














00. John Duntoo 

51. Thomas Guy 

52. Jacob Tonson 

53. Edward Cave 

54. James Lackington 






Jackson • 

• 225 

»> • 

• 235 

»f • 

• 238 

»» • 

• 240 

»» . • 

• 2^14 


Individual Charity probably weakened by the ge- 
neral Philanthropy of modem times • 

Educational Charities 

Assemblage of Charity Children at St. Paul's • 

Exeter Hall the recognised Temple of modem 
Philanthropy •«••%# 

Effects of the Supremacy of the Puritans • 

Societies instituted in 1692 for the Reformation 
of Manners •••••• 

Establishment of the Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge in 1688 

Incorporation in 1701 of the Society for the Pro- 
pagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts 

Its first efforts for the Conversion of the Heathen 
made amongst the American Indians • 

Danish Foreign Mission commenced under Fi*c* 
derick IV. in 1705 

The reigns of George I. and George II. charac- 
terised by an extraordinary degree of apathy 
in the Church •••••• 

The Church awakened to a sense of its duties by 
the xeal and energy of Wesley and White Beld 

Association formed by Wilberforce in 1787 to 
resist the Spread of open Immorality • • 

Royal Proclamation against Vice issued in 1787 

Hannah M ore's * Thoughts on the Manners of 
the Great,' published in 1788 • • • 









21 i 



Publication of Hannah More's Religious Tracts 
in 1796 .«.•... 244 

Wilbcrforce's * Practical Christianity,* published 
in 1797 ....'... 211 

Endeavours of Wilberforce to promote the Ob- 
servance of the Sabbath • . • .245 

Bill brought into Parliament in 1799 for the 
Suppression of Sunday Newspapers • • 245 

Endeavour of the Bishop of London to put down 
Sunday Concerts and Sunday Club-meetings 2*15 

Sunday Card-parties and Sunday Concerts now 
unheard of amongst the higher classes . 245 

Abolilion of the Slave Trade in 1807 • . 246 

Act passed in 1 833 for emancipating every Slave 
in the British Domiuions . . • .246 

The Consumption of West India Produce ab- 
stained from by the Friends of the Slave 
Trade Abolition • • • • • 246 

Associations formed to stop the Consumption of 
West India Produce • • • • 246 

Obstacles encountered by the Friends of Anti- 
Slavery 246 

Motion for the Reform of the Criminal Laws 
brought forward by Sir Samuel Romilly in 
1808 247 

Bill to repeal the Shoplifting Act thrown out in 
the Lords in 1813 • • • • • 247 



Death of Sir Samuel RomiUy in 1818 • • 217 
Plan set on foot by GoTemment for promoting 
the Smigration of the Natives of Africa to the 
British Colonies in the West . • . • 248 
Extract from Mr. Carlyle's • Past and Present' 248 
^lid Beasts at Exeter 'Change . . .219 
Exeter Hall completed in 1831 • • . 249 
Interior of Exeter Hall • . , .249 

Aspect of Exeter Hall on the occasion of a Pub- 

' lie Meeting 249 

Anniversary Meetings held at Exeter Hall • 2oO 
Meeting held at Exeter Hall in June, 1843, for 
the purpose of promoting Christian Union 
among the different Religious Bodies of Eng- 
land 250 

Enthusiasm generally prevailing at the Meetings 

in Exeter Hall 251 

Haydon's Picture of the Meeting of Delegates 
for the Abolition of Slavery throughout the 
World, held in June, 1840 . • .251 

Address of Thomas Clarkson at the Anti-Slavery 

Meeting In June, 1840 • . • .251 
Annual Meeting of the British and Foreign Anti- 

Slavery Society • • • . • 252 

Meeting in Exeter Hall of the Society for the 
Extinction of the Slave Trade • • • 252 

Speakers at the May Meetings in Exeter Hall 
Circumscribed Fame of the Speakers and Leaders 

at Exeter Hall 

Meeting of the Wesleyan Missionary Society at 

Exeter Hall in May, 1813 
Meeting of the Church Missionary Society • 
Meeting of the Committee of the British and 
Foreign Bible Society to complete the Orga- 
nization of the New Institution • • • 
First Meeting of the Bible Society held in Ma}', 


The Baptist Missionary Society . • « 
Income and Expenditure of the London Mis- 
sionary Society • • • • • 
The Church Pastoral Aid Society • • • 
Income of the Society for the Propagation of 
Christianity amongst the Jews • • • 
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge • 
Beligious Tract Society established In 1798 • 
Summary of the Receipts and Expenditure of 
Religious and Benevolent Societies for 1841-2 
Hanover Square Rooms occasionally used for 
the Meetings of Religious Societies # • 
ExhibiUons at Exeter Hall of Mr. HuUah's Sys- 
tem of^Popular Singing • • • • 












55. Exeter Hall, from the Strand 

56. Interior of Exeter Hall 





. 241 



• 256 


The Zoological Gardens one of the most attrac- 
tive tpots in London .... 257 
Modes of obtaining Admission to the Zoological 

Gardens 258 

Hie Camivora Terrace in the Zoological G ardens 259 

TheCurassow 259 

The Cinnamon Bears • . • . • 259 

Mode of catching the American Black Bear • 260 

The Macaw Cage 260 

The Coreopsis Goose 2no 

Swiftness of the Dromedary • • • .261 

The Monflon 261 

Strong attachment to Man evinced by the Wolf 261 
Ordinary use to which the Cuba Bloodhound is 

put by the Spaniards . • . .261 

Anecdote of the Cuba Bloodhound given in Dal- 

laa' • History of the Maroons' . . • 262 
Use made by the Kamtchatkan of the Brown 

Bear 263 

The Malayan Sun-Bear • . • • 263 

The Hy»na the subject alike of ancient and 

modem feble •••••• 263 

The Hy«ena*s love of human flesh • • • 263 

Aquatic Birds in the Zoological Gardens • 264 

The Polar Bear • . • . • 264 

Remarkable tenacity of life in the Condor • 264 

The Otter 265 

The Monkey-House • • • • . 265 

Gambols of the Monkeys • • • • 265 

The Monkey*8 power of locomotion . • 266 

The Parrot-House 266 

The OwU' Cages 266 

The Bison 267 

Passage from Franklin on the Habits of the 

white-headed Eagle • • • • • 267 
The Note of the wild Swan • . . .267 
The Emu one of the Wonders of the Animsl 

Creation 267 

Repository for the Carnivorous Animals in the 

Zoological Gardens 268 

The Puma erroneously supposed to be irreclaim- 
able 268 

Miraculous Feats attributed to the Lion and the 

Tiger 268 

Habitations made by the Natives of South Africa 

to protect themselves against the Incursions 

of Wild Beasts 268 

Collection of Dogs in the Zoological Gardens • 269 

TheNyl-ghau ..«••. 269 

The Wapiti Deer . • . • • 269 
Ferocity of the Cape Buflalo • • .269 

Peculiarities of the Indian Rhinoceros • • 269 
Alleged hostility between the Elephant and the 

Rhinoceros •••••• 269 

The Wild Boar 270 

The Collared Peccary 270 

The Giraffe House and Park . # • • 270 
Characteristics of the Ourang-outan • •271 
Expenditure on the Zoological Gardens, from 

1825 to 1840 272 

Sources of the Funds of the Zoological Society 272 
Number of Fellows and Fellows Elect of the 

Zoological Society • • • • • 272 




57. The CamiTora Terrace • • • • 

58. Coreopsis Geese • • • • • 

59. Chasseur and Cuba Bloodhounds • • 

60. View of the Gardens from the Bridge • • 

61. Rhinoceros, from the specimen in the Gardens 

62. The Giraffe House 







Jackson • 

» • 
Jackson • 







Suddenness of the growth of the Drama of the 

Elizabethan Era • • . • . 278 

Dramatic Writers up to the year 1580 # . 273 
Shakspere, unquestionably Contemporary with 

Peele, Greene, Marlowe, &c. • . . 273 
Shakspere a Shareholder in the Blackfriars 

Theatre in 1589 274 

Marlowe's * Taraburlaine the Great,' and * Mas* 

sacre of Paris/ probably written before 1589 274 

Dramatic Writers after Shakspere • • • 274 
State of the Theatres of London in the time of 

Shakspere •...., 274 
Court favour enjoyed by Flayers in the reign of 

Elizabeth •••.•• 275 

Chief London Theatres in the year 15S3 . . 275 

Number of Actors in London in 1586 . • 275 
The Blackfriars the Theatre at which Shakspere 
probably made his first appearance, botli as 

Actor and Writer 275 

The Blackfriars Theatre erected in consequence 
of the expulsion of Players from the limits of 

the City 276 

The Children of Her Majesty's Revels . • 276 

Accommodations of the Blackfriars Theatre • 276 
The Blackfriars probably pulled down soon after 

the permanent close of the Theatres • • 276 

The Globe Theatre erected in 1593 , . 276 
Description of the Globe Theatre in the Chorus 

to 'Henry the Fifth* 277 

Simplicity of the Old Stag^c . . . .277 

Interior of a Theatre on the first night of a new 

piece in the time of Jonson • • . 277 

The Globe Theatre burnt to the ground in 1613 278 
The Globe, rebuilt in 1614 • . . ,278 

The Fortune Theatre, built about 1599 • • 278 

Arrangementof the Interior of the Fortune • 278 
The Balcony of the Old Theatres • . ,278 

Chief Actors in the time of Shakspere • • 279 

Prices of Admission to the Old Theatres • . 280 

Passage from Ben Jonson's * Bartholomew Fair * 280 
Painted Scenes of the Theatres of the Shaks- 

perian Era •••••• 280 

Old Stage Directions 280 

Stage Directions to Greene's * Alnhonsus* # 280 
Dresses and Properties of the Old Theatres • 280 
Extract from * The Antipodes ' • . • 2S0 
Ordinance of the Long Parliament in 1642, com- 
manding the cessation of Plays • • • 281 
Re-opening of the Theatres in 1647 • .SSI 
Act passed in 1648 for putting down Stage Plays 281 
Plays acted occasionally in private at the re- 
sidences of Noblemen • • • • 282 


The Cockpit in Drury Lane re-opened in 1658 • 282 
Characteristic feature of the Restored English 

Theatre 282 

The Dramatic Writers of the Latter Part of the 

Seventeenth Century • • • • • 282 
Theatre in Lincoln's Inn Fields built by D*Ave- 

nant in 1662 • 

Favours shown to IVAvenant by Charles II. • 
Appearance of Actresses on the Stage in the 

reign of Charles II. • 
Betterton, the Actor • 
Dryden's Tragedies • 
Rise of the School of Genteel Comedy in the 

reign of Charles II. • • . • • 
The English Opera in the reign of Charles II. . 
Purcell's * King Arthur' .... 
Theatrical Literature of the present day • 
The Italian Opera House erected by Vanbrugh 

at the Beginning of the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury • •••••• 

III success of the Italian Opera at its first 


Musical Entertainments given in Italian at York 

Buildings in 1703 

Dramatic Italian piece brought out at Drury 

Lane in 1705 .••.•• 
Attempts to introduce the Italian Opera into 

England ..■•..• 
Peformance of * Almahide ' in the Italian Lan- 
guage, and by Italian Performers, in 1710 . 
Popularity soon obtained in £Ingland by the 

Italian Performers . . • • • 
Licence obtained by Killigrew for the formation 

of a Company to play at the Cockpit in Drury 

Lane «••.••• 
Drury Lane Theatre purchased by Garrick* and 

Lacy in 1745 .••••• 
Sheridan part-proprietor of Drur}' Lane in 1776 
Drury Lane destroyed by fire in 1809 • • 
Covent Garden Theatre opened in 1733 • • 
Covent Garden burnt down in 1808 • • 
Covent Garden Theatre rebuilt by Smirke in 


Stage Reformation carried on by Kemble • 

Cause of the O. P. Riots • • • • 
Haymarket Theatre erected about 1720 • 
Foote's Performances at the Haymarket . • 
Lesser places of Dramatic Entertainment in 

London ••••••• 

Injury done to the principal Theatres by the 

lesser houses • • • • • .287 










63. View of the Old Stage and Balcony • • • # • 

64. The Paris Garden Theatre, Southwark • • • • 

65. The Globe Theatre, Bankside 

66. The Fortune Theatre, Golden Lane, Barbican, as it appeared 

in 1790 

67. The Adelphi Theatre ••••••• 

68. Covent Garden Theatre •#••••• 



B. Sly 


Sears • 












Hie Treagury the key-stone of the Arch of 
Goremment ) 280 

The Royal Treasury of England manufactured 
out of a Cockpit • • • • • 289 

Tennis-court and Cockpit constructed at White- 
hall by Henry YIII 280 

The Treasury Office kept at the Cockpit, near 
Whitehall, in 1708 290 

Print of the Treasury in Pennant's * London' • 290 

Plan of the Interior of the Treasury in the Bri- 
tish Museum 290 

Account giren in the * Londinum RediTivum' of 
the Rise and Progress of the Treasury Build- 
ings . • 291 

Description of the Treasury given by Dodsley in 
1761 291 

The Cockpit still existing in 1761 . . .291 

The Exchequer lodged in the Cloisters of West- 
minster Abbey in the reign of Edward I. • 291 

The Duties of Treasurer in Uie reign of Edward I. 29 1 

Exchequer of Receipt 292 

The Court of Exchequer the lowest in rank of 
the four Courts of Westminster • . # 292 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer for the time 
being nominally one of the Judges • • 293 

Sir Robert Walpole the last Chancellor of the 
Exchequer who sat in a judicial capacity . 292 

The Court of Exchequer formerly held in the 
King*s Palace 292 

The Treasury robbed in the reign of Edward I. 292 

DeriTations assigned to the name Exchequer • 293 

Removal of the Exchequer from Westminster to 
Northampton in 1210 • • • .293 

Difficulty of ascertaining the precise locality of 
the Exchequer during the Wars of the Roses 293 

The Exchequer a check upon the malversation 
of the Treasurer 294 

Business of the Exchequer in its simplest form 294 

Office of the Lords Commissioners of the Trea- 
sury at Whitehall • • • • . 294 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer not unfre- 


quently the same person with the First Lord 

of the Treasury 294 

Old forms of transacting business long retained 

in the Exchequer . . • • • 294 
Strange designations of the Officials of the Ex- 
chequer .•••••• 295 

Present system of the Exchequer • . • 295 

Forms in use in the Exchequer up to 1831 • 295 
The real business of Finance formerly transacted 

by the Clerks of the Bank of England • 295 
All Payments nominally made into the Exche- 
quer formerly received by the Bank • • 295 
Deleterious influence of the old system of the 

Exchequer 296 

The old formalities of the Exchequer abolished 297 
Personal associations of the Treasury « • 297 
Clerks in Government Offices • • . 297 
Familiarity with great objects erroneously sup- 
posed to expand the Mind . • • 298 
The Government Office Clerk's routine of Life 298 
The young Government Clerk . , • 299 
The subordinate Government Clerk • . 299 
The Irish Government Clerk . • • 300 
Characteristics of the Scotch Government Clerk 300 
The Treasury the centre of the Kingdom of Go- 
vernment Clerks • • • • • 301 
Statesmen who have presided at the Treasury 

since the reign of Anne • • • • 301 
Sir Robert Walpole . •. . . .301 
The talent of governing an instinct with Pitt • 301 
Pitt's power of Oratory in a great measure arti- 
ficial .30] 

Prominent place occupied by the Treasury in 

political caricatures and lampoons . . 302 
Caricatures of Sir Robert Walpole and the Duke 

of Argyle •••••• 302 

Gilray's attack upon the Treasury • . • 303 
Devices by which Metaphor and Allegory have 
attempted to represent the Treasury and its 

Influence ...... 303 

Reverence entertained by some for the Treasury 303 


60. The Treasury, from St James's Park, 1775 • « 
70. Board of Trade, &c., on the site of the old Cockpit 



NuoBMT • 289 
Wraoq • 304 


Horticultural Exhibition at Chiswick in June, 
1S43 305 

Tent at Chiswick for the Exhibition of new 
seedling Plants and Flowers • • • 306 

The Frait Tent 306 

Innumerable Specimens of all the finest flower- 
ing PlanU brought to Chiswick from all parts 
of the Kingdom • • • . • 307 

The Glass Conservatory at Chiswick • . 307 

Character of the Assemblage at the Chiswick 
Hortieultunl Exhibition . . . • 307 

Beauty of the Women of England • • • 308 

Number and Yalue of the Prizes given by the 
Horticultural Socie^ .... 308 

Services rendered to Horticulture since the esta- 
blishment of the Society in 1820 • • 300 

Objects of the Founders of the Horticultural So- 
ciety .309 

Gardens and Orchard of the Horticultjiral So- 
ciety • ••••.. 300 

Scarcity of Plants known in England until the 
Thirteenth or Fourteenth Century . • 309 

Most of the Fruits and Vegetables now culti- 
vated in England introduced by the Romans 309 

Privileges of the Fellows of the Horticultural 
Society » . 309 

Expenditure of the Horticultural Society for the 
Year 1842 300 

Importation of Foreign Plants and Seeds by the 
Horticultural Society • . . .310 

Gardens in the Middle Ages • . • 310 

Description given by James I. of Scotland of the 
Garden of Windsor Castle . . • •310 

Gardens in the Suburbs of London in the reign 
of Henry II 310 

Gardening in the Sixteenth Century . .311 

The Knotted Garden 311 

Vegetable Productions for the Table in the reign 
of Henry VIII. . » , • . 312 

Gardens of Nonsuch t • • • .312 




Introduction of the Ltlac-trec about the middle 
of the ScTenteenth Century . . • 312 

Features of the Gardens of the Sixteenth Century 312 

Illustration of a popular superstition in Quiu- 
tinye's * Complete Gardener' • . . 312 

Changes of Taste in Gardening since the Six- 
teenth Century . • • . • 313 

Greenwich and St. James's Parks laid out under 
the direction of Le Notre in the reign of 
Charles II 313 

Kensington Gardens commenced by William 

XI 1* • • • • • • • uio 

Kensington Gardens laid out by Wise in the 
reign of Anne • . . • . .314 

Rise of a more natural Taste in gardening in the 
reign of Anne • • • • . ,314 

Waller's Garden at Beacousfii id . . .314 

Kensington Gardens enlarged under the super- 
intendence of Bridgcman . • • . 314 

Formation of the Serpentine in Hyde Park • 314 

Evidence given by Mr, Loudon of the state of 
the general ideas on the Subject of Garden or 
Landscape Scenery • • • • .314 

Kent the first true English Landscape Artist • 315 

The Gardens at Claremout and Esher laid out 
by Kent • 315 

The oldest Botanic Gardens in England those 
of Oxford and Chelsea • . . .315 


One of the earliest attempts to supply Plants 
with artificial heat made at Chelsea in 1681 . 315 

Chelsea Gardens under the management of 
Philip Miller for a period of nearly Fifty Years 315 

Arboretum at Kew established in 17C0 • . 315 

The Arboretum at Kew greatly inferior to the 
Collection in the Gardens of the Horticultural 
Society .•••••• 315 

The Year 1815 the period from which the com- 
mencement of the present prosperity of Eng- 
lish gardening may be dated • • .316 

The Horticultural Society the chief moying im- . 
pulse of gardening in Uie present Day • • 316 

Services rendered to Botany by the Royal Bo- 
tanic Society of London . • • .316 

Incorporation of the Botanic Society in 1839 . 31G 

Grounds of the Botanic Society in the Regent's 
Park 317 

Winter Garden about to be erected in the 
Grounds of the Botanic Society . . • 317 

Collection of Agricultural Plants in the Botanical 
Gardens • 318 

Proposed Museum in the Botanical Gardens • 318 

American Plants in the Botanical Gardens • 318 

Appropriate and Poetical Names for Flowers 
chosen by linnsus # • • • • 319 

Andromeda and Perseus • • • .319 

View from the Mount in the Botanical Gardens 319 


71. The Horticultural Gardens during an Exhibition • • 

72. Interior of the Conservatory, Horticultural Gardens • 

73. A Knotted Garden • • • ' . , • • 

74. Bowling Green ••••••.. 

75. Gardens of the Royal Botanical Society, Regent's Park • 

Design eta. 




• 303 



• 308 

• 311 

IT. W. Boss 

. 313 



. 320 


Number of Persons taken into Cuptody by iho 
Metropolitan Police in the Year 1839 . • 321 

Highway Robberies, Burglaries, House and 
Shop- breaking, more frequent in the Suburbs 
than in the Metropolis • • • • 321 

Average of Burglaries fewer in London than in 
the Country 322 

Preponderance of Pocket-picking and Forgery 
in Middlesex 322 

Greater proportion of Female Criminals in the 
Metropolis •••... 322 

Amount of loss by Robbery in the Metropolitan 
Police District in 1838 • . . . 322 

Return made by the Constabulary Commis- 
sioners of the Number of Depredators and 
Offenders against the Law • • • • 323 

Return made by the Constabulary Commissioners 
of the Number of Houses open for the Accom- 
modation of Delinquency and Vine in London 323 

Number of Persons supporting themselves by 
Criminal Pursuits in London • . • 324 

Proportion of known bad Characters in the 
Aletropolis .»...• 324 

Total Number of notoriously bad Characters in 
the Parish of St. George the Martyr, Southwark 321 

Kent Street and the Mint the most notorious 
districts in London for their vicious population 324 

Causes of Vice in London .... 324 

Eighteen Prisons in London in the Year 1796 • 325 

Newgate a Gaol in the reign of King John • 325 

The Marshal^ca and Kind's Bench both ancient 
Prieoiu . 325 

Henry, Prince of Wales, afterwards Henry V., 
confined by Judge Gascoigne in the King's 
Bench ..••••• 323 

The King's Bench thrown open during the 
Gordon Riots ••••»• 325 

Extent of the jurisdiction of the Marshalsea 
Prison ...•••• 325 

The White Lion Prison in Southwark . • 325 

The postern of Cripplcgate used as a Prison in 
the Thirteenth Century . . • .325 

Present Number of the Metropolitan Prisons . 325 

The Fleet Prison and the Marshalsea discon- 
tinued in 1842 325 

Old Prison Regulations . . • •325 

Prisons in London used exclusively for Debtors 323 

Old Newgate Prison pulled down and re-built 
between 1778 and 1780 • . . • 323 

Improvements made at Newgate since the com- 
mencement of the Nineteenth Century • 32G 

Attempts made at a classification of the Prisoners 
in Newgate •••••• 326 

Duties of the Chaplain of Newgate Tliirty Years 



Newgate formerly a positive Institution for the 
Encouragement of Vice • • . • 327 

The Classification of Prisons proposed by the 
Parliamentary Committee on Metropolitan 
Gaols in 1818 327 

Attempts of Mrs. Fry to improve the Female 
prisoners in Newgate • # • • 327 

Occupations and Amusements of the Female 
Prisoners lo Ne\rgate iu 1 80^ . • • 327 




The Diseiptine and Administration of Newgate 
still defective • • * • • • 328 

Report of the Inapecton of FrisonB on the State 
of Newgate in 1843 • • • . . 328 

Oiltspnr Street Compter . . . .329 

Ahoat 6000 Prisoners Annually Committed to 
Giltapur Street ....•• 329 

Giltspur Street the most insecure of the Metro- 
politan Prisons 329 

Total Number of Persons confined in Bridewell 
inthe Tear 1842 • .... 330 

Beport of the Inspectors of Prisons on the City 
Bridewell 330 

Coldhath Fields Prison the largest and most 
important in England for Criminal pur- 
poses . • 330 

Number of Prisoners confined in Coldhath Fields 
Prison in 1841 330 

Discipline and proceedings of the Coldhath Fields 
Prison ••••••• 331 

Prison Offences in Coldhath Fields Prison in the 
Tear 1842 ...••• 331 

Punishments in Coldhath Fields • • .332 

Cleikenwell Prison established by Patent granted 
by James 1 332 

Demoralising effects of Imprisonment in Clerk- 
enwell Prison ••*••• 332 

The Westminster Bridewell erected in 1834 • 332 


Horsemonger Lane Prison under the jurisdiction 

of the Surrey County Magistrates • • 332 
The Silent System in operation for the con-victed 

Prisoners in Horsemonger Lane . • • 332 
History of Improyements in Prisons and Prison 

Discipline ..•••• 333 

Howard's Work on * The State of Prisons in 

England and Wales * • • . • 333 

Bentham's Plan for Prison Management • • 333 
The Penitentiary at MiUbank commenced in 

1813 333 

The Separate System brought into operation in 

England in 1790 333 

Unhealthy situation of the Millbank Penitentiary 333 
The Penitentiary in future to be designated the 

Millbank Prison r, . . • . . 334 
Relaxation of the Sepairate System in Millbank 

Prison in consequence of an increase in the 

Number of Insane Prisoners • • • 334 
Plan of the Millbank Prison • • • • 334 
Mode of Discipline adopted at the New Model 

Prison at Pentonyille • • . • 334 

Commissioners for the Control of tlie Model 

Prison nominated by the Queen in Council • 335 
Objects to be kept in view at the Model Prison 

explained by Sir James Graham . . • 335 
Internal arrangements of the Model Prison • 335 
Treatment of &e Prisoners in the Model Prison 335 


76. The Model Prison, Pentonyille 
T7. Newgate . • • • 



. 321 
. 336 


A Newspaper indispensable to the Englishman 337 
Newspapers in the Colonies • . • • 337 
The Newspaper a European Inrention • • 338 
The Acta Diuma of the Romans • • . 338 
Publicity given to all the Proceedings of the 

Senate during the Consulship of Julius Cssar 338 
Prtrate Gazetteers in London before the introduc- 
tion of Printed Newspapers . • • 338 
Mode of communicating Military and Com- 
mercial News resorted to by the Venetian 
GoYemment ••...• 338 
' The English Mercuric ' preserred in the British 

Museum . • 339 

The News Book •....• 339 
Object of the private News Publisher . • 339 

Government Gazettes 339 

Periodical Newspapers first published at the Com- 
mencement of the Seventeenth Century • 340 
*The News of the Present Week,' the first 

Weekly Newspaper in England • • • 340 
Difference between the London and Parisian 

Type of Newspapers . • • . • 340 
Paris the Focus of the Intellectual Activity of 

Europe • 340 

Difference between the Political Character and 

Belations of London and Paris • . • 341 
Difference in the Historical Development of 
the Frame of Goremment in France and 
England •.•••.. 341 

' The Intelligencer ' 341 

The Manufacture of English Newspapers for a 

long time confined exclusively to London • 342 
The ' Norwich Postman ' published in 1706 . 342 
The ' Mercurius Politicus ' printed at Leith in 
1652 342 

The earliest permanent Scotch Newspapers • 342 
All new Provincial Newspapers framed upon 

the Model of the London Journals . • 342 
The greater part of London Newspapers printed 

and published in the Strand and Fleet Street 342 
Three distinct Classes of Persons employed about 

Newspapers •.•••• 842 
Capital Invested in the Daily Papers of Lon- 
don . • 343 

The ' Times ' taken as an Example of the Manner 

in which a Daily Paper is got up • • 343 

Duties of the Editors and Reporters of the 

'Times' 343 

Process of Reporting Parliamentary Debates • 343 

Printing of the * Times * • . • . 344 

Size of the 'Times' 344 

Extract from the Returns of the Newspaper 

Stamp and Advertisement Duty • • • 344 

Management of a Weekly Paper Establishment 345 

Offices of the Weekly Papers in Fleet Street • 345 

Business of the Publisher of a Newspaper • 346 

Small Newsvenders • • • • • 346 

The Radical Newsvender • • • • 347 

The London Newspaper Agent . • • 347 

Supply of London Newspapers to the Provinces 348 
Activity set in Motion in order to keep up the 

London Newspapers • • . • . 348 
Sunday and Saturday alike Days of Sale with 

the Newsvender • • • . • 348 

The Newsvenders' Boy • . • • 349 

Dinner given by the Proprietors of the London 

Papers to the Newsvenders and their Si rvants 349 

Intellectual Character of British Journalists . 349 
Alleged Superiority of the French Newspaper 

Press over the English • i • • 350 




Chancier of Mercantile Speculation preponder- 
ating in Bnglish Newspapers • • • 

The Daily Papers leas Narrators of Events than 
Mirrors of the Transactions themselves 

Newi^tapers at one Time Dot allowed to report 
the Proceedings of Parliament • • • 

Wearisome Fidelity with which the Debates in 
Parliament are reported in the Daily Papers 

Strongly-marked Spirit of Individuality of each 
of Uie leading Daily Papers • • • 

Characteristics of the « Times ' . . . 

Characteristics of the principal Daily Papers • 





The exclusively liiterary Papen . • 
The leading Political Weekly Papers 
' Beirs life in London * the only exdusively 
Sporting Paper • • • • « 

The Fashionable Papen • • • • 

Agricultonl Papen • • • • • 

Commercial Journals . • . • • 
Special Journals of almost every Class and Pro- 
fession • •••••• 

Newspapen of Religious Sects . • • 
Illustnted Newspapen • • • • • 


78. * A Perfect Diurnall of the Passages in Parliament ' 

79. * Glorious News.* — Horn-boys • • 


B. Sly 











Services rendered by the Society of Arts • . 353 
The Society of Arts established in 1754 . . 353 
The Society of Arts settled in the Adelphi in 


Figure of Peace sent to the Society of Arts by 

Bacon in 1758 

Bacon's Works now at the Adelphi 

Rewards of Merit given by the Society of 

Arts •■•■••• 

First public Exhibition of Paintings in England 

in the Rooms of the Society of Arts . • 
Senrices rendered by the Society of Arts to the 

Manufactures and Commerce of England . 
Impulse given to the Growth of Forest Trees by 

the Society of Arts . • . . • 
Movement in Agriculture made through the 

Agency of the Society of Arts • • • 
Improyements made in Chemistry, Manufac- 
tures, and Mechanics generally, through the 

Means of the Society of Arts • . . 
Rewards given by the Society of Arts to the 

Bethnal Green and Spitalfields Weavers 
Distinguishing Features of the Society of Arts . 
Rewards given by, and general Proceedings of, 

the Society of Arts during the Year 1842 
Model-Room of the Society of Arts . 

Course punued by the Society of Arts in be- 
stowing Rewards or Premiums . 
Subjects for which Premiums are offered by the 

Society of Arts •••••• 

Improvement capable of being made in the So- 

ciety of Arts 358 

Chancteristics of Barry ...» 359 

Struggles of Barry in the early Part of his 

Career 360 

The Decoration of St. Faurs proposed to the 

Royal Academy . . • • • 360 













Offer of Barry to decorate the Roon« of the So- 
ciety of Arts ..•••• 

Magnitude of Barrv*8 Undertaking • • 

The Principle of CiTiUsation forcibly embodied 
in Barry's Picture of Orpheus • . • 

Alterations made by Barry in his Etching of his 
Picture of * Orpheus civilizing the Inhabitants 
of Thrace' 

Barry's * Grecian Harvest Home * • • • 

* The Yicton at Olympia ' • • • • 

Diagoras of Rhodes • • • • • 

Barry represented by himself in the Character 
of Timanthes in the • Yicton at Olympia ' • 

CanoTa's Testimony to the Merits of Barry's 
Picture of the * Tictora at Olympia' • • 

Failure of the fourth of Barry's Pictures . 

Barry's Picture of the Meeting of the Memben 
of the Society of Arts for the Annual Distri- 
bution of the Premiums • • • • 

Bairy's 'View of Elysium' . • • • 

Answer of Barry to the Objections raised against 
' Elysium '.••••• 

Grouping of the Charactera in Barry's * Ely- 
siuih '•••••.• 

Features in the < View of Elysium' conspicu- 
ously exhibiting Barry's Judgment • • 

Anecdotes relating to the «View of Elysium' 
told in Cunningham's * Liyes of the Pain- 
ten '••■•••• 

Barry's Mode of Subsistence during the Pro- 
gress of his Work • • . • • 

Completion of Barry's Paintings in 1783 . 

Exhibition of Barry's Pictures for his Benefit . 

Sum of Money gained by the Exhibition of 
Barry's Paintings • • • • . 

Money presented to Barry on the Completion of 
his Work 


80. Barry's Pictures^Grecian Harvest Home . • • • 

81. Model Room of the Society 

83. Portrait of Barry • • 

83. Barry's Pictures — Orpheus Civilizing the Inhabitants of Thrace 

84. Barry's Pictures — ^The Victora at Olympia .... 

85. Barry's Pictures — View of Elysium 

86. Barry's Pictures—Elysium, or the State of Final Retribution . 


















. 353 


Jackson . 

. 357 



. 359 



. 363 



. 364 



. 366 


Sbars • 

. 368 





Tlie London HospitalB more eminent as Schools 

of Medicine than for their inflaence u Social 

Imdtations • 360 

Limited CSapacity of the London Hoepitals • 369 
BU Baitholomevr*8 Hospital Fonnded in 1123 • 369 
St. Bartbolomew's Hospital granted to the 

CSty in 1648 370 

SL Barthc^mew's Hospital newly Incorporated 

in 1544 870 

Expenditare of St Bartholomew*k Hospital in 

1553 370 

Present Income of St. BartholomeVs Hospital 370 
Interior of St. Bartholomew's Hospital • • 370 
Bange of Buildings at the back of the Western 

Wing of St. Bartholomew's Hospital . •371 
St Tliomas's Hospital originally a Religions 

Estnblishment •••••• 371 

St Thomas's Hospital opened for the reception 

of Diseased People in 1552 . • .371 

Gross Atmnftl Income of St Thomas's Hospital 37 1 
Additions made to St. Thomas's Hospital in 

1732 371 

The Moseum of St Thomas's Hospital • .371 
The Founder of Guy's Hospital • . . 372 
Bequests to Guy's Hospital since its Foundation 372 
Stmtue of Mr. Guy in the Square of^Guy's 

Hospital ••....• 372 
Arrangement of the Interior of Guy's Hospital 372 
Lunatic House belonging to Guy's Hospital . 372 
Botanic Garden of Guy's Hospital • . . 373 
Constitution of the London Hospitals • • 373 
Goremors of St Thomas's Hospital • • 373 

The GoTemment of Guy's Hospital settled by its 

Founder 373 

Medical and Surgical Establishment at St. Bar- 
tholomew's 373 

Duties of the Hospital Dressers • • • 374 
The Sisters of the Wards . • .374 

Duties of the Hospital Nurse • • • • 374 
Most Common Offences against the Hospital 

Regulations 374 

Form of Admission to the London Hospitals • 375 
ATcrage Number of Daily Admissions into the 

London Hospitals • • • • . 375 
General Arrangement and Regulations of St. 

Thomas's Hospital . • . . . 375 
Arrangements and Regulations of G uy's Hospital 875 
Importance of the Great London Hospitals as 

Schools of Medicine 376 

John Hunter's Medical Lectures, the first eyer 

delivered in London • . • . • 376 
Medical Lectures deliYCred by Mr. Abemethy . 376 
Adrantages of a Medical School connected with 

a Hospital 376 

The Schools of Surgery of St. Thomas's and 

Guy's Hospital United, from 1760 to 1825 . 376 
The OfSce of Anatomical Lecturer at St. 

Thomas*8 filled for many years by Sir Astiey 

Cooper 376 

PriTileges of the Students in Guy's Restricted by 

the Authorities of St. Thomas's HospiUl . 377 

Pa 01 

Westminster Hospital EsUblished in 1719 . 377 
Establishment of St. George's Hospital in 1733 377 
The London Hospital remored to Whitechapel 

in 1759 377 

The Floating Hospital 378 

The Middlesex Hospital Established in 1740 • 378 
Date of the Establishment of the Principal Hos- 
pitals of London ..... 378 
Population of the Principal General Hospitals 

of London on the day of the Census in 1841 . 378 
Sanatorium in the New Road Opened in 1842 . 379 
Lying-in-Hospitals in different parts of the Me- 
tropolis • • 379 

Number of Lunatics and Idiots in Confinement 
within the limits of the Metropolitan Lunacy 
Commissioners • . . • . 379 
Bethlem Hospital Founded as a Convent in 1247 379 
The House of Bethlem converted into an Hos- 
pital in 1330 379 

Purchase of Bethlem by the City in 1546 . 379 

Bethlem Hospital under the Control of the 

Governors of Bridewell • • • . 379 
Funds of Bethlem Hospital . • • • 380 
Total Income of the Real and Personal Estate 
of Bethlem Hospital for the year ending 
Christmas, 1836 . . . • . 380 

Description of Old Bethlem Hospital in 1632 . 380 
New Bethlem Hospital Commenced in 1675 . 380 
Description of Bethlem Hospital in an Edition 

of Stow, in 1754 381 

Report of a Committee in April, 1799, on the 

state of Bethlem Hospital . . . .381 
Present Site of Bethlem Hospital settled in 

1810 381 

Steps taken to obtain the Necessary Funds for 

the Building of Bethlem Hospital • • 381 

Completion of Bethlem Hospital in 1815 , • 382 
The Wings of Bethlem Hospital appropriated to 

Criminal Lunatics . • . . . 382 
Additions made to Bethlem Hospital in 1837 • 382 
Regulations and Arrangements of Bethlem 

Hospital 382 

Brutal system of Treatment formerly carried on 
at Bethlem ...... 382 

Report of a Committee Appointed in 1598 to 

view Bethlem 382 

Indiscriminate admission of Visitants to Bethlem 

Hospital 383 

Exposure in 1814 of the Wretched System pur- 
sued at Bethlem 383 

Description of one of the Women's Galleries in 

Bethlem Hospital 383 * 

Improvements in the System of Management at 

Bethlem Commenced about 1816 • • 383 

St Luke's Hospital opened in 1751 • . 383 

Income of St. Luke's Hospital • . . 384 
Lunatic Asylum for the County of Middlesex, 

situated at Hanwell 384 

Admirable System of Management at the Han- 
well Lunatic Asylum • . . • 384 



87. Bartholomew's Hospital ....... Anblat 

88. St. George's Hospital ,, 

^. Bethlem Hospital •.•..... „ 



. 369 


. 377 


. 384 





The Shops of London in themselTes t yery Cy- 
clopaedia of Knowledge . • • • 385 

The Shops of London among the most suggestiye 
of all Suhjects for Reflection • . .385 

General Character of the Shops in Old London 386 

Old Houses in Gray's Inn Lane . . • 386 

The Bazaar System more extensiTcly adopted in 
London in the Twelfth Century than at the 
present time •••••. 386 

Names of the older London Streets • • 386 

Eating-houses on the Banks of the Thames in 
the Twelfth Century . • . ,386 

The Frippery or Clothes-shops of the Time of 
the Edwards and Henrys . • . • 387 

Print in Smithes 'Antiquities of London' of an 
old House formerly standing in Chancery Lane 387 

Shop-windows common in the reign of Ed- 
ward YL 387 

Print of Winchester Street, London WaU, in 
Smith's * Antiquities of London ' • • 388 

Representations of old Houses in London given 
in Smith*s ' Antiquities of London' . • 388 

Sash-windows to Shops introduced ahout the 
heginning of the Eighteenth Century • • 388 

Uniyersal practice of placing Sign-boards over 
Shops until the commencement of the 
Eighteenth Century . • . • • 388 

Itinerant Shops in London in the Eighteenth 
Century 389 

Progress of Improvement in the London Shops 389 

Picture of the London Shops given in Southey's 
• Letters of Espriella ' .... 389 

The Public Houses of London . • • 389 

Taverns and Gin Palaces . . • . 389 

The London Tavern-keeper • • . • 389 

Interior of the London Gin Palaces • . 389 

Splendour of the Gin Palaces situated in the 
Seven Dials and Whitechapel . . . 390 

Respectability of the Taverns at the West End 
of London 390 

Bakers' Shops in London . • • .391 

Advance made by Chemists in Shop Architec- 
ture and Arrangements • • • •391 

Little change which has taken place in the 
Butchers' Shops in London . • .391 

Magnificence of the Grocers' Shops of the Me- 
tropolis ••■•••• 391 

The Shops devoted to the Sale of Wearing Ap- 
parel the most remarkable in London . .391 

The Principle of Competition driven farther in 
the Drapery Business than in most others . 391 

Effects of the Rise of Cotton Manufactures in 
England 391 

The Goods exposed in the Drapers' Shops in 
Whitechapel generally of an humble and 
cheap Kind • 392 


Extraordinary Shop in Aldgate • . • 392 
Magnificence of the Drapers' Shops in St. Paul's 

Churchyard 392 

Draper's Shop on Ludgate Hill • • • 392 
Remarks in the ' Westminster Review ' on the 
Architecture of the Draper s Shop on Ludgate 

HiU 392 

Elegance of the Shops in Oxford Street • • 393 
Observations in the * Companion to the Alma- 
nac' on a Draper's Shop at the Southern End 
of the Quadrant in Regent Street . • 393 

System of Competition carried on in the Lon- 
don Shops •••••• 394 

Changes in Shop Arrangements • . • 394 
Letters to attract Notice over Shop Win- 
dows • •••••• 394 

Catch-words in Shops to attract the Notice of the 
Passers-by .••••• 394 

Undersellers •••••• 394 

Remarks in Defoe's ' Complete Tradesman * on 
underselling .••••# 394 

Tailors' and Hatters' Shops . . • .395 
Fanciful Arrangements of Modem Times ex- 
hibited in the Shops of the Bootmakers of 
London ••••.• 395 

A Modem English Bazaar not a genuine repre- 
sentative of the Class • . • • 395 
Articles sold in the Soho Baxaar • • • 396 
Rules of the Soho Bazaar • • • • 396 

Interior of the Pantheon Bazaar • • • 396 
Commodities sold at the Pantechnicon • . 397 
Chief commodities displayed in the Baker Street 

Bszaar • . . . • • 397 

The North London Repository • • • 397 

The Burlington and Lowther Arcades • . 397 

Multifarious articles displayed in the Window of 

a Pavnibroker's Shop • • • • 397 

Brokers' Shops . . • . • • 398 
Curiosity Shops in Wardour Street • • 398 

Cellar Shops in Monmouth Street . • • 398 
Shops for the Sale of Second-hand Garments in 

Holywell Street and Field Lane • • . 398 
Assemblage of Shops for the Sale of old Commo- 
dities in the vicinity of Drury Lane • . 398 
The daily economy of London Shops • • 398 
Opening of London Shops in the Morning • 399 
Art and dexterity displayed in the arrangement 
of the commodities in Drapers' and Mercers' 

Shops • 399 

Duties of the Shop Walker • • . • 399 
Brilliancy of the London Shops at Night . • 399 
The question of Shop-shutting a subject of much 

discussion •.•••• 399 

Sketch given in Defoe's * Complete Tradesman ' 
of Shopkeeping in 1727 . • • 400 


90. Old Shop, comer of Fleet Street and Chancery Lane, in 1799 

91. A Frippery • 

92. Kemble Tavern, Bow Street, Long Acre . . • • 

93. Shop in Regent Street 

94. Pantheon Bazaar 




SlaObr . 385 

Sbaes • 387 


GoBWAT • 393 

Jackson • 400 

[PnrogUtn Will-Onui.] 


Ahonc those mysterious places which one constantly hears of, without bcin^ able 
Teiy clearly to understand, is that known by the scarcely less mysterious appel- 
lation of Doctors' Commons. We are aware that it is a locality which has a 
great deal to do with wills, and something with matrimony — that husbands, for 
instance, go there to get rid of unfaithful wives — wives of unfaithful or cruel 
husbands ; and that, we believe, is about the extent of the general information on 
the subject. Many, no doubt, like ourselves, have thrown a passing glance into 
that well-known gateway in the south-western corner of St. Paul's Churchyard, 
with a vague sentiment of curiosity and expectation, and have added as little as 
wc have to their slender stock of information by so doing : the most noticeable 
feature being the board affixed to the wall by the " Lodge," calling on strangem 
lo " stop," and warning them against the blandishments of certain porters ; whilst, 
u an amusing commentary, one of the said offenders is sure to come up to yon 
with a delightful air of unconscious innocence to repeat the ofi*ence. But the 
desire to serve their fellow-creatures is evidently a passion with the porters of 
Doctors' Commons : there is nothing they arc not prepared to do for you, even 
if it be to offer to relieve your failing sight by reading aloud the very warning 
in question. Well, we have no cause to answer or to institute, so are in no 


danger of being seduced into employing our volunteer guide's favourite proctor: 
but he shall lead us through these comparatively unknown regions. The word 
Lodge naturally makes us look for the edifice of which it is an appendage^ and 
as we pass through the gateway a stately house^ on the right of the small open 
square^ presents itself^ enclosed within lofty walls : but that^ it appears, is the 
Dean of St. Paul's house. As we step into Carter Lane, we are reminded of the 
palace formerly standing here, called the Royal Wardrobe, and to which the 
widow of the Black Prince, the once " Fair Maid of Kent," was brought after 
the frightful scene in the Tower, in 1381, when the followers of Wat Tyler broke 
into it, murdered the chief men they found there, and treated her so rudely 
that she fell senseless ; and here in the evening of the same day her son King 
Richard joined her. From Carter Lane a narrow passage leads us into Knight 
Rider Street, deriving its name from the circumstance, as our guide informs us, 
with a smile and a look which seem to express his wonder at his own learning, 
that the train of mounted knights used to pass through this street in the olden 
time on their way from the Tower to the tournaments in Smithfield. That fact 
having been duly impressed, he neXt points out to tts the famous Heralds' Col- 
lege on Bennett s Hill ; and, lastlyi the inscription over a plain-looking build- 
ing opposite, " the Prerogative Will Oflice "-—one of the most interesting and im- 
portant features of Doctors* Commons. Persons aro passing rapidly in and out 
the narrow court, their bustle alono disturbing the marked quiet of the neigh- 
bourhood. At the end of the court we ascend a few steps and open a door, when 
the scene exhibited in the engraving at the head of this paper is before us. At 
first all seems hurry and confusion^ or at least as if every one had a great deal 
of work to do, in a very insufficient space of time. Rapidly from the top to the 
bottom of the page run the fingers of the solicitors' clerks, as they turn over leaf 
after leaf of the bulky volumes they are examining at the desks in the centre, 
long practice having taught them to discover at a glance the object of their 
search ; rapidly move to and fro those who are fetching from the shelves or 
carrying back to them the said volumes ; rapidly glide the pens of the nume- 
rous copyists who are transcribing or making extracts from wills in all those little 
boxes along the sides of the room. But as we begin to look a little more closely 
into the densely packed occupants of the central space, we see persons whose air 
and manners exhibit a striking difference to those around them : there is no mis- 
understanding that they are neither solicitors nor solicitors' clerks acting for 
others, but parties whose own interests may be materially afiected by the result 
of their search. Even that weather-beaten sailor just come in, whose face one 
would think proof against sensibility of any kind, reveals the anxiety of its 
owner. He has just returned probably from some long voyage, and one can 
fancy him to have come hither to see whether the relative, who, the newspapers 
have informed him, is dead, has left him, as he expected, the means of settling 
down quietly at home at Deptford, or Greenwich, or some other sailor's paradise. 
He steps up to the box here on our right hand, just by the entrance, pays his 
shilling, and gets a ticket, with a direction to the calendar where he is to search 
for the name of the deceased. He must surely be spelling every name in that 
page he has last turned over; aye, there it is; and he now hurries off, as directed, 
with the calendar, to the person pointed out to him as the clerk of searches. A 


Tolume from one of the shelves is immediately laid before him^ the place is 
found, and there lies the object of his hopes and fears — the eventful will. Line 
bj line you can ^ee his face grow darker and darker — a grim smile at last ap- 
pears — he has not been forgotten — there is a ring perhaps — or five-pounds to 
bay one^ or some such trifle : the book is hastily closed ; and the sailor hurries 
back to his old privations and dangers, deprived of all that had so long helped 
him to pass through them with patience, if not cheerfulness. * Here again is a 
picture of another kind : a lady, dressed in a style of the showiest extravagance, 
whose business is evidently of a more important kind than a mere search — an 
executrix probably— is just leaving the oiRce, when at the door she is met by 
another lady, with so low a curtesy, and with such an expression of malice in the 
countenance, as at once tells the story confirmed by their respective appearances. 
The successful and the unsuccessful have met. The former, however, hurries 
away, or we should have a scene from nature, that Fielding or Moliere might 
have been pleased to witness. 

When we consider the immense amount of business transacted in this Court, 
we need not wonder at the bustle that prevails in a place of such limited dimen- 
sions. As the law at present stands^ if a person die possessed of property lying 
entirely within the diocese where he died, probate or proof of the will is made or 
administration taken out before the Bishop or Ordinary of that diocese ; but if 
there were goods and chattels only to the amount of 5/.* (in legal parlance, bona 
notabilia) within any other diocese, and which is generally the case, then the 
jurisdiction lies in the Prerogative Court of the Archbishop of the province, that 
is, either at York or at Doctors' Commons — the latter, we need hardly say, being 
the Court of the Archbishop of Canterbury. The two Prerogative Courts 
therefore engross the great proportion of the business of this kind through the 
country ; for although the Kcclesiastical Courts have no power over the bequests 
of or succession to unmixed real property, if such were left, cases of that nature 
seldom or never occur. And, as between the two provinces, not only is that of 
Canterbury much more important and extensive, but since the introduction of 
the funding system, and the extensive diffusion of such property, nearly all 
wills of importance belonging even to the province of York are also proved in 
Doctor's Commons, on account of the rule of the Bank of England to acknow- 
ledge no probates of wills but from thence. To this cause, among others, may 
be attributed the striking fact that the business of this Court between the three 
years ending with 1789, and the three years ending with 1829^ had been doubled. 
The number of wills proved in the latter period was about 6500, the number 
of administrations granted (that is, where no will had been left) about 3500 ; 
since then, we believe^ the business has not materially increased. Of the vast 
number of persons affected, or at least interested in this business, we sec, not 
only from the crowded room before us, but from the statement given in the 
Report of the Select Committee on the Admiralty and other Courts of Doctors' 
Commons in 1833, where it appears that in one year (1829) the number of 
searches amounted to nearly 30,000. In the same year extracts were taken from 
wills in G414 cases. Should any of our readers wonder how this latter estimate 
is obtained, or why it should be necessary to employ the office clerks in so many 

* Except in the Diocese of London, where the amount ia 10/. 

B 2 


instances, if that be the explanation given, let him amuse himself by stepping 
into the office, and call for one of the great treasures of the place — nay, the 
greatest — Shakspere's will. As he gazes with reverential eyes on the writing 
that bequeathed the poet's property to his offspring, traced by the same fingers 
that from boyhood upwards had seldom touched paper but to bequeath wealth 
beyond all price to posterity, — as he pauses over even the most indifferent words, 
hoping to find some latent meaning, or turns with a feeling of heartfelt congra- 
tulation to the passage respecting Shakspere's wife, till of late so inexplicable^ if 
not painful — now, through the recent discovery, so clear and satisfactory* — he will 
very likely feel an inclination to copy some remarkable phrase or sentence. But 
as he unwittingly takes out a pencil for that purpose, in the very sight of one 
of the officers passing at the time, who shall paint the horror that overspreads 
the countenance of the latter ! A pencil in the hands of a stranger in the 
Prerogative Court ! — it is well for the offender that Prerogative has grown com- 
paratively mild and amiable of late centuries, or at least that its claws have been 
very closely pared, which comes to the same thing, for else there is no saying 
what might not be the consequence. In sober truth, there is something very 
ludicrous in the excessive jealousy shown in this matter. Sir W. Betham com- 
plained that they would not, even for genealogical purposes, allow a person to 
make a memorandum or list of wills from the index, much less from the oflSce 
copies of wills; and, in consequence, one naturally wonders how much of this is 
proper and necessary for the safety of the documents, to prevent their being 
tampered with, and how much of it is produced by the contemplation of the 
profits made from the enforced employment of those busy gentlemen in the 
boxes. In other points the management of the office is admirable. Wills, of 
whatever date, are always to be found at half an hour's notice — generally a very 
few minutes suffice. They are kept (those only excepted which have come in 
recently, and have not passed through the preliminary processes of engrossing, 
registering, and calendaring,) in a fire-proof room called the Strong Room. 
The original wills begin with the date of 1483, the copies from 1383. The latter 
arc on parchment, strongly bound with brass clasps, and so numerous as to fill 
with dingy-looking volumes every nook and corner of the public room, and also 
partially to occupy a room above stairs. We must add to this notice of the 
Office, that in country cases, when it is inconvenient for parties to come to 
London to be sworn, commissions are issued. The number of such commissions 
issued in one year (1S32) was 4580, besides 300 special commissions for par- 
ticular cases, such as of limited administrations, special probates of trust pro* 
perty, and the wills of married women. 

But what, it may be and no doubt often is asked, is the meaning of the con- 
nection between the Church and wills, — the Archbishop of Canterbury and the 
goodly estate left by the retired cheesemonger who died last week ? The answer 
is a somewhat startling one. Dr. Nicholl, in his recent speech in the House of 
Commons^ referring to the testamentary causes, says, '' These came under such 
jurisdiction at a period when the bishops and other clergy claimed the property 
of intestates to be applied to pious uses, without even being required to pay 
their debts. In the course of time this claim had been considerably limited, and 

* See < Pictorial Sliakspere;* note on Postscript to < Tirelftb Night.* 


the clergy were obliged to pay the debts of the intestate out of his property 
before any of it could be applied to pious uses. Subsequent restrictions had^ 
however, required that the property of the intestate should be given to his widow 
and children ; and afterwards it was enacted^ that where such relations did not 
exist, the property should go to the next of kin, and, failing these, should go to 
the Crown.'* So that, instead of being surprised that so much of our property 
should pass into the jurisdiction of the Church, we have reason rather to be 
thankful in many cases that it ever comes out again. As the ecclesiastical juris- 
diction in testamentary causes is not an isolated feature of Doctors* Commons, 
but, on the contrary, both in its origin and history, intimately connected with the 
other Courts we are about to mention^ and as so much of that jurisdiction is at 
this very moment passing away by the consent of the heads of the Church itself, 
we must enter a little more closely into the matter. All readers of history are 
familiar with the endeavours made by the priesthood in every country of Europe, 
after the complete establishment of Christianity, to obtain authority in temporal 
as well as in spiritual affairs ; endeavours which were nowhere more charac- 
terised by greater pertinacity and boldness than in England, because nowhere 
more energetically resisted ; and, though defeated in their grand object of re- 
ducing our sovereigns to a state of vassalage to the Pope, even if they could not 
get the sovereign power itself vested in ecclesiastics, as they did in some of the 
states of the great German confederation, yet, short of that, their influence could 
hardly have been much greater than it was in this country for some centuries. 
And it could not well be otherwise. Being the only large class of persons that 
could be deemed an instructed one, during the middle ages, power naturally 
flowed into their hands, and though used no doubt in the main more for the 
benefit of the people than it could have been if vested elsewhere, was, it is 
equally doubtless, perverted to their own selfish gratifications. Hence their 
enormous wealth, hence their countless privileges, by which they were enabled 
to avoid all the duties of citizenship, and obtain a thousand advantages which 
just citizenship cannot bestow ; hence their castles and hosts of retainers ; hence 
their full-blown pride and ambition. But the most striking evidence of their 
power, and, we must add, of their comparative fitness for power, is the existence 
among us to this hour of the canon law, which is simply a collection of the ordi- 
nances, decrees, decretal epistles, and bulls issued by the Popes or the councils 
of the Roman Catholic Church, and the general tendency of which was to esta- 
blish the supremacy of the spiritual over the merely temporal authority. A 
new system of law thus sprung up by the side of the Civil or Soman law^ 
with which it became gradually connected. The earliest English Ecclesiastical 
Courts appear to have been established by the Conqueror William, and at the 
same time the Bishops were forbidden thenceforth to sit, as they had been ac- 
customed, in the civil courts of the country, with laymen. By the time of Henry 
IL we read of the Courts of the Archbishop, Bishop, and Archdeacon. It was 
a critical period in the history of the Church. The struggle for supremacy 
began in the reign of William, and was for a great length of time hotly con- 
tinued. To a certain extent the Ecclesiastics were successful. They esta- 
blished the partial authority of the canon law in their own courts, and 
they managed to introduce the civil law into the ordinary tribunals. But 
that was all. As regards their chief object, spiritual supremacy, they failed. 


Their canon law was received^ it is true^ and became an important part of 
English jurisprudence^ but received in the spirit of a " people " who had " taken 
it at their free liberty^ by their own consent to be used among them^ and not as 
laws of any foreign prince, potentate, or prelate,"* and who, therefore, took consi- 
derable liberties with it in so doing. Not only, for example, have the kings and 
barons of our earlier history steadily opposed all its doctrines of non-resistance 
and passive obedience, but the most eminent lawyers at all times exhibited so little 
deference for its authority, that it gradually sank, .with the civil law, into the 
position described by Blackstone, who observes, <^ that all the strength that either 
the papal or imperial laws have obtained in this realm, is only because they have 
been admitted and received by immemorial usage and custom, in some particular 
cases, and some particular courts ; and then they form a branch of the leges non 
scripiiB (unwritten laws), or customary laws; or else because they are, in some 
other cases, introduced by consent of parliament, and then they owe their vali- 
dity to the leges scriptce, or statute law.'* To the former class essentially belong 
the courts of Doctors* Commons, and all the numerous minor ecclesiastical courts 
through the country — which are at once the chief remains of the civil and 
canon laws among us, and of the mighty temporal power formerly exercised by 
the church. 

The chief courts of Doctors' Commons are — the Court of Arches, which is the 
supreme ecclesiastical court of the whole province ; the Prerogative Court, where 
all contentions arising out of testamentary causes are tried; the Consistory Court 
of the Bishop of London, which only differs from the other consistory courts 
throughout the country in its importance as including the metropolis in its 
sphere of operations ; and the Court of Admiralty, which seems, at the first 
glance, oddly enough situated among such neighbours. All these hold 
their sittings in the Common Hall of the College, towards which we now direct 
our steps. We have not far to go. Some fifty yards or so up the street, we 
pass through an unpretending-looking gateway, and find ourselves in a square, 
surrounded on three sides with good old handsome houses, each door bearing the 
name of ' Dr. * ■ some one, names mostly familiar to the public in connection 
with the reports of trials in Doctors' Commons ; whilst in front is the entrance 
to the Hall, which projects into the square from the left, forming a portion of 
its fourth side. Without any architectural pretension, this is a handsome and 
exceedingly comfortable court. The dark polished wainscot reaching so high up 
the walls, whilst above are the richly-emblazoned coats of arms of all the Doctors 
for a century or two past ; the fire burning so cheerily, this winter's day, in the stove 
in the centre ; the picturesque dresses of the unengaged advocates in their scarlet 
and ermine, and of the proctors in their ermine and black, lounging about it ; 
the peculiar arrangement of the business part of the Court, with its raised gal- 
leries on each side, for the opposing advocates ; the absence of prisoner's dock 
or jury-box — nay, even of a public, of which we do not see a solitary repre- 
sentative — altogether impress the stranger with a sense of agreeable novelty. 
As to the business going on, it is a sitting of the Court of Arches ; and the 
cause one of the least interesting of the subjects that come before this Court, 
which include, as in Chaucer's time, cases— 

"» Preamble to Statute 25 Hen. VIII. 



' Of defamation, and svoutcric, 
Of church reve*. and of Icstnnicnts, 
Of contracts, and lack of aacraments. 
Of usure and aimonj aUo :" 

besides those of Bacrilege, blasphemy, itpostacy from Cliristianity, adultery, 
imrtial or entire divorce, iticest, solicitations of chastity, and a variety of others 
connected chiefly with the discipline of the Church, its buildings, and its 
officers: a formidable list of offences, when the Church was strong enough to 
enforce its powers, and, in case of conviction, to punish offenders with the 
infliction of fines and penances, or the more awful doom of excommunication. 
Almost the only criminal cases now brought before the ecclesiastical courts 
throughout England are those for defamation, generally of female character, and 
for brawling and smiting in churches, or places attached, as vestries. Penance for 
defamation, though almost banished from the supreme courts licre, is still 
in practice, it appears, in the country. In connection with the dioceses of 
Exeter, Salisbury, and Norwich we read, in the Report of the Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners on the Ecclesiastical Courts, in I8'i2 (the Report on which the 
measures now pending are based) of cases of this kind; — but the ridicule and ex- 
citement caused by the appearance, in open church, of offenders in their white 
sheets, has caused the penance to be privately performed. The general method 
■eems to be that described by Mr. John Kitson, the "Joint Principal Re- 
gistrar" of Norwich: thedefamer makes retractation in church, "in the presence 
of the complainant and six or eight of her friends." The nature of tho business 
in the Court of Arches may be best shown by the brief summary given in the 
Report, for three years— 18*27, 1828, and 1829. There were twenty-one matrimo- 


nial causes : one of defamation, four of brawling, five church-smiting, one church- 
rate, one legacy, one tithes^ four correction — total, thirty-eight ; of these, seven- 
teen were appeals from other courts and twenty-one original suits. The last 
arise from the Court having original jurisdiction in certain cases, and assuming it 
in others, at the request of the inferior courts. The great majority of cases, it 
will be seen, are matrimonial. Dr. NichoU " conceived that the jurisdiction in 
matrimonial contracts was given to ecclesiastical courts partly in consequence of 
the fact that marriage, at that period, was regarded as a sacrament, and partly 
because the marriage law was chiefly founded on the canon law.'* The peculiar 
mode of procedure in this Court (and it is the same in the others) demands some 
notice. At the commencement of a suit a proctor is employed, who obtains a 
citation, calling upon the party, whether defendant or offender, to appear. This 
citation is served by one whom Chaucer has made an old acquaintance, though he 
now appears under a new name. He is no longer the Sumpnour, but the Appa- 
ritor. And we may pause a moment to observe that this change is but the 
slightest of the many this character has undergone. In the very commonplace 
but, no doubt, respectable person, who now executes the high behests of the 
Church, who would look for the successor of him whose portrait is given in 
Chaucer's matchless collection ? — 

** A Sumpnour was there with us in that place, 

That had a fire-red cherubinnea face j 

* • * • * 

With scallcd ♦ browes black, and pilled t beard, 
Of his visige children were sore afcard. 
There n' as quicksilver, litarge, ne brimstone, 
Boras, ceruse, ne oil of tartar none, 
Ne ointement that woulde cJeanse or bite. 
That him might helpen of his whelkest white, 
Ne of the knobbes sitting on his cheeks. 
Well lov'd he garlicr onions, and leeks ; 
And for to drink strong wine as red as blood, 
Then would he spsak, and cry as he were wood. $ 
And when that he well drunken had the wine. 
Then would he speaken no word but Latine, 
A fewe termes could he, two or three 
That he had learned out of some decree." 

Alas ! the sources of all these generous tastes, good living, and of so much 
personal beauty, are gone; he is no longer allowed to seek out, as of old, cases 
for punishment, with the agreeable alternative of showing a world of kindly feel- 
ing and mercy, when melted into compassion by — the proper reasons. From 
being, as he was, the dread and curse of the community, he has, it must be owned, 
sunk into melancholj^ insignificance. Well, the citation served, and the party 
appearing (if not, he is declared in contempt, which is, even now, a really serious 
piece of business), a war of allegations and counter allegations commences; then 
witnesses are examined, each alone by the examiner, on oath, on a set of ques- 
tions as well calculated as so vicious a system can admit for the eliciting of the 
truth ; and then the opposing advocates finally appear in Court, each armed 
with his formidable mass of papers, from which he lays the case before the 
Court, selecting such evidence as he pleases. Of course his sins, whether of 

* Scalied^icurfy, f Pil^ed^hald, or scanty. 

1 fr/itftt«#— probably some corrupt humour breaking out on tlic face. } iroex^— mad. 



omission or commission^ are pointed out by the advocate in the gallery oppo- 
site, and thus the judge^ who is busy making notes the ivhole time, obtains as 
complete a view of the case as is possible where the witnesses do not appear in 
Court to give their evidence publicly, when there may be those present who 
could detect any falsehood, and where they are free from the grand test of all 
truth — cross-examination. Yet there should be something good in this mode 
of examining witnesses, when we find the Bank solicitor, Mr. J. W. Freshfield, 
making the following statement to the commissioners : — 

" My opinion is, that vitd voce examination is the very worst method ; that the 
examination in the Court of Chancery [where distinct but unalterable questions 
are put] is defective in an inferior degree; and that the examination in the 
Ecclesiastical Court is the most perfect : speaking of my own experience upon 
that subject, I think that in viva voce examination it is not the question 
what is the truth, but how much of the truth shall be allowed to be elicited : it 
is a question who is to be the examiner, and what will be the state of the nerves 
of the individual who is to be examined.*' He adds, that whilst a violent man 
with good nerve often becomes a partisan from the personal and annoying cha- 
racter of his examination, and says more than he knows — timid men, on the con- 
trary, cither give their evidence very insufficiently, or stay away altogether. 
Being asked whether he has ever known an instance of an honest witness being 
kept back from examination in the prudent management of a cause, he replied. 

Many instances ; I have known it done at considerable peril. I have had to 
tender, or not to tender, in my own discretion, men of the highest honour, upon 
whose veracity I would pledge my life ; but have decided against their produc- 
tion, on account of the anxiety I have felt as to what might be the effect of 
placing them in the witness-box**^ 

On the other hand, another highly respectable solicitor, Mr. T. Hamilton, says 
he knows of a case in which " the plaintiff lost a valuable property from nothing 
in the world else but because the interrogatories were previously formed ; the 
material witness was the solicitor to the defendant, and it was impossible to get 
out the whole facts on cross-interrogatories so prepared.'*! The truth lies, it is 
tolerably evident, between the two : to our mind there can be no question of the 
value, nay, the indispensableness of cross-examination in courts of justice ; the 
problem, therefore, to solve is, how the rude, frequently brutal conduct of counsel 
is to be restrained, and a witness's feelings and character spared the outrages too 
frequently committed on both without the slightest provocation, with no other 
object indeed than a reckless determination to misrepresent or to lessen the value 
of his evidence, simply because it is unfavourable. Mr. Freshfield's statement at 
all events demands consideration, and, if possible, remedy. Surely the Judges 
themselves ought to have the power to repress all that tends to the obstruction 
of justice, even though it be done on the plea of the advancement of justice ; and 
might lay down a few simple, well-considered rules for counsel, and enforce their 

With the growth of the canon law there grew up also in connection with it 
a race of judges, commentators, and practitioners, at first distinct from the analo- 
gous body of persons belonging to the civil law, but gradually becoming even 
more closely connected with them than the laws themselves, until at last there 

* Rq»rt on Eccles. Courts, p. 38. f Ibid. p. 46. 


remained^ in England at least, but one body, the existing Doctors of Civil 
Law> who alone have the right of practising as advocates of Doctors' Commons. 
The period of the junction of the students in both laws seems to be the Ro* 
formation ; before that event degrees were as common in the canon as in the 
civil law, many persons indeed taking both ; but in the 27th of Henry VIII. 
that monarch prohibited the University of Cambridge, and probably of Oxford 
also, from having lectures or granting degrees in the canon law. The practice 
of the supreme Ecclesiastical Courts must, therefore, have necessarily fallen into 
the hands of the doctors of civil law. The founder of what we now call Doctors' 
Commons was, according to Maitland, " Dr. Henry Harvey, doctor of the civil 
and canon law, and master of Trinity Hall in Cambridge, a prebendary of Ely, 
and dean (or judge) of the Arches ; a reverend, learned, and good man," who 
purchased a house here for the doctors to live in, in common together, hence the 
name. This house was burnt down in the Great Fire, and the present building 
erected on the sito by the members. The doctors, we may observe, still dine 
together in a room adjoining the Court, on every court day. The admission of 
doctors to practice as advocates is a stately piece of ceremony, the new member 
being led up the Court by two senior advocates, with the mace borne in front, 
and there being much low bowing and reading of Latin speeches. The number 
of advocates at present, we believe, is twenty-six ; the difference in the dress 
that we perceive among them marks them respectively as Cambridge and Oxford 
men. The proctors, who are in effect the solicitors of Doctors' Commons^ are 
also admitted with ceremonials, and have to exhibit their attainments in a similar 
manner. Every pains are taken to ensure their respectability* When articled, 
at or after the age of fourteen, they must present a certificate from the school- 
master as to their progress in ckissical learning ; they are then articled for seven 
years, and a considerable fee is given to the proctors, and as only the senior 
proctors are allowed to take such clerks, and to have but two at the same time, 
a considerable amount of experience and knowledge of the laws and customs of 
Doctors* Commons is ensured. Finally, they can only be admitted to practise as 
proctors by presenting a certificate signed by three advocates and three proctors, 
stating their fitness. Yet, with all this precaution, there appears to be some- 
thing more than suspicion on the minds of some of the respectable witnesses 
examined by the commissioners, that there are those among them who — to alter 
an old phrase — go the way of all lawyers. 

One of the legal beauties of the Ecclesiastical Courts' system is that of appeal ; 
a system certainly unique for the admirable skill with which it cherishes the 
pettiest and weakest cases till they grow into importance and respectability, 
raising them gradually, a step at a time, till the litigating combatants, instead of 
having their own little town or village coterie for spectators, look around with 
amazement at their own grandeur, from the elevation of a supreme metropolitan 
court. Mark the advancing stages which a case may have to, and often docs, 
pass through. First, there are spread through the country two or three hundred 
minor courts, essentially the same in all cases, though bearing a variety of appel- 
lations, as peculiars of various descriptions, royal courts^ archi-episcopal, episcopal, 
decanal, sub-decanal, prebendal, rectorial, vicarial, and a few manorial courts 
having similar jurisdiction. This is the base of the edifice, and in one of these 
we will suppose a case arises, is heard, and decided, and, being unsatisfactory to 


one of the parties, is appealed against. This takes us to the first step upwards — 
the courts of the archdeacons and others in every diocese, where the case is again 
heard, decided, and appealed against. Of course poor men who cannot afford to 
goon appealing against what they may believe to be an unjust decision, may stop 
where they please. Far is it, we are sure, from the minds of all parties con- 
cerned to wish any poor man to involve himself in expenses that — ^he cannot pay. 
Next we ascend to the Coqsistorial Courts, one in each diocese, where the whole 
process of hearing, deciding, and appealing from, proceeds with delightful regu- 
larity and steadiness of purpose. The third step is the Chanccllor*s Court ;— 
the fourth the metropolitan, say the Court of Arches, and here at least one would 
suppose there would be a final pause. By no means, if the losing party have 
still hopes of a different decision, or hopes of his adversary's purse or patience 
failing. An appeal still lies from the Court of Arches to the Privy Council 
at present, formerly to the Court of Delegates at Doctors* Commons, now abo- 
lished. That we may not be supposed to have exaggerated — here are two illus- 
trations : " There was a case,** says Dr. Nicholls, " in which the cause had 
originally commenced in the Archdeacon s Court at Totness, and thence there 
had been an appeal to the Court at Exeter, thcuce to the Arches, and thence to 
the Delegates ; after all, the question at issue having been simply, which of two 
persons had the right of hanging his hat on a particular peg." The other is of 
a sadder cast, and calculated to arouse a just indignation. Our authority is Mr. 
S. W. Sweet,* who states — " In one instance, many years since, a suit was insti- 
tuted, which I thought produced a great deal of inconvenience and distress : it 
was the case of a person of the name of Russell, whose wife was supposed to have 
had her character impugned at Yarmouth by a Mr. Bentham. He had no 
remedy at law for the attack upon the lady*s character, and a suit for defamation 
was instituted in the Commons. It was supposed the suit would be attended 
with very little expense, but I believe in the end it greatly contributed to ruin 
the party who instituted it ; I think he said his proctor*s bill would be 700/. 
It went through several courts, and ultimately, I believe [according the decision 
or agreement] each party paid his own costs.*' It appears from the evidence 
subsequently given by the proctor, that he very humanely declined pressing for 
payment, and never was paid ; and yet the case, through the continued anxiety 
and loss of time incurred for six or seven years (for the suit lasted that time), 
mainly contributed, it appears, to the party's ruin. 

Abuses of this kind, with a host of others, it is the object of the bill before 
Parliament, introduced by Dr. NichoU, to sweep away ; and a most gratifying 
evidence of the change that has come over the episcopal spirit is to be found in 
the fact, that, effectually as it accomplishes these purposes, great as the sacrifice 
thereby made by some of the heads of the Church (one sinecure place, in the 
gift of the Archbishop of Canterbury, that is to be abolished, is worth 9000/. a 
year), it is to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners of 1832, among whom were the 
said Archbishop and six Bishops, that we owe the excellent measure of reform we 
are about to describe. But we must first notice, that, in addition to the evils of 
a multiplicity of appeals, and those arising from the variety of cases before men- 
tioned in which the Church has temporal jurisdiction, and is in consequence fre- 
quently made the instrument of petty malice and bad feeling, there is one evil 

♦ Rqiort ou Eccles. Courts, p. 17. 


of still greater magnitude than either .-—owing to the number of minor courts in 
which a will may be proved, it is almost impossible to know where to look for 
any but a very recent one. And now for the remedy. Dr. Nicholl proposes to 
divide the exclusively spiritual matters — such as the correction of clerks^ and 
Church discipline generally — from those which are exclusively temporal, or of a 
mixed nature ; the former to be left to the Bishops in their diocesan courts (all 
minor courts being abolished), with appeals, first to the Archbishopi and subse- 
quently to the Privy Council, — thus *' recognising, even in ecclesiastical matters, 
the principle, that over all causes .... her Majesty's was, in these her dominions, 
supreme authority ;" and the latter to be handed over to a new court, to be called 
her Majesty's Court of Arches, with a Judge called, as at present, the Dean of 
the Arches, but appointed by the Queen, like the other Judges, instead of by the 
Archbishop of Canterbury. The advocates and proctors will of course practise 
in such new Court, as they do now in the old. The Court is to have no power 
to pronounce spiritual cen3ures, consequently all those very peculiar causes 
before enumerated will be abolished, except such as may still be commenced 
in this Court, and in it only, with the object of asserting or of ascertaining a 
civil right Tithe, and all matters pertaining thereto, are transferred to the 
jurisdiction of the general Courts of Law at Westminster. Lastly, the new Court 
will have the sole jurisdiction over all testamentary causes throughout the 
country, both as a court of trial for causes arising out of such matters, and as a 
Court of Registry for the entire kingdom, as all wills are to be proved in it, all 
administrations granted by it. This most important and valuable reform is en- 
hanced by the care with which the inconveniences that might have attached to 
such a system have been anticipated and< prevented. The present registry in 
every diocese is to be henceforth a branch registry of the Court of Arches, where 
all wills of persons dying possessed of personal property below 300/. may be 
proved, to save the expense and inconvenience attending journeys to London ; 
and then the whole system is perfected by the cross transmission of all copies of 
wills proved— on the one hand, from each registry to the Court of Arches ; on 
the other, from the Court of Arches (of wills below 300/.) to each registry : so 
that at the branches there will be a complete registry for small wills, and at the 
chief Court for wills of every class. The country proctors are probably the only 
persons injured by the measure, and that injury is lessened by the opening of 
the new London Court to such of them as may think proper to practise there for 
the future. In the procedure of this Court great improvements are to be intro- 
duced : viva voce evidence may be received in Court, at the discretion of the Judge ; 
and, in certain cases, there may be a trial by jury. Such is a brief outline of 
the measure now before Parliament. 

There is one other Court of Doctors* Commons yet to be mentioned — the High 
Court of Admiralty. How this came to be joined to the Ecclesiastical Courts 
we do not find anywhere stated, but it arose most probably from the circumstances 
before pointed out — the connection between the civil and canon laws : as the 
Arches and other Courts have been chiefly governed by the one, so has the 
Admiralty by the other. Its jurisdiction is divided into two parts — that of the 
Instance Court, and that of the Prize Court. The Prize Court evidently applies 
but to a state of war, when all naval captures pass through it. Its '* end/' says 
Lord Mansfield, in one of his tersest passages, " is to suspend the property till 


condemnation ; to punish every sort of miisbehaviour in the captors ; to restore 
instantly^ if« upon the most summary examination^ there docs not appear suffi- 
cient ground ; to condemn finally^ if the goods really arc prize^ i^ainst everybody^ 
giving everybody a fair opportunity of being heard/'* The Instance Court has 
a criminal and civil jurisdiction. To the former belong piracy^ and other indict- 
able offences committed on the high seas^ which arc now tried at the Old Bailey ; 
to the latter, all the cases which form the ordinary business of the Court, such as 
suits arising from ships running foul of each other, disputes about seamen's 
wages, bottomry, and salvage — that is, the allowance due to those who have saved 
or recovered ships, or property in ships, from maritime dangers. The position 
of the .Tudge of the Admiralty is a peculiar one : in peace having little to do-— in 
war, all but overwhelmed : it is also in the highest degree onerous. Peace or 
war may continually depend upon his decisions in matters where foreign nations 
arc concerned ; for instance, " in cases of. embargoes, and the provisional de- 
tention of vessels : in such cases an incautious decision might involve the country 
in war." f Nay, at the present moment that very question is in agitation (and 
may again come before the Court through some sudden, possibly accidental, cir- 
cumstance), which formed so important a feature in the last war with America — 
the right of search ; for, unfortunately. Sir John NichoU's remark, that '* the 
decisions of the great mind (Lord StowelFs) at the head of the Admiralty Court 
at that time have pretty much settled these questions to the satisfaction of the 
whole world,**} appears just now to be anything but correct. Yet if any one mind 
in such a position could have settled that or any still weightier question, it would 
have been the admirable Judge referred to, who sat in this Court through the 
most eventful period of the last great war, in the course of which he had to 
deal with almost every question of international law ; but to him might be ap- 
plied Shakspere's well-known passage on Henry V. : — 

*'Tum him to any cause of policy, 
The Gordian knot of it he will unloose. 
Familiar as his garter f * 

And the proof of it is the statement made by Sir Herbert Jenncr, and other dis- 
tinguished persons, in the highest degree calculated to form a correct opinion, 
that Lord Stowell's decisions at that period have since formed a code of inter- 
national law, almost universally recognised. The amount Of his labours was no 
less remarkable than its character. In one year (1806) he pronounced 2206 
decrees. It can be hardly expected that to such praise there should be anything 
remarkable to add, and yet there is. Lord Stowell's style is a study not alone for 
his legal brethren of all classes, many of whom, it must be acknowledged, sadly 
need such a proof of the possibility of being at once learned and intelligible, but 
for all who can enjoy genuine and racy English. Looking over Haggart*s reports 
of his decisions, we were struck by the case he gives of the ship 'Minerva;' and 
though many might be found better calculated to illustrate the qualities of Lord 
Stoweirs matter and manner, it is not without value in those points, as well as 
being in itself interesting. Sailors are *' the favourites of the law," says Lord 

* Douglas's Reports, p. 572. 
t Sir Herbert Jenncr*8 Eridence. . Report on Admtialt^r Couits, 1833, p. 36. 

I Report, 1833, p. 30. 


Stowell, in the judgment we are about to quote, '' on account of their imbecility, 
and placed particularly under its protection:'' the judgment in the 'Minerva' 
suit is a practical exemplification of this rule. It appears '* the crew of the ' Mi- 
nerva* had been engaged on a contract to go from London to New South Wales, 
and India, or elsewhere, and to return to a port in Europe.** The words miirked in 
Italics were said by the crew to have been subsequently added, who, in consequence, 
eventually left the vessel, and on their return were refused the wages they conceived 
themselves entitled to. The rest of their curious history Lord Stowell himself 
relates : — " Now upon this balance of evidence, as I have intimated, I strongly 
incline to hold, that these words did not compose any part of the text of the ori* 
ginal contract ; but if they did, I have no hesitation in asserting, that they are 
not to be taken in that indefinite latitude in which they arc expressed : they are 
no description of a voyage ; they are an unlimited description of the navigable 
globe; and are not to be admitted as a universal alibi for the whole world, 
including the most remote and even pestilential shores, indefinite otherwise both 
in space and time : they must receive a reasonable construction — ^a construction 
which I readily admit must be, to a certain extent, conformable to the necessities 
of commerce ; for I hope that few men*s minds ore more remote than mine from 
a wish to encourage any wayward opposition in seamen to those necessities, or to 
the fair and indispensable indulgence which such necessities require ; for no class 
of men is more interested in supporting the maritime commerce of the country 
than these persons themselves : but the entire disadvantage must not be thrown 

upon them ; the owners must make their sacrifices as well as the mariners 

I come now to the evidence of other material facts. On landing the cargo at 
Port Jackson, the crew^ as I have already observed, expressed their extreme 
disappointment at the change made in their destination [which they had just 
learned], in breach of the articles which they had subscribed. They are threat- 
ened by the Captain, who is certainly a person of lofty prerogative notions, who 
claims the right to carry them, and says he can and will carry them, wherever 
he pleases, even to hell itself, a very favourite place of consignment in his judg- 
ment. The only choice presented to these men was between a prison and a con- 
tinuance in the ship ; for such is the law and justice of that country, that it seems 
no other option is allowed to a seaman : whether he quit his ship for a just cause 
or none at all — that is never subject of inquiry. In the choice of things, they 
elect the ship, reserving to themselves, as they had an undoubted right to do, 
their demand for legal redress in the justice of their country, for such it appears 
was the general theme of conversation amongst them. They remained on boards 
performing their duty ; and even if this had not been a compelled preference, it 
would not have deprived them of that resort. The articles were violated and 
remained so, though they elected, under all circumstances, to remain in the ship 
under the forced deviation. A voyage was commenced upon, a course of experi- 
ments to procure a cargo. From Port Jackson they proceeded in search of a 
cargo to New Zealand, where not a man ventured to land for fear of being made 
a meaVs meat of by the cannibal inhabitants, as they were represented to be. 
From hence they take an enormous flight to Valparaiso, in the South Seas, where 
they take on board what the Master will not allow to be a cargo, but only part of a 
cargo ; and the ship then proceeds to Lima, where nothing is done, and thence 


a fresh flight to Otaheitc^ at neither of which places does this voyage of experi- 
ment afford any articles of cargo. From this last place the Master bends his 
course back to^ Sidney Cove^ and after selling the partial cargo taken in at Val- 
paraiso, and receiving payment for the same, they then procured a cargo, which 
they carried to Calcutta, for which place they ought to have proceeded origi- 
nally. They landed the cargo, and were occupied in taking on board a cargo 
for England, the men all this time, with all apparent diligence and alacrity, dis- 
charging their duty. On two Sundays, days usually of repose and indulgence, 
they were employed ; yet no necessity is shown for denying the usual remission 
of labour. It is also stated, that on the third Sunday they had hoped to obtain 
the usual indulgence. On that morning, however, at a very early hour, a great 
quantity of hides having been brought to the ship, they set to work at five 
o'clock in the morning, to obtain the indulgence of going on shore in the after- 
noon, and finished their stowage of hides by one o'clock, and then sat down to 
dinner in that warm climate, solacing themselves with the prospect of obtaining 
the long-expected indulgence of going on shore ; but instead, they were in- 
formed that they must go to work in the afternoon of the same day wherein they 
had worked so many hours, to stow the hides more completely, which they had 
put into the hold with so much labour during six hours of the morning. They 
requested the indulgence which they had promised themselves, upon the faith 
of the usual practice and of their meritorious exertions in the morning, and ap- 
plied to the Captain personally and respectfully for that purpose; but received 
the usual answer of a refusal, expressed in the usual terms of a reference to the 
favourite place of consignment to which I have alluded. Upon this refusal of 
the Captain, who himself immediately afterwards proceeded to the shore, they 

followed his example In the evening they stated their case to the Town 

Serjeant, including the great original grievance, of an entire defeazance of the 
ship's articles by the compelled ramble to New Zealand and the distant ports of 
the South Sea. The Magistrates issue a summons to the Captain to appear and 
answer to the complaint. After consultations both private and public with the 
Captain, the Magistrates appear to act upon the same principle of law as that 
which prevails at Sidney Cove — that when a seaman quits a ship, he is only to 
make his election between the ship and the House of Correction. The sailors 
unwillingly repair to their ship, but are absolutely refused admittance by order 
of the Captain, which amounts nearly to a dismissal, and they return to the 
shore, where they are committed by the magistrates to the House of Correction 
for 25 days ; at the end of that time they are taken in the police boat and put 
on board the ship, when they collect their clothes and hammocks, which they 
carry off with them to the shore. Unfounded and unsupported charges of having 
stolen the ship's hammocks are dismissed by the magistrates, as is likewise ano- 
ther equally unsupported charge of having neglected to clear the hawser, a 
duty which had never been imposed upon them. The mariners* case ends with 
their acceptance, after a month*s interval, of stations on board another ship about 
to proceed for England, at nearly a double rate of wages to that which they would 
have been entitled to if they had continued on boad the * Minerva.' " Our space 
will not allow us to transcribe any of the kindly and philosophical remarks with 
which the judgment is studded, we can only give the conclusion : — '' Upon 


the whole, I do with Batisfaction of mind pronouace for the wages and the 
expenses." " 

We may observe, in conclusion, that the name of the Court so often referred 
to, and which aflcr declining for centuries is now in all probability about again 
to become important, is derived from the arches below Bow Chuich. Cheapside, 
to which edifice they also give name. These arches and their supporting pillars 
are very interesting to the antiquary, not only from the facts already stated, 
but from their great antiquity. They are of Norman origin, and were probably 
built during the reign of the Conqueror, perhaps by himself, who, as we have 
already seen, founded the earliest Ecclesiastical Courts in this country, and most 
likely that of the Arches, as being the Archbishop's, first of all. Stow could find 
no evidence of the date of its establishment, or when it first sat at Bow Church ; 
but there seems little doubt that it is coeval, or nearly so, with the ancient 
arches, and has never been removed from their, vicinity till our own times. The 
Court of Arches was occasionally held here even down to the year 1825, if not 
later, in the part that now forms the vestry, the subject of the following en- 
graving. The original connection between the Church and the Court we pre- 
sume to be this :— the parish of St. Mary-le-Boiv is the chief of the thirteen 
parishes in the City which are called peculiars, forming a Deanery exempt from 
the jurisdiction of the Bishop of London, and attached to that of the Archbishop 
of Canterbury. Hence also the name of the Judge — Dean of the Arches. 

' HigB«ft'«Rei»rt«of CawadeteimbeduitlieHighCourtof Ailniir»lly, vol. i. i'. 347. 

[Tin Temple Cliurcti ftun Iho Soutli.] 



Ong of the most carious and interesting facts in the history of the human 
mind is the peculiar mode of its progression : — its alternating rise and fall — the 
preliminary retreat before every great advance, as if to derive fresh strength 
and impetus for the spring. And whatever the path, this characteristic still pre- 
sents itself. In religion, Pagan Rome did not change to Christian Rome, and the 
worship of the One God, till the believers in a multitude of deities had passed 
through the worse state of practical disbelief in any : io philosophy or morality, 
the Divine voice that taught the essence of both, in the words "Love one 
another," was first heard, and received into men's hearts, at a time when the 
Grecian and Roman conquerors, by their vast organized systems of slaughter, 
devastation, and pillage, had well nigh banished the very ideas of humanity and 
jnstiee from the world, and made philosophy a by-word of scorn : in science, 
litcr^are, and art — the great ones of antiquity found fitting successors in such 
men as (to refer only to our own country) Roger Bacon and Chaucer— the artists 
of their templet in the artists of our early ecclesiastical churches, but what a 

VOL. V. c 


mighty and almost unfathoinublc gulf divided them — the dark ages, as wc call 
a long period — centuries in which the light was certainly not that of noon-day. 
Yct^ with all this, who doubts that progression is Nature's law — that wc have 
progressed — that we shall continue so to do, however undulating or indirect the 
road ? To apply these remarks to the subject that suggested them : — it may be 
observed, then, that Gothic architecture has had, for the last three or four centu- 
ries, a dark age of its own, from which it is now emerging ; and that there needs 
only some decided impulse to be given to the public taste^ in order not simply 
to restore what has been, but, in accordance with the law we have referred to, 
probably to enable us to make a still farther advance. Such an impulse, it is 
not unlikely, will be given by the restoration of the Temple Church. 

And why the Temple in particular? it may be asked: the grand combina- 
tions of nave and aisles^ choir and transepts, chapels and porches, lofty spires 
and mighty towers, into one magnificent whole, are already familiar to us in 
connection with our cathedrals : has the Temple Church anything to offer at once 
superior to these, and new ? Certainly not : the answer is, that, for the first 
time, we see in it what a Gothic building really was — a structure as pre-emi- 
nent for its rich harmonies of colour as for its beauty of architectural detail and 
grandeur of architectural design. Let those who have not seen the Temple 
think what such decorations must have been in the hands of the authors of our 
cathedrals to be worthy of both, and they will scarcely overrate the value of what 
the Benchers of the Temple have just restored to us, with a truly princely 

The view we have given of the exterior renders description unnecessary ; we 
will therefore only remark how strikingly accordant is its character with the cha- 
racter of its founders ; who, accustomed to the union of fortress and church in the 
East^ where it was most necessary that they should be at all times prepared to 
defend themselves from the Saracens, seem to have been unable or unwilling to 
lose the same associations, even when at home among their own Christian coun- 
trymen. Perhaps, too, there may have been a little pride in the matter: they 
were not disinclined to remind those countrymen of what they had done, and 
were, at the period of the erection, still doing for the cause of Christ, as they 
deemed it. To examine the eastern front, the only front the church possesses, 
the spectator must pass round the pile of buildings that is seen in our en- 
graving thrusting itself upon the oblong portion and obstructing the view. 
Before we leave the exterior, we must notice the differences of style which 
prevail in the Rotunda and the Chancel — differences which are connected with a 
feature of the Temple Church that makes it one of the most interesting and 
valuable structures wc possess, apart from any other attractions. "No building 
in existence," says Mr. Cottingham, *' so completely develops the gradual and 
delicate advance of the pointed style over the Norman as this church, being 
commenced in the latter, and finished in the highest perfection of the former -/* 
already, in this exterior, and more particularly in the comparative lightness of 
those Norman windows, we can trace one of the stages of the advance. We now 
descend the steps of the porch, that strange, low, shut-in corner which forms the 
principal entrance— grown, however, larger-looking of late; and the deeply 
recessed, broad^ semicircular Norman doorway is before us, with its foliated 


capitals and other carved ornaments, exhibiting another stage in the architec- 
tural progress. Most elaborately rich and beautiful it is, too, with its numerous 
pillars below, and circular wreaths above, its sculptured heads and half figures, 
where, mingled together, we see kings and queens, and pious monks at prayer. It 
is often thought, by those best qualified to appreciate the spirit in which our ecclesi- 
astical artists worked, that in all they did there was a higher object than that of 
merely fulfilling the ordinary requisitions of art, even though that were so admira- 
bly accomplished. What, for instance, can be finer than the entrance through this 
low and comparatively dark porch into the light and airy upward sweep of the 
Hotunda, with the vista opening beyond through the chancel? How it in 
every way enhances them, and more particularly in size, the precise feature 
which it was most desirable to enhance.* But was this all? Had not the 
architect a still greater design in view when he built this lowly porch? did he 
not desire to suggest that lowliness of spirit with which man should enter the 
house of his Maker — was it not an emphatic direction to the haughty and stifT- 
necked, the ambitious and the powerful, that they were all as nothing here — 
that they must stoop in spirit as they passed through this gateway ? Above all, 
was it not to remind them to whom all the splendour beyond was dedicated — that 
the lofty arches and fretted roof were His, not theirs — that if their hearts swelled, 
it should be with penitence, and hope> and reverential love, not with rain *sclf- 
gratulation ? 

But it is time we enter ; and as we do so, we may notice, in passing, with what 
admirable judgment the transition from the dull commonplace buildings of the 
neighbourhood, up to the scene of consummate splendour that surrounds the 
altar at the distant extremity, and which is already attracting our eyes towards 
it« has been managed : first, there is the richly -sculptured, but uncoloured and 
therefore quiet-looking gateway ; next comes the Bound, with the black marble 
pillars relieved against the light colour of the surrounding walls, the single 
painted window facing us as wo look upwards, and the various-coloured roof with 
its light blue cinquefoils spotting the delicate ground all over it, the deep red 
borders following and marking the airy play of the groinings, and the central 
ornament with its large blue flowers and gilded boss set in a circular frame-work 
of decoration ; lastly, there is the view onward into the chancel, where the roof, 
thrown into such fine perspective, draws the eye unresistingly along a maze of the 
most delicately beautiful but glowing hues, which seem, at every fresh crossing 
of the arches, to grow more and more intense : it is hard to resist the impulse 
of at once stepping forward and throwing one*s self into it, to luxuriate heart and 
soul on so novel and captivating a scene ; but it is better to proceed regularly : 
we will first examine what is immediately about us. We arc in the far-famed 
Round, and shall find it no difficult matter to pause awhile. 

In our former paper on the Temple Church f we gave an engraving of the 
valuable and well-known eflSgies preserved in it. These had becomcTso greatly 
injured by time, neglect, and by attentions of a kind infinitely worse than neglect, 

* Dimensions of the church : Rotunda, 58 feet in diameter ; Chancel, 82 feet in length, 58 in width, 37 in 
f No. LXX., < The Temple Church : its History and Associations.* 



that all their minute and beautiful details of sculpture and costume were lost ; 
and they were also extensively mutilated and fractured ; in consequence, it was 
difficult to determine what could be done with them in the recent restoration. It 
was painful to sec them in so unworthy a state, and at the same time it was 
feared they were too far gone for any process of re-edification. Mr. Edward 
Richardson, however, a sculptor, undertook to experimentalize on the worst — and 
perhaps originally the most beautiful of the figures : the one here on the right, 
nearest the central walk, of the second pair. Setting out with the principle of 
adhering rigidly to the idea of restoration of that which could be proved to have 
existed — not of making what he might fancy ought to have existed — ho deter- 
mined, as he has kindly explained to us, to remove no portion of the surface, 
however isolated or small, except in extreme cases of necessity, and that he 
would supply none of the missing parts except on the most precise authority 
drawn from the effigies themselves : which he hoped to find. He set to work 
in the following manner : — First, with a finely-pointed tool he removed the 
crust of paint, whitewash, and dirt that enveloped the effigy, which in parts was a 
quarter of an inch thick ; the tediousness of this operation may be judged when 
we state that the surface he was so careful not to injure was more like a honey- 
comb in many parts than any surface that had been originally smooth. He now 
found, as he had anticipated, ample evidence of the character of those little but 
valuable points of costume and expression which had been unintelligible before. 
The next thing was to secure the original surface from further decay (to which 
the exposure to air would have made it peculiarly liable), by forcing into the 
stone some chemical preparation, which hardened in the pores. All the minute 
holes were now stopped with a cement which perfectly imitated the material of 
the effigy ; the artist, as he well expresses it, working in this manner from ** sur- 
face to surface " over the whole. There remained but to add the missing por- 
tions, which, among others, included the lower part of the legs and feet : this was 
done in the same material as the effigy, and joined by the cement. The result 
may be told by the order issued by the Benchers to Mr. Richardson, to restore 
the whole of the effigies ; or, still better, in the words of an eminent architect, who 
observed, when he beheld it in its present state, " The public will never believe 
that this has been a mere restoration.'** Thus these effigies, which are the best 
authorities we possess for military costume from the reign of Stephen to that 
of Henry IH. — which are as works of art so surprising, that one of our greatest 
sculptors said the other day he could not understand how they could have been 
executed in that period — and which, lastly, are so interesting in their connection 
with the early history of the building, and with that greater history in which 
some of them at least figured so conspicuously, are restored to us in their habits 
as they lived : for there is no doubt whatever that such representations were 
accurately imitated from the countenance, figure, and garb of the originals. 
One only exception has to be made — absence of colour. It was discovered in the 
process of restoration, that the figures had been all more or less painted ; some 
only slightly, so as to relieve the sculpture, but one of them, the effigy of Wil- 
liam Pembroke the younger, was richly coloured throughout, having a surcoat of 

'*' Mr. RichanUon is prei)aring fur publication elaborate drawings of the effigies in tbelr restored state. 


crimson, armour of gold^ and a cushion or pillow enamelled with glass. The 
effigies, when first placed in the church, lay side by side in one broad row 
across the central avenue, their heads towards the east, as was proved by the 
interesting discovery of the coffins in the recent excavations. These were eight 
in number ; six of them lead^ the others stone of immense size. There was a 
beautiful carved cross on one of the latter. Other discoveries, not without 
interest, were made at the same time. In noticing the history of Geoifrey 
de Magnaville, in our former paper, we stated that, on account of his 
dying excommunicated, the Templars, who attended him on his death-bed, 
not daring to bury him in consecrated ground, hung his coffin on a tree 
in their garden till absolution was obtained, and then buried him in the porch 
before the western door; and there he was recently found ; for there can be no 
doubt that one of the two broken sarcophagi discovered beneath the pavement 
of the porch was his. Fragments of a third sarcophagus were also discovered 
just within the doorway crossing beneath the walk of the aisle. The arrangement 
of the effigies was a matter of much consideration and experiment before their 
present position was decided on. They now lie four on each side the central 
avenue, and parallel with it, in a double line ; those on the right being, first, 
William Marshall, the younger, sheathing his sword, one of the bold barons who 
made John alternately shiver with fear and bum with rage ; then, by his side 
beyond him, his great father, the Protector Pembroke, his sword piercing the 
head of the animal at his feet. Passing on to the second pair^ foremost is the ex- 
ceedingly graceful but unknown figure before mentioned, on which the restoring 
process was first tried ; and the second, another son of Pembroke's, Gilbert Mar- 
shall, in the act of drawing his sword. The probable feeling of the artist in this 
gesture is very beautiful. His father and his brother were men who had per- 
formed great things, and it is easy to see that their respective gestures are meant 
to signify as much ; but Gilbert, when on the eve of going to the Holy Land, 
was killed by the accident of his being thrown by a runaway horse at a tourna- 
ment in 1241, which he himself instituted in defiance of the mandates of 
Henry III. : the sculptor, therefore, desired to show what he would have done 
but for his premature decease. Of the four corresponding figures on the left 
three are unknown, and the fourth is that of De Magnaville, the burly warrior in 
front of the western pair. The remaining effigy, an exquisitely beautiful work, 
is that of Lord de Ros, another of the barons to whom we owe Magna Charta : 
this lies on the extreme right against the wall of the aisle, but in the same 
central line of the church as the other figures, whilst in a corresponding po- 
sition on the extreme left is the coped stone shown in the engraving before re-^ 
ferred to. 

Let us now step from the central to the side walks, or, rather, from the Round 
into the lower-roofed aisle which surrounds it, and, having marked the stately 
marble pillars which rise at intervals to support the groined roof with its gilded 
bosses ; the stone seat on which these pillars are based, and which runs along the 
bottom of the wall throughout the entire church (no doubt the only seat to be 
found here in olden times) ; having admired the low but richly-sculptured arcade 
also rising from the seat, and stamping lightness and beauty on the wall above, 
where the pointed arches, and pillars with Norman capitals to support them. 


show once more the progress of the struggle between the styles^ and the ap- 
proaching victory of the former ; then the heads which decorate this arcade : — but 
here, as the eye runs along the row, it is at once arrested by the startling 
countenances which meet its glance, and by the endless variety that they 
exhibit. Again and again do we perambulate the entire circle of the aisle, for 
they also accompany it the whole distance, to gaze upon those novel, expressive, 
and powerfully characteristic faces. Setting out from the doorway along the left 
aisle, we presently come to one (the seventh) that, once beheld, is never to be 
forgotten : anything so intensely full of agony, so ghastly in its horror, we never 
beheld. Then, to notice only the more remarkable of those countenances which 
pass before our eyes, we have those of a pale student ; a female of distorted 
beauty ; a cynic full of suffering, but expressing at the same time his marvellous 
contempt for it ; a head on which an animal has fastened and is tearing the ear ; 
a jester; numerous serio-comic indescribables one after another; a fine placid 
philosopher, with a look, however, of earnest surprise ; horned and demoniac 
grotesques ; and against the wall of the archway leading into the left aisle of the 
chancel, a female with the most touching expression of grief and utter desolation 
conceivable ; you feel the tears are falling, though you do not see them : it is 
evidently a mother enduring some more than mortal anguish. Such is the left 
half-circle of this wondrous sculpturesque phantasmagoria. Crossing to the 
right, and so back again along that half-circle to the door, we find a striking and 
unsatisfactory change. The heads have in numerous instances little of the pecu- 
liar qualities of those we have noticed; a circumstance partly explained by the 
modern interpolations visible at a glance among them, and still n.ore by the 
answers given to our inquiries on the subjects of these heads. It appears that at 
the tinie of an earlier repair of the Round (1825 — 1827) many of the heads were 
greatly decayed, and here and there some entirely missing. It is worthy of 
notice how the restorers of that day acted in comparison with the restorers of 
this. First, an able mechanic, but without the slightest pretension to artistical ' 
skill and knowledge, was set to work on the heads of the side last mentioned, and 
they were copied as we now see them. Some little attention had probably been 
called to the subject in the mean time, and the consequence was, that the restora- 
tion of those on the opposite or north side was conducted with greater care, but 
still it was thought quite unnecessary that a sculptor should touch them. That 
done, of course the old heads seemed to the parties of no further use, so they 
went off to the builder's yard, bad, good, and indifferent, and were there used — 
will it be believed? — as cart-wheel crutches; that is, to put under the wheels 
occasionally to prevent their slipping backwards. Such was the result of 
the inquiries made after them during the recent restoration of the 
Church ! And now as to the general idea of the sculptor in these heads. 
It is impossible to go carefully through those on the north side without 
perceiving that, with but few exceptions, they all express an idea of pain, 
varying from the lowest animal manifestations up to the highest and 
most intellectual. On the south side, on the contrary, the predominant expres- 
sion is placid or serene ; and those of a different character, which are of original 
design, were probably removed from the opposite side, and the very ones sub- 
stituted from this side, which there form so marked and corresponding an excep- 


lion to their neighbours. But many of these arc evidently not of original design^ 
but copied, in ignorance not merely of the sculptor's object, which might have 
been excusable enough^ but in op])osition to the manifest rule that all the heads 
should be different. Thus, in the centre of the north side, are three heads — a 
queen, some merry personage, and then a king. The expression of the king s 
countenance is very fine, and in harmony with the gloomy character of his nume- 
rous companions; whilst his queen's, on the contrary, has almost a simper upon it. 
Crossing to exactly the opposite spot on the south side, we find a precisely similar 
group, only that both king and queen are here accordant and serene — evidently 
showing, apart from the similarity of the queenly faces, that the other queen has 
been copied from this, to fill up a vacant space, which the restorer knew not how 
else to fill. And what is the idea that wc think these heads were intended to con- 
vey, and which, if perfect, and arranged as we believe them to have been, they 
would now convey to every one ? — It is that of Purgatory on the one side, and 
the relief from it, by the prayers and intercessions of the Church, on the other. 
It may be thought some corroboration of this supposition to point out that the 
lofty corbel heads, one on each side the wall of the entrances into the aisles of the 
chancel, which are original, are so decidedly and carefully contrasted as to make 
it certain the sculptor had some idea of the kind indicated. The peace that 
passes all understanding is as unmistakably stamped on the head on one side 
of the arch, as the unendurable agony of eternal torture is on that on the other. 
In both arches the condemned faces are Saracenic : of course mere Purgatory 
was not enough for them. A curious, and, to artists at least, an interesting dis- 
covery, looked at in connection with the frequent custom of the Greeks even 
in the purest period of sculpture, was made during the restoration : some 
of the heads just mentioned had glass beads inserted for eyes. We may ob- 
serve, in concluding our notice of the heads in the Rotunda, that the best of 
them are evidently bad copies of masterly originals — giving us the character 
and expression, which could not be well missed, though they have no doubt been 
sufficiently adulterated, and giving us no more. We may see how much we have 
lost in the exchange by a glance at the only other original head, of the beautiful 
little seraph with flowing hair, on the corner of the wall between the Rotunda 
and the south ai^le. This was discovered but a week before the opening of the 
church. Traces of colour are still perceptible ; and we learn from Mr. Richardson 
that the cheeks had been delicately tinged with the natural hue, the lips with 
vermilion, the pupil of the eye with blue, whilst the hair had been gilded. It 
was, as usual, thickly encrusted with layer upon layer of paint, dirt, and 
whitewash, so thickly indeed as to have escaped discovery till the period men- 
tioned. But such was the state of the building generally only two short years ago. 
As we now turn from one beautiful and stately object to another, with a growing 
sense of delight, to see how the parts and the whole mutually harmonise with and 
enhance each other, it is difficult to recall the medley scene they have displaced. 
The painted window above was not then in existence, and that exceedingly ele- 
gant sculptured wheel-window over the entrance was closed up ; the roof was flat, 
and the groining of the aisles was concealed in whitewash ; every marble pillar 
(then unknown to be marble) the same ; monumental barbarisms of the worst 
periods of English sculpture (now happily removed to the triforium above) were lot 

into the very body of the pillars, and also encumbered the arches ; the noble three- 
fold entrance, from the Round to the chancel, instead of enhancing — by the mo- 
mentary interruption of the view, and by the new combinations at tfae same time 
formed — the superior architectural beauty we are approaching, as at present, was 
most carefully hidden by a glass screen extending right across ; and above, in the 
central archway, was the organ revelling in classical decorations; lastly, the very 
bases of the pillars in the chancel were entirely hidden by the great pews, and 
the pavement of the church throughout was considerably higher than the original 

level. On examination of the pillars in the Round, when they had been cleaned, 
it was found that they were so decayed that new ones were indispensable ; and 
great as the expense necessarily was, the Benchers determined to make no un- 
worthy shifts, but to replace them as they ought to be replaced. Accordingly a 
person was sent to Purbeclt to make arrangements for the opening once more of 
its celebrated quarries. This little circumstance shows the spirit in which the 


Benchers undertook and carried on their task. As to the pavement, it was found, 
on digging down to the original level, that it had been formerly tessellated ; and, 
in consequence, we have got rid of the staple ornament for modem churches, 
when we wanted to make them very fine, as at St. Paul's — the black and white 
checquer — and have obtained this warm and beautiful surface instead, formed of 
encaustic tiles. The ground is a dark-red or chocolate, but so elaborately covered 
with the amber or yellowish ornaments, as to make the latter the prevailing hue. 
The patterns form, first, divisions of various breadth (the widest in the centre of 
the central avenue), extending, side by side, from the entrance-door to the 
farthest end of the chancel : within each division there is no alteration of pattern, 
but the divisions themselves, as compared with each other^ present considerable 
differences. The two most striking are those next to the broad central one, 
where, as we pace along, we have the lamb on one side of us, and the winged 
horse on the other — the emblems of the two Societies to which the church belongs. 
The former is founded on the device of St. John ; the latter, it is supposed, on 
the interesting story related in a former paper, of the poverty of the Knight 
Templars at the outset of their career, when two knights rode one horse. Among 
the other ornaments of the pavement are a profusion of linked-tailed animals in 
heraldic postures : lions, cocks, and foxes ; tigers, with something very like mail 
upon their shoulders ; basilisks, and other grotesques. There are also copies of 
designs of Anglo-Saxon origin — as figures playing musical instruments; and one 
illustrative of the story of Edward the Confessor — the Evangelist John and the 
ring — a design which at once tells us from whence the materials for the pavement 
have been borrowed, namely, the Chapter House, Westminster Abbey. The 
pavement formed by the tiles is as strong and imperishable as it is beautiful. The 
tiles are perforated all over with small holes on the under side, consequently when 
they are laid on the cement prepared to receive them, and pressed down, the 
latter rises into these perforations, and, hardening there, binds the whole indis* 
solubly together. 

It is a remarkable and somewhat happy coincidence, although one that does 
not seem to have been yet noticed, that the revival of the art of decorating our 
public buildings should have been begun in that very church where it is highly 
probable the art may have been first witnessed in all its splendour in England, 
but which, at all events, was founded by men who were among the introducers of 
that art into this country. When the Crusaders returned from the Holy Land, 
we know that they brought with them a confirmed taste for Eastern magnifi- 
cence. *' Barbaric pearl and gold** had not been showered before their eyes in 
vain ; and among the Crusaders, the Knights Templars, rude as was the simplicity 
in which they delighted at the outset of their career, great as was their then con- 
tempt for luxury and wealth, very much altered their minds, to say the least of 
it, after a few visits to the Holy Land. To this circumstance doubtless may be 
attributed the Eastern character of the decorations of the period, as on the dome 
here above us, for instance.* Our ecclesiastics, being at perfect liberty to hang 

* It may be obscn-ed here, once for all, tbat the decoraiions throughout the church are stiicfly in accordance with 
the period of the erection. 


up, as in yonder archway^ a Saracenic head or two in terrorem to all infidels^ and 
as a kind of preliminary counterbalance^ would no doubt accept, and turn to their 
own purposes^ and, we must own, we think very sensibly, whatever infidel genius 
might have sent them across the seas. They who knew so well the effect of 
appealing to man*8 entire rather than to his partial nature only were not 
likely to reject any means that offered. From the moment he entered the 
sacred building, they took possession at once of his eye, ear, hearty and mind ; 
and no wonder that afterwards they could turn him towards what point they 
pleased of the theological heaven. Of course this was a glorious field for 
abuses, and abuses sprung up with a strength and luxuriance that not only over- 
powered the flowers Art had strewed abroad, but almost concealed the goodly 
temple of Religion itself. Then it was that the early Church reformers arose in 
their strength, one by one. The " sour " Puritans, as in our one-sided vision we 
call them, because, seeing the Herculean task before them, they went to their work 
with the hands and heart of a Hercules, cutting away, might and main, on all 
sides ; marking every step with their blocd, as they waged unequal war with the 
multitudes ready to defend what they sought to destroy, but still pressing on till 
the whole — confession and indulgence, bulls, pardons, and relics, or by whatever 
name the noxious growths were known — were rooted up ; — and with them the 
flowers went too. Well, we have at last a pure soil to raise them upon once 
more ; for the successors of the Puritans (a thousand times worse than them, for 
they debased art, whilst the others at worst only kept it in abeyance) have gone 
into the same final receptacle of all error — oblivion. And so, commending the 
fine passage here following, from the writings of an eminent Protestant divine, to 
the consideration of those, if there are any such, who still doubt the value, in a 
spiritual sense, of such exhibitions as the Temple Church now affords, we shall 
proceed forward into the scene that for the last hour has been drawing our eyes, 
at intervals, most wistfully towards it Bishop Home says, " We cannot by our 
gifts profit the Almighty, but we may honour him, and profit ourselves ; for, 
while man is man, religion, like man, must have a body and a soul : it must be 
external as well as internal ; and the two parts, in both cases, will ever have a 
mutual influence upon each other. The senses and the imagination must have a 
considerable share in public worship ; and devotion will accordingly be depressed 
or heightened by the mean, sordid, and dispiriting, or the fair, splendid, and 
cheerful appearance of the objects around us." 

Wc could hardly suggest a better way of preventing the imagination of a 
reader from conceiving the true character and effect of the oblong portion 
of the Temple Church than by giving a careful and accurate architectural 
description, the process would be so unlike that which informs the spec- 
tator who IS on the spot. The view impressed at once upon the eye of the 
latter is what is desiderated for the former — is what words of the most 
general, rapid, and suggestive character can very inadequately convey — and is 
what systematic description cannot give at all. We need hardly, therefore, say 
we shall not attempt the latter course ; and as to the alternative, wc cannot but 
feel how such glowing and various beauty as that before us becomes chilled in 
the very attempt to resolve it into words. Yet, if the imagination can be stirred 


by external influences, it should be, indeed, active here. As we enter, let us step 
into the corner on the right. The first impression is of a mingled nature : a sense ot 
the stateliest architectural magnificence, supporting and enveloped by the richest 
and most playful combinations of fairy-like beauty of decoration, each lending to 
each its o\\'ii characteristics in the making of so harmonious a whole. Thus, the 
marble pillars, of a dark rich hue, beautifully veined, seem to flow rather than to 
tower upwards to meet the gay but delicate arabesqued roof, until, above the 
capitals, they suddenly expand their groins like so many embracing arms all 
over it, receiving at the same time from the roof a sprinkling of its own rich 
store of hues. See, too, how those magnificent arches, spanning so airily the 
wide space from pillar to pillar, and viewed from hence under so many combina- 
tions of near and remote — aisle, centre and aisle — those Atlases of the struc- 
ture, see how content they are to serve as frameworks for the pictures seen 
through and above them, and, like all true strength, to look only the more grace- 
ful in their strength for the flowery chains which have been twined around them. 
The entire architecture of the Church, indeed, which is esteemed " decidedly the 
most exquisite specimen of pointed architecture existing,*' seems to give one the 
idea of its having thrown off the air of antiquity which time has not unnatu- 
rally imparted to it, and to start into a second youth, lustrous with all those pecu- 
liar graces which youth alone possesses. The lancet windows of the opposite 
side, beautiful alike in themselves and in relation to the architecture around, but 
undecorated, alone fail to add their tones to the general glow of splendour ; 
though they still look so beautiful that one could fancy they borrowed a reflec- 
tion from the latter ; and, as we turn to the perfect blaze of colours and gilding 
at the east end of the chancel, it might be supposed that the wealth that would 
have been reasonably suflicient for the whole of the windows, has been concen- 
trated in those three at the sides of and above the altar. In examining the 
smaller parts of which this sumptuous whole is composed, the attention again is 
naturally attracted first to the ceiling, as was no doubt the case originally ; for, 
in taking down the plaster and paint covering, not only were traces of decorative 
painting found, but also rich ornaments worked in gold and silver. The chief 
objects which stand out from the elaborate but everywhere light and grace- 
ful arabesques are the small circular compartments scattered over the entire roof, 
one in each of the natural divisions formed by the groins, and containing alter- 
nately the lamb on a red ground and the flying horse on a blue. These arc 
varied in the aisle, where we see the banner half black and half white, " because 
they [the Templars] were and showed themselves wholly white and fair towards the 
Christians, but black and terrible to them that were miscreants,*** and with the 
letters B E A V S £ A N, for Beauseant, their equally dreaded war-cry. This 
banner was changed in the reign of Stephen for the red Maltese-like cross on a 
white ground, which forms another of the devices ; and a third is copied from the 
seal of Milo de Stapleton, a member of the order, which still exists in the British 
Museum, attached to a charter of the date of 1320 : this represents the cross of 

* Favyne (Theatre cf Hunour) ; referred to in Mr. Willement^s account, in * Hie Temple Church,' by William 
Burge, Eaq. 


Christ raised above the crescent of the Saracen, with a star on each side. As we 
now move on towards the painted windows of the east end, we perceive, among 
other interesting minutias, the pious inscriptions, in Latin and in antique charac- 
ters, that every here and there decorate and inform the wall with their stem 
threatenings to tbe wicked, their sweet and elevating consolations to the weary 
and heavily laden, their admonitions to all to remember the uses of the glorious 
structure — the end of all the solemn pomp around. That long inscription com* 
mencing in the north-west comer against the entrance to the aisle, and running 
all down that side, across the cast end, then again along here at our back, till it 
finishes on the wall of the entrance archway close to the spot from which it 
started, is the ' Te Deum.' Drawing still nearer to the western extremity, is it fancy 
only that suggests the sense of growing richness — an effect as though the whole 
compartment beyond the two last pillars was lit up by some peculiar but unseen 
radiance ? The general character of the decoration evidently has not changed. 
As wc look, however, upon the roof attentively, we perceive that, whilst with the 
most subtle art the eye has not been warned of any sudden or striking alteration, 
the whole has been altered, the hues have grown deeper — the arabesques more 
elaborate — the whole more superb : yet still as remote as ever from garish or 
unseemly display : as fitting a prelude to the gorgeous eastern windows that 
illumine the compartment, as they arc both suitable accessories of the altar 
beneath — resplendent in burnished gold — exquisite alike in its architecture and 
sculpture; whilst all — roof, windows, and altar, form most appropriately in every 
sense the culminating point of beauty of the Temple Church ; the grand close 
of the beautiful vista through which we have advanced. The central or chief 
window is most rich in its storied panes, containing, as it does, a numerous series 
of designs fr6m the life of Christ, conspicuous among which appears the Cruci- 
fixion. The variety and sumptuousncss of the details are beyond description. 
Over all the immense space occupied by the window, you can scarcely find one 
piece of unbroken colour two inches square : how great then the artistical skill 
that can combine such minute fragments into so splendid a work; and, one would 
suppose, how tedious the process ! Here we must venture to suggest a fault, or 
what appears to us to be one, and we find that others have also noticed it. The 
prevailing colours are blue and ruby, with — less prominently — green. It is, we 
believe, generally admitted that one of the principles of the ancient artists was 
vivid distinctness of colour : here, on the contrary, the blue and red mingle into 
something very like purple. This is less perceptible in the two side windows, 
and not at all in the one in the centre of the church facing the organ-loft. Wo 
have heard that this is owing to the use of a particular kind of red in the first, 
and which was not used in the last. This window is, in consequence, more bril- 
liant-looking and pure in its masses of colour; and though these are confined to 
the figures of the angels playing antique musical instruments, one in each side- 
light, and three in the middle one, the remainder of its ornaments consisting 
chiefly of mere dark j)encilled scrolls, covering the entire surface, yet so striking 
is the contrast, so chaste and beautiful the result, that if we were asked whether 
it be really true that the Art so long lost is reviving among us, we should desire to 
give no better answer than a reference to this window. But, hark ! there wanted 


bat one influence to complete the spell that seems to possess this place^ and all 
who enter, and it comes. A few preluding notes, the first big drops as it were 
of rain amid sunshine, and out bursts the divine tempest of harmony from the 
mighty organ. Roof, walls, windows disappear ; the Temple is for the moment 
nothing — we are borne up by the magnificent volume of sound, the willing sport 
of the elements, tossed to and fro. But divine is the power that moves — the 
voice so potent to stir stirs not idly ; from the glorious turmoil steals out the 
lowest and gentlest of tones ; you would catch it — you listen, and lo ! its whisper is 
already ascending from your heart. But alas ! some visitor^ deaf to the " con- 
cord of sweet sounds," recalls us to earth, to reflect how near|we had been to heaven. 
" 0, the power of church music !'* And thankful may we be that in this, as well 
as in the other arrangements, the Benchers of the Temple are actuated by the 
right feeling, as they are gratifying that feeling by a judicious liberality. The 
choir, consisting of fourteen voices (six men and eight boys), is to be permanent, 
and brought as speedily as possible to a high state of excellence. The organ, it is 
generally known^ is one of the finest in this country, and has an amusing history 
attached to it. About the end of the reign of Charles II. the Societies determined 
on the erection of an organ ; the two great builders of that time were Schmidt, 
or Father Smith (for — the correct appellation being too hard, we presume, for 
English ears — so he was called), and Harris. Of course they were rivals ; and as 
each desired to have confided to him the erection of an organ which was to be 
supreme in its excellence, and as each was supported by numerous patrons and 
partisans, the Benchers were somewhat puzzled how to decide, llieir solution 
of the problem was worthy of the acknowledged acumen of the profession. They 
proposed to the candidates that each should erect an organ in the church, and 
that they would then keep the best. The proposal was accepted, and in nine 
months two organs appeared in the Temple. Did any of our readers ever witness 
the debut of two rival prima donnas at an opera — the crowded tiers upon tiers of 
faces, the eager anticipation, the excitement, the applause replying to applause? 
Some such scene, modified only by the peculiarity of the place, appears to have 
attended the debut of the two organs. First, Blow and Purcell performed on 
appointed days on Father Smith's great work. The getting such coadjutors must 
have rather startled Harris ; but there was still Mons. Lully, and he did full 
justice to his organ. Which was best? The Smithians unanimously agreed 
Smith's ; the opposite party remained in opposition, and equally single-minded. 
Month after month the competition continued, for the space of a year, when 
Harris challenged Smith to make certain new reed stops within a fixed period, 
and then renew the trial. This was done, and to the delight of everybody. But a 
choice was more difficult than ever. Each was evidently the best organ in the world 
except the other. The matter began to grow serious. Violence and bad feeling 
broke out, and the consequences to the candidates became in many ways so injurious, 
that they are said to have been "just not ruined." Lord Chief- Justice Jefferies was 
at last empowered to decide, and we have now before us the organ he favoured 
— Smith's ! We have already mentioned the former position of this instrument, 
its present one was only adopted after a long and anxious deliberation, in which 
gentlemen of no less importance than Messrs. Etty, Sidney Smirke, Cottingham, 


Blore, Willement^ and Savage took part; and, certainly^ the decision is not 
unworthy of the collective wisdom. It now stands in a chamber built behind, 
and rather larger in every way than the central window on the northern side ; an 
arrangement that left the noble view unobstructed which we have shown in a pre- 
vious page, and which required no other adaptation of the window than the mere 
removal of the glass, and the walls of division between the lights. The classi- 
calities have been ruthlessly swept away, and you now see its gilded ieind gaily- 
decorated pipes rising majestically upwards towards the Gothic pinnacles 
which crown it, rich in fretwork, and beautifully relieved against the painted 
roof of the light chamber behind. In a little vestry-room beneath are the bust 
of Lord Thurlow, who was buried in the Temple vaults, and the tablet of Oliver 
Goldsmith, who was buried in the churchyard. The last was set up at the ex- 
pense of the Benchers, a few years ago, as graceful and honourable, as it was, of 
course, a spontaneous acknowledgment of the poet s burial in their precincts. 
These, with other memorials, will be shortly removed into the gallery sur- 
rounding the upper part of the Round, where Plowden, the eminent lawyer, 
lies in effigy beneath a semi-circular canopy — one of those heavy masses of 
stone, paint, and gilding, obelisks, death*s heads and flowers, that so de- 
lighted our Elizabethan forefathers, accompanied by various others of the 
same kind. At the back of the seats occupied during service by the Benchers' 
ladies, on a black stone against the wall, we read the inscription — Joannes Sel- 
denvs — a name that needs little comment. "He was," says Wood ('Athenap'), 
*' a great philologist, antiquary, herald, linguist, statesman, and what not !'* He 
died in 1654. Of the remaining details of the church, we can only enumerate the 
carved benches, with their endless variety of heads, animals, and of flowers and 
fruit, copies from similar works preserved in our cathedrals ; the sumptuous 
accessories of the altar, as the crimson velvet cloth with its gold embroidery; the 
ambry and piscina discovered on the removal of the " light wainscot " that formerly 
covered the lower part of the wall ; the arch with the effigy of the bishop 
beneath it who is mentioned in our former paper, in the south-east corner ; the 
penitential cell, also there referred to, which is on the side of the circular stairs 
leading up to the Triforium, in the wall of the archways between the Rotunda and 
chancel ; and lastly, the portraits of the kings which decorate the upper part 
of these arches, namely — Henry I., Stephen, Henry II., Richard I., John, and 
Henry III., monarchs who were all, more or less, benefactors to the Temple ; with 
the reign of the first of whom the order started into existence, and with the last, 
virtually terminated. Henry's successor, Edward I., gave unequivocal evidence 
of his desire to help himself to a little of the Templars' wealth, instead of confer- 
ring some of his own on them ; and his successor suppressed them, a.d. 1308. We 
must add, that those who would know to whom we are indebted for the painted 
windows throughout the church, the roof, and, indeed, the decorations generally, 
will see in the northern window of the three at the east end, if they look carefully, 
the following words: " IFillement hoc (^us fecU.'* The chief architectural works 
were commenced from the plan and under the superintendence of Mr. Savage, 
and (through some private differences) completed by Mr. Decimus Burton and 
Mr. Sidney Smirke. The carvings are by Mr. Nash. Already the public arc 


admitted freely on the afternoons of Sunday, and it is not improbable that, 
eyentually, daily service will be performed here, which, of course, would be also 
open to them. 

Rererting to the topic of our introductory remai'ks — progress, and the pro- 
bable effect of the present restoration — whither ma}' we hope its influence will 
guide us ? The state of our cathedrals will at once occur to every one : what a 
world of whitewash is there not to be removed, what exquisite chapels and chapter- 
houses to be restored, even in a mere architectural sense — witness the disgraceful 
state of the chapter-house of Westminster Abbey, for instance ; what piles of 
monuments to be carried up into the Triforiums, before even the peculiar fea- 
tures of the Temple restoration— the decorative— are begun. But, supposing all 
this accomplished, are we to rest there? Let us answer the question by imagin- 
ing, for a moment, what might be done within some given period, under favour- 
able circumstances. To begin with the Temple. Whilst we may be certain 
that we have by no means reached the pinnacle of mere decorative splendour 
allowed by the severest taste, we have yet to call to our aid in such structures 
the highest artists — ^more particularly the sacred painter, with his solemn frescoes 
from Holy Writ, to which all other decorations should be but the mere adjuncts. 
The stranger wandering from such a building as this will find it stands not alone ; 
that Art has asserted and established its universality. If he walks into the hall 
of the neighbouring University (we beg the reader still to accompany us in 
imagination), he finds a series of grand designs illustrative of the objects of 
the institution ; he sees Theology* Jurisprudence, and Philosophy, each sur- 
rounded by her disciples — the messengers unto the world of all that the world 
has most reason to cherish. From the University to the Gallery of Art ; with its 
long external range of statues of the great masters whose works are within, with 
its exquisite pediment, showing all the processes of sculpture, from the modelling of 
the clay and the hewing of the marble, up to the last touching of the finished produc- 
tion. Within he finds the accumulated stores, arranged with the most consummate 
skill, every work carefully ])laced, so as to be well lighted, and beautifully relieved 
against the back or surrounding Walls — he finds the whole informed by one har- 
monious spirit — above all, he finds that each department reveals its own artistical 
histor}^ from the earliest to the present time, by the quality and sequence of the 
works. Looking still farther, he perceives that, from the prince to the peasant, 
there is a comparatively universal sense of enjoyment in and appreciation of these 
things. Whilst the King, if he has a palace to build, says to the architect, 
" Build me a palace, in which nothing within or without shall be of transient 
fashion or interest ; a palace for my posterity, and my people, as well as my 
self,'* and obtains accordingly such a work as has seldom or never before been 
seen, the people on their parts are stopping here in crowds, parents with 
their children, soldiers, mechanics, young and old, to examine the paintings of 
the public arcade, as they pass through it on their ordinary business ; works 
by the rising painters of the day, the men of young but acknowledged genius, 
who are preparing themselves for the highest demands that can be made 
upon them, in this series, illustrating all the great events of the national history. 
Again——" But," interrupts a reader," you do not mean seriously to intimate 


that all this is practicable, or at least within the next half-dozen centuries ? — 
It is a mere dream ." Very possibly. The ideas, so hastily suggested here, 
may be too gigantic for accomplishment in the great capital of the great British 
Empire ; not the less, however, has all that we have described, and a thousand 
times more than could be gathered from our remarks, been done in the capital 
of the little kingdom of Bavaria, and in twenty years ! All honour to the poet- 
king, Ludwig the First, and to the artists with whom he feels honoured in con- 
necting his name. 

eilmi WiiHlim, Allir, ILr , Tem 


Among what may be called the open-air EzhibitioDB of London — the collec- 
tions of works of art gratuitously exposed to public view — there arc none more 
interesting than the "External Paper-hangers' Stations." The windows of the 
printshops— especially of those in which caricatures are exhibited — have great 
attractions, doubtless : but there is a grandeur and boldness in the ekefa-^cetwre 
of the stations, which completely eclipses them. The engravings in the print- 
shop windows have contracted a good deal of that mincing elaborateness of finish 
which characterizes what may bo called the Annuals' School of Art; those which 
we see at the stations, on the contrary^ have all the boldness, if not much of the 
imagination and artistical skill of Salvator Bosa, and may compete the palm in 
roughness, at least, with the Elgin Marbles in their present weather-worn con- 

The stations of the External Paper-hangers arc numerous, but rather ephe- 
meral in their existence, and migratory in their propensities. It requires no 
great previous preparation, or expenditure of capital to establish one. Any 
dead wall, or any casing of boards around a public monument or public dwelling 
in the process of erection, on which the cabalistic words " Bill -Stickers, beware !" 
or " Stick no Bills !" have not been traced, may be, without more ado converted 
into a place of exhibition. And the assiduity with which the " Hanging Com- 
mittee " of the great metropolis adorn the brick or wooden structure with a frcah 
snpply of artistical gems every morning is amazing. 

The boarded fence at the top of the stairs leading down to the steam-boat 
station at the north-end of Waterloo Bridge, the dead wall beside the English 
Opera HoaseinNorth Wellington Street, the houses condemned to have the " im^ 
provements" driven through where Newport Street abuts upon St. Martin's Lane, 

VOL. T. D 


the enclosure round the Nelson's Monument in Trafalgar Square^ the enclosure 
of the space on the west side of St. James's Street, where the Junior United 
Service Club House is about to be erected^ are at present the most fashionable 
and conspicuous of these exhibitions at the " West End." The purlieus of the 
new Royal Exchange are most in vogue in the City, but the rapid progress of 
the buildings threatens ere long to force the exhibiters to seek a new locality. 

The attractive character of the objects exhibited at these places sufficiently 
accounts for the crowds of lounging amateurs which may at almost every hour of 
the day be found congregated around them. There are colossal specimens of typo- 
graphy, in juxtaposition with which the puny letters of our pages would look like 
a snug citizen's box placed beside the pyramids of Egypt. There are rainbow- 
hued placards, vying in gorgeous extravagance of colour with Tumer^s last new 
picture. There are tables of contents of all the weekly newspapers, often more 
piquant and alluring than the actual newspapers themselves, these annunciatory 
placards not unfrequently bearing the same relation to the journals that the 
tempting skins of Dead-Sea fruits have been said to bear to their dry, choking 
substance :» or, to adopt a more domestic simile, that the portraits outside 
of wild-beast caravans do to the beasts within. Then there are pictures of 
pens, gigantic as the plumes in the casque of the Castle of Otranto, held in 
hands as huge as that which was seen on the banisters of the said castle ; spec- 
tacles of enormous size, fit to grace the eyes of an ogre ; Irishmen dancing under 
the influence of Guinnesses Dublin Stout or Beamish's Cork Particular; ladies in 
riding habits and gentlemen in walking dresses of incredible cheapness ; prize oxen, 
whose very appearance is enough to satiate the appetite for ever. Lastly, there 
are '^ Bills o* the Play," lettered and hieroglyphical^ and it is hard to say which is 
the most enticing. One of the former tells us that ''Love " has just returned 
from America, and will " perform " alternately at the Strand Theatre and Crosby 
Hall " during the whole of Lent." This announcement, by the association of 
ideas, reminds one that St. Valentine's is just past, and Byron's * Beppo ' is still in 
existence. But the Pictorial Bills o' the Play bring before our startled eyes a 
" Domestic Talc," in the shape of one man shooting another on the quarter-deck 
of a vessel in flames, off the coast of Van Diemen's Land, with emigrants and 
convicts of all shapes and sizes crowded on the shore ; or the grand fight 
between grenadiers and Jacobite conspirators, in the " Miser's Daughter i" or 
" Jack Ketch," caught on his own scafibld ; or a view of the " tremendous 
Khybcr Pass," as it may be seen nightly at the Queen's Theatre, with Lady Sale 
at the top of it brandishing a pistol in cither hand, beneath the cocked and 
levelled terrors of which a row of turbaned Orientals kneel on either side of the 
heroine. And here we may pause to remark, how hopeful must be the attempt 
to extract the true history of ancient Greece out of its epic poets and dramatists, 
when modern playwrights are seen to take such liberties with the veracious 
chronicles of contemporary newspapers. 

It becomes philosophical historians to penetrate beneath the mere shows and 
external surfaces of things. The works of Phidias and Michael Angelo were 
not simply meant to be pleasing to look upon — they were intended to be agents 
in exciting and keeping up devotional feelings. And in like manner the gaudy- 
ornaments with which our External Paper-hangers adorn their stations have a 


utility of their own, and are meant (this is noted for the information of posterity, 
for the living generation know it well enough) to serve the purpoi^es of advei\ 
tiung for the interests of individuals, as well as of amusing the public at large. 

A strange chapter in the history of man might be written on the subject of 
Advertisements. They became necessary as soon as any tribe became numerous 
enough for any one member of it to be hid in a crowd. The heralds of whom we 
read in Homer were the first *' advertising mediums," and in remote country towns 
the class still exists in the shape of town drummers and town bellmen, employed 
to proclaim orally to the citizens all impending auctions, and many perpetrated 
larcenies, with losings and findings of every possible category. Manuscript 
placards seem to have been next in order : some fossilized specimens of them 
have been preserved on the walls of Pompeii, under the showers of moistened 
ashes with which that town was potted for the inspection of posterity. Of this 
system of advertising existing samples may occasionally be seen in rural dis- 
tricts, where manuscript announcements of hay crops for sale and farms to let 
sre from time to time stuck up on the gates of the churchyard ; or even in 
the suburbs of the metropolis, in the guise of exhortations to purchase *' Warren's 
Blacking/* or try somebody's *' Gout and Rheumatic Oil." The invention of 
printing naturally caused printed placards and posting bills in a great measure 
to supersede the written ones ; with the increased circulation of newspapers the 
practice gained ground of making them the vehicle of advertisements; and 
finally all sorts of periodicals, and even books published once for all, have been 
made to carry along with them a prefix or, an appendix of these useful announce- 

With every increase in the multiplicity of industrial avocations, and in the 
density of population, increases the necessity of devising new vehicles of adver- 
tisements, and alluring forms for them. In order to live, a man must get em- 
ployment; in order to get employment, his existence and his talents must, be 
known ; and, in proportion to the numbers by whom he is surrounded must be 
his efforts to distinguish himself among the crowd. In a company of half-a-dozen, 
the man who is an inch taller than his fellows is distinguished by this slight dif- 
ference ; but, in a congregation of ten thousand, it requires the stature of the 
Irish giant to make a man conspicuous. It might easily be imagined, therefore, 
even though the proofs were not before our eyes, to what a degree of refined per- 
fection the art of advertising has been carried in our crammed and busy London. 
Ihere are advertisements direct and indirect, explicit and by innuendo ; there is 
the newspaper advertisement, the placard, and the hand-bill ; there is the adver- 
tisement literary and the advertisement pictorial ; there is the advertisement in 
the form of a review or of a newspaper paragraph ; there is the advertisement 
(most frequently of some milliner, or tailor, or jeweller, or confectioner) lurking 
in the pages of a fashionable novel. Some people write books merely to let the 
world in general, or at least those who have official appointments to bestow, know 
that they are there, and, in trading phrase, ^' open to an engagement/' Nay, some 
there are who, by constantly forcing their personal presence on public notice, 
convert themselves into ambulatory placards, making their lives, not what the 
sentimentalist calls *' one long-drawn sigh,'' but one incessantly repeated and 
wearisome advertisement. 

D 2 


It would be equally futile and tedious to attempt to enumerate and classify all 
tlie vehicles of advertisements^ and all the forms which advertisements assume in 
London in the present high and palmy state of the art of advertising. It will 
suffice to run over a few of the most striking and characteristic in a cursory 
manner. The appearance of the external paper-hangers' stations has already 
been described. The external paper-hangers themselves are a peculiar race ; 
well known by sight from their fustian jackets with immense pockets, their tin 
paste-boxes suspended by a strap, their placard-pouches, their thin rods of of&ce, 
with cross-staff at the extremity, formed to join into each other and extend to a 
length capable of reaching the loftiest elevations at which their posting-bills are 
legible. A corporate body they are, with consuetudinary bye-laws of their own, 
which have given rise to frequent litigations in the police courts. The sage 
judges of these tribunals have found ere now the title of an external paper- 
hanger to his station as puzzling as that of a sweeper to his crossing. Then 
there seems to be a kind of apprenticeship known amongst them, though, from 
several recent cases at Bow Street, there is room to doubt whether the rights 
and duties of master and 'prentice have hitherto been defined with sufficient pre- 
cision. The period for which a placard must be exposed to public view before 
it is lawful to cover it over with a new one is a nice question, but seems settled 
with tolerable certainty. And, to the honour of London external paper-hangers 
be it said, that there is rarely found (even at the exciting period of an election) 
among them that disregard of professional etiquette, or rather honour, which 
leads the mere bill-sticker of the provinces to cover over the posting-bills of a 
rival before the latter have well dried on the wall. Great judgment is required, 
and its possession probably is the best mark of distinction between the real artist 
and the mere mechanical external paper-hanger, in selecting the proper expo- 
sures (to borrow a phrase from horticulture) for bills. Some there are whose 
bi^ad and popular character laughs out with most felicitous effect from the most 
conspicuous points— others, calculated for a sort of private publicity, ought to be 
affixed in out-of-the-way nooks and comers, retired but not unseen, provoking 
curiosity the more from the very circumstance of their being only half seen, each 
a semi-reducta Venus. The profession of an external paper-hanger, it will be 
seen, requires intellect as well as taste — it is rather superior to that of an uphol- 
sterer, and rather inferior to that of an artist : in regard to the degree of tact 
and talent required to exercise it with effect, the profession is as nearly as pos- 
sible on a level with the Hanging Committee of the Royal Academy, and the 
spirit which animates the two bodies seems as similar as their occupations. 

Another class of advertising agents is more completely distinct from the ex- 
ternal paper-hangers than cursory observers would suppose — the bill-distributers. 
The point of precedence is not very satisfactorily adjusted between the two sets 
of functionaries. The bill-sticker (we beg pardon for using the almost obsolete 
and less euphonious name, but really its new substitute is too lengthy), with his 
tin paste-box and wallet of placards, has a more bulky presence— occupies a 
larger space in the world*s eye — and the official appearance of his bunch of rods 
adds to the illusion. He is apt to swagger on the strength of this when he passes 
the mere bill-distributer. On the other hand, there can be no doubt that the 
bill-distributer regards his calling as more private, less ostentatious — ^in short. 


more gentlemanlike than that of the bill-sticker. " Any man/' said an eminent 
member of the profession, with whom we had once the honour to argue the ques- 
tion, *' any man can stick a bill upon a wall, but to insinuate one gracefully and 
irresistibly into the hands of a lady or gentleman, is only for one who, to natural 
genius, adds long experience." In short (for his harangue was somewhat of the 
longest), it was clear our friend conceived his profession to stand in the same 
relation to that of a bill-sticker that the butler out of livery does to the footman 
in it And, in corroboration of his views, it must be admitted that there is an 
air of faded gentility about many of the bill-distributers of the metropolis. 
There is one of tbem in particular^ whose most frequent station is in front of 
Burlington House, whose whole outward man and manner resemble so closely 
those of a popular member of Parliament — the same flourishing whiskers, the 
same gracious bend of his slim person — that, in St. Stephen's, one could fancy 
the bill-distributer had just emerged into better circumstances; or, in Piccadilly, 
that the bill-framer had met with a reverse of fortune. It may be observed here 
that bill-distributers may be classified as permanent and occasional. The perma- 
nent are those who^ like the gentleman last alluded to, have a station to which 
they repair day after day : the occasional are those who, on the occurrence of a 
public meeting at Exeter Hall, or on a court-day at the India House, or any 
similar occasions when men congregate in numbers, are placed at the door with 
hand-bills — ^most frequently advertisements of unsaleable periodicals — to stuff 
them into the hands of all who enter. 

Peripatetic placards are comparatively a recent invention. The first form 
they assumed was that of a standard-bearer, with his placard extended like the 
Roman vexillum at the top of a long pole. Next came a heraldic anomaly, with 
placards hanging down before and behind like a herald's tabard : Boz has some- 
where likened this phenomenon to a sandwich — a piece of human flesh between 
two slices of pasteboard. When these innovations had ceased to be novelties, 
and, consequently, to attract observation, some brilliant genius conceived the 
idea of reviving their declining powers by the simple process of multiplication. 
This was no more than applying to the streets a principle which had already 
succeeded on the stage. An eminent play wright — the story is some hundred years 
old — finding a widow and orphan had proved highly effective in the tragedy of a 
rival dramatist, improved upon the hint by introducing a widow with two 
orphans, but was trumped in turn by a third, who introduced a widower with six 
small motherless children. The multiplication of pole-bearers answered admi- 
rably for a time, but it also has been rather too frequently repeated. Of late the 
practice has, in a great measure, been restricted to a weekly newspaper of enor- 
mous size and enormous circulation, which seems to have discovered that the 
public could only be made aware of the great number of copies it purchased by 
this mode of chronicling the intelligence. 

To peripatetic placards succeeded the vehicular. The first of these were sim- 
ple enough — almost as rude as the cart of Thespis could well be supposed to be. 
A last relic of this simple generation still performs its circuits, warning, in 
homely and affectionate fashion, '' Maids and bachelors" — " when they marry" — 
to " purchase their bedding " at an establishment where they are sure to get it 
cheap and good. Alas, in the ancient time, when we were married, there were no 

such kind advisers to save young folks from being taken in in this important 
article of domestic economy ! The first attempt at something finer than the 
lumbering machines alluded to was a colossal hat, mounted upon springs like a 
gig (that badge of the " respectable "), which may still be remembered— perhaps 

still be seen — dashing down Regent Street at the heels of a spirited horse, with 
tlic hatmakcr's name in large letters on the outside, whereas small human hats 
have in general only the hat wearev's name in small letters on the inside. Then 
came an undescribable column mounted, like the tower of Juggernaut, upon the 
body of a car — a hybrid between an Egyptian obelisk and the ball -surmounted 
column of an English country -gentleman's gate. It bore an inscription in 
honour of "washable wigs" and their cheapness. The rude structure of boards 
stuck round with placards has of late given way to natty vans, varnished like 
coaches, and decorated with emblematic paintings. The first of these that met 
our eye had emblazoned on its stem an orange sky bedropped with Cupids or 
cherubs, and beneath the roseate festoon of these tiny combinations of human 
heads and duck-wings an energetic Fame puffing lustily at a trumpet Below 
this allegorical device was attached — on the occasion when we had the honour to 
make the acquaintance of this vehicle — a placard displaying in large letters 
the name of " the monster murderer, Daniel Good." There was an apotheosis ! 
The luxury of vehicular advertisements continues to increase with a steady 
rapidity that might appal the soul of an admirer of sumptuary laws. No further 
gone than last week did we encounter a structure not unliko the iron monument 
reared in the neighbourhood of Berlin to the memory of the heroes of the war of 
independence. It was the same complication of arched Gothic niches and pin- 
nacles; but in the niches, instead of the effigies of mailed warriors, stood stuffed* 
out dresses, such as are woin by the fashionables of the day. The figures were 
life-like in every respect, except that alt of them wanted heads. By some internal 
clock-work the structure was made to revolve on its axis as the car on which it 
was erected whirled along. It was a masterpiece of incongruity — blending in its 
forms Gothic romance with modern tailorism; in its suggestive associations the 
proud monu.iicnt reared by a nation to its deliverers from foreign tyranny, with 


the processions of victims of the guillotine in the maddest moment of France*s 
blood-drunken revolution. The genius of Absurdity presided over the con- 
coction^ and hailed it as worthy to be called her own chef-d^cBuvre, and as the 
ne plus ultra of the efforts of human insignificance to attract notice in a crowd. 

The advertisements to which we have hitherto been referring only encounter 
the liOndoner when he ventures out into the streets. They jostle him in the 
crowd, as any other casual stranger might do. They are at best mere chance 
acquaintances : even "the old familiar faces*' among them do not intrude upon 
oar domestic privacy. When we shut our street-doors we shut them out. But 
there is a class of advertisements which follow us to our homes — sit beside us 
in our easy chairs — ^whisper to us at the breakfast-table — ^are regular and che- 
rished visitants — ^the advertisements which crowd the columns of a newspaper. 
Newspaper advertisements are to newspaper news what autobiography is to the 
narrative of a man's life told by another. The paragraphs tell us about men's 
sayings and doings : the advertisements are their sayings and doings. There is 
a dramatic interest about the advertising columns which belongs to no other 
department of a newspaper. They tell us what men are busy about^ how they 
feel, what they think, what they want. As we con them over in the pages of 
the ' Times ' or ' Chronicle/ we have the whole busy ant-hill of London life 
exposed to 6ur view. The journals we have named do more for us, without ask- 
ing us to leave the fireside, than the Devil on Two Sticks could do for Don 
Cleofas after he had whisked him up to the steeple, and without the trouble of 
untiling all the houses " as you would take the crust off a pie." 

It is not to matters of business alone, as the amateur in advertisements well 
knows, that these announcements are confined. Many of them have such a 
suggestive mystery about them, that they almost deserve a place in the " Bo- 
mance of Real Life." In corroboration of this we take up a file of the ' Times/ 
and open at random, turning to the top of the second column of the first page, 
the locality most affected by this class. There is an imploring pathos about the 
very first that meets our eyes, that might suggest matter for at least three chap- 
ters of a modem novel : — '* F. T. W. is most urgently intreated to communicate 
his address to his friend J. C, before finally determining upon so rash a course 
of conduct as that mentioned in his letter of yesterday. AU may and wiU be 
arranged. The address, if communicated, will be considered confidential." Still 
more heart-rending are the images conjured up by the address upon which we 
stumble next : — " To A. M. Your brother implores that you will immediately 
return home, and every arrangement will be made for your comfort ; or write 
me, and relieve the dreadful distress in which our parents are at your absence." 
The next strikes the note of generous enthusiasm : — *' Grant. Received 5/. 6*., 
with thanks and admiration for the rare probity exhibited." The superhuman 
virtue which could resist the temptation to pocket 5/. 6^. called for no less. 
What next ? A laconic and perfectly intelligible hint : — " P. is informed that 
E. P. is very short of money. Pray write soon.'* Would that all our duns 
would adopt this delicate method of reminding us of their claims. All the world 
knows what a gentleman means ; but perhaps few are aware that the gentleman 
visited London in the year of grace 1841 (for from the records of that year are 
we now culling) : — *' If the cab-driver who brought the gentleman from Little 


Queen Street this morning to , St. Jameses, will bring the blue great- 
coat, he will receive ten shillingg reward." The next is of a gayer cast ; it may 
have been an advertisement of Tittlebat Titmouse, Esq., in his jolly days : — 
" Ten shillings Reward. Lost on Friday night last, a rhinoceros walkino- 
CANE^ gold mounting, with initials T. T., supposed to have been left at the 
Cider Cellar, Maiden Lane. Apply at the St. Albans Hotel, Charles Street, 
St. James*s.** This comes of young gentlemen s larking, and sitting late at the 
Cider Cellar^ which, by the way, is a cellar no longer, having been promoted to 
the ground floor. Paulo majora canamus ! here comes emphasis and delicate 
embarrassment enough for three whole volumes : — '' To the philanthropic and 
affluent. A young and protectionless orphan lady of respectability is in most 
imminent need of two hundred pounds to preserve her from utter and irre- 
trievable ruin, arising mainly in a well-meant but improvident bill of acceptance, 
that from miscalculation of means in timeliness she has been unable to meet, and 
whereby legal process has just issued against her, involving a recherche limning 
property, of a far greater, and to three hundred pounds insured amount. In 
the forlorn yet fervid hope of such her twofold critically fearful case attracting 
the eye of some benevolent personage, forthwith disposed to inquire into it, and, 
on the proof, humanely to step forward to her rescue, both herein and for afford- 
ing her a gratuitous asylum till the advanced spring, at least, when such pro* 
perty could be made best convertible, this advertisement, by an incompetent but 
anxious well-wisher, in appreciation of her great amiability, wonted high prin- 
ciple^ domestic, and on every hand exemplary worth, is inserted." 

How easily might a practised story-composer manufacture a domestic tale out 
of these materials, gleaned in a cursory glance of a few minutes ! He might 
paint, with Dutch fidelity, the bitter as causeless squabbles of relatives ; might 
intersperse the graver chapters with pictures of life about town, as witnessed by 
the hero of the *' rhinoceros-cane " in his nocturnal perambulations; and what 
a splendid heroine, ready-made to his hand, in the fair one who could inspire the 
prose Pindaric just quoted ! It seems to have become a received law that there 
must be some love in a novel, and even this we may find in the rich mine we are 
now excavating ; for in these days of publicity and gigantic combinations, even 
' The Times ' has been enlisted under the banners of Cupid, and made occasion- 
ally the means " to waft a sigh from Indus to the Pole.*' We open upon chance ; 
and lo ! at the head of the aforesaid second column of the first page — " Why 
docs Frederic come no more to St. John's Wood ?" The song says — ^ 

" At the Baron of Mowbray's gate was seen 

A page with a courser black ; 
Thon out came a Knight of a gallant roicn 

And he leapt on the courser's back ; 
I lis heart was light and his armour bright, 

And he sung this merry lay— 
' O ladies ! beware of a brave young man. 

He loves and he rides away.* 
A Lady looked over the castle wall 

When she heard the Knight thus sing, 
^ And when she heard the words he let fall, 

Her hands she began to wring :*' &c. 


Now this was very natural, for in those days there were no newspapers. But 
had ' The Times * then existed, the woeful lady of the ballad need not have been 
reduced to unavailing hand-wringing : she would immediately have inserted, in 
the advertising columns of his newspaper — ''Why docs the knight of a gallant 
mien come no more to the Baron of Mowbray's castle ?" Every morning daily, 
as he took his breakfast, would he be reminded of his offence. Afraid to touch 
the harassing monitor, his matutinal meal would lose more than half its relish. 
Ko place of refuge could he fly to where the wailings of his mistress could not 
follow him. They would be heard in the coffee-room, they would penetrate even 
into the asylum of the club. A spell would be upon him, rendering life misera- 
ble till he knelt for mercy at the feet of his mistress again. The fair dames of 
romance could only stab, poison, or betake themselves to sorcery, but our forlorn 
ones can advertise their lovers as "stolen or strayed." 

The following advertisement, which appeared in the ' Chronicle ' of the present 
year, not long after St. Valentine's, may also have reference to the tender pas- 
sion ; the hero of it might serve for the loutish lover so frequently introduced 
as a foil to the serious and elegant inamorato of a tale : "If the author of the 
lines, of which the following is a skeleton of the first stanza, will communicate 
-with the person to whom they were recently addressed, which is earnestly desired, 
the result cannot but be gratifying to both parties : — 

"C— 1! * 






You ♦ 







And • 







You * 








As • 






Old Woman.*' 

The rhyme is somewhat peculiar. The mystery of this advertisement is easily 
solved. The Police Reports noticed, a few days before its publication, that a 
gentleman had appeared at one of the offices in high dudgeon because, on apply- 
ing at the Post Office to have the postage of a Valentine returned, he was 
politely informed, " that it was the practice to return the postage of all anony- 
mous letters — except Valentines." Doubtless, the communication which was to 
be in its result ''gratifying to both parties," was a mere bait to catch the offender 
who had mulcted the angry gentleman in twopence ; and if the sweet youth was 
caught, it needs no spirit of divination to tell that assuredly he tasted of cudgel. 
Matrimonial advertisements are at a discount, but a class which still retain 
a soupgon of matrimonial speculation continue to haunt the newspapers. Here is 
a specimen ; — " A Lady in her thirty-third year wishes to meet with a situation 
as Companion to a Lady, or to superintend the domestic concerns of a Widower. 
She has been accustomed to good society, and can give unexceptionable refer- 
ences. As a comfortable home is the principal object, a moderate salary will svffice,'* 
For '^thirty-third" read "thirty-eighth." It is a buxom widow, who wishes 
to secure a good house over her head^ with a chance of becoming its mistress. 
If her appearance please the honest man who accepts her services^ he had best 
go to church with her at once, for " to this complexion it must come at last." 
Perhaps, however, he would prefer to mate himself with the "Respectable 
Widow " in the next column, who is " fully competent to superintend the house- 
hold affairs of a Single Gentleman, or a Mercantile Establishment ;" or^ better 


stilly a female '* of high respectability and of the Established Church/* ^rho 
''would be found invaluable where children have been recently deprived of 
maternal care ; and, being clever in miJUnery and dress-making, would take them 
under her entire care." Yet something more than being clever in millinery and 
dress-making is sometimes thought necessary to qualify for the charge of chil- 
dren ; so perhaps the widower might prefer sending his daughters to the innu- 
merable admirable seminaries of education where young ladies are taught — 
'' French, Italian, and German; English Composition; Mathematics, Political 
Economy, and Chemistry; the use of the Globes; Calisthenics (and single- 
stick?); Drawing, Entomology and Botany. — N.B. Latin and Greek, if re- 
quired;" and where, in addition to all this cramming, ''the Diet is unlimited!** 
Our British fair do not lavish all their attentions on the other sex — ^they have 
some sympathy left for their own : — " Two Ladies, residing within a few miles of 
town, wish to receive a Lady suffering under Mental Imbecility. While every 
attention would be paid to her health, it would be their study to promote the 
comfort and amusement of the patient, as far as circumstances might allow. The 
use of a carriage is required," whether tlie patient be able to use it or not. The 
benevolent and disinterested attention to the comfort of utter strangers, implied 
in the advertisement of the ladies under consideration, is not confined to* the 
breasts of the softer sex. Here is a male philanthropist^ who, unable to find 
occupants enough for his roomy benevolence, steps from the circle of his acquaint- 
ance into the regions of the unknown, and volunteers his services to all and any 
persons: — "Any Gentleman desirous of engaging in an easy and agreeable 
profession will have an opportunity that offers — provided he has 1000/. to 
employ as capital." Indeed, in these days, when, according to some statesmen, 
the whole country is labouring under a plethora of capital, it is astonishing to 
see how many humane individuals advertise their services to bleed the patients. 
All classes of readers find advertisements suited to their different tastes. To 
literary men, aldermen, and other sedentary and masticating characters, of a 
dyspeptical tendency, the medical advertisements are irresistible. One learned 
practitioner proclaims — "No more gout, no more rheumatism !" Another, bor- 
rowing a metaphor from the worshipful fraternity of bum-bailiffs, talks of 
"Bleeding arrested ;" we have "Ringworm cured by a Lady," and " Toothache 
cured by a Clergyman of the Church of England."* "Parr's Life Pills" may 
be such in reality as well in name ; but " Cockle's Antibilious Pills " are certainly 
a passport to immortality, for the learned vender of them enumerates among his 
active and influential patrons several whom the ill-informed public had long 
numbered with the dead. Young men turn with interest to the advertisements 
of the theatres and other places of public entertainment : these are generally 
well classified, but to this praise there is one exception. An ingenious clergy- 
man who takes for his texts— not passages from the Scriptures, but — the most 
recent topics of the day, and preaches upon the themes of journals in a style 
quite as entertaining, duly advertizes in the course of each week the topics he is 
to discuss on the following Sunday. It is rather hard upon this gentleman that 

* Speaking of toothache, Bome may have an interest in knowing that — " A hdp, having discovered an inva* 
loable article tot the toothache, now auhmits it to the public as unequalled, itnotr^fimrinff any ajpplieation to 
tte t9eth, or producing the slighteit inconveoience.'' 


neither the * Times ' nor the ' Chronicle * will place his advertisements among 
those which immediately precede the '' leading article " — that being evidently 
their proper place, say between the announcement of the ''Dissolving Views" 
of the Polytechnic exhibition, and that of the Zoological collection at the 
English Opera House. On a theme so copious one might run on for ever : but, 
before drawing bridle, let us, at least, give immortality to an advertisement 
which must speak trumpet-tongued to every warlike and patriotic soul : — 

" Aux Etats Foibles, voisins, d'aucune puissance dominante aggressive, Tin- 
venteur propose I'emploi de son arme nouvelle, nommec par lui, Le Pacipica- 
TEUR, qui par son pouvoir destructif enorme centre Ics masses, egalisera les 
forces les plus disparates, et entre les mains d* un peuple rendra nuls les atten- 
tats d'un etrangcr sur leur independance nationale. Les agens pleinments 
autorises peuvent s'addresser k Mons. Charles Toplis, Poultry, London." 

What a crow from the Poultry ! What a huge turkeycock gobble ! This is 
*^ man-traps and spring-guns ** on a magnificent scale, set to guard kingdoms 
instead of cabbage-gardens. The terrific emanation shakes all our nerves, and 
forces us to seek refuge from the stormy passions of the present, amid the silence 
and repose of the dead and buried past. 

Not, however, before we have paid a hasty but heart-felt tribute to the great- 
est master of the advertising art in ancient or modem times — the illustrious 
George Robins. We are obliged to stick him in here, because, as is generally 
the case with original genius, he fits into none of our categories. His adver- 
tisements are calculated alike for the posting-bill, the distributary bill, and the 
newspaper, and look equally well in all. Typographical they are, and yet the 
types assume, in them, a pictorial character. No man ever made his letters 
speak like George Robins. His style is his own : to speak in the language of 
the turf, one could imagine he had been " got by Burke out of Malaprop." He 
has carried the eloquence of advertising far beyond all his predecessoi-s. And, as 
was the case with his great precursors in eloquence, Demosthenes and Chatham, 
his " copia fandi " has raised him to great charges — to be Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer to the Drury Lane renters, and founder of a colony at the Cape of Good 
Hope, the annals of which he is writing in his own advertisements. 

The art and science of advertising even in London did not reach the state of 
perfection in which we find it all at once. Enough has been said to show that 
even the young among the present generation may have noted a progressive im- 
provement. But our forefathers, though not quite equal to us, were, after all, 
pretty fellows in their way ; they understood something about advertising too, 
as we shall soon be able to convince our readers. The perishable placards and 
posting-bills of the ancients are gone — they have perished, like the frescoes of 
Leonardo da Vinci — ^but the domesticated advertisements of the newspaper have 
been stored up in libraries for the inspection of the curious. There are at this 
moment lying on our table some stray journals and Gazettes of the good days of 
Queen Anne and the two first Georges, and a complete set of the * Tatler ' in 
the folio half-sheets in which it first appeared, with all the real advertisements — 
we do not mean Steele*s parodies upon them; and, examining those archives 
carefully, we are sometimes almost tempted to give the palm to the advertisers 
of that remote era. The art of advertising is perhaps in our days more nni- 


vcrsally known and practised — ^thcre are no such crude, unlickcd lumps of adver- 
tisements as there were in a.d. 1711 ; but^ again, there is scarcely the same racy 
originality. The advertisers of those days were th^ Shalcspcres of this depart- 
ment of literature : those of the present time can rarely be estimated above the 
contributors to the annuals. 

Place aux dames I There are plenty of wealthy and titled dames in our day 
who like to see their benevolence blazoned abroad by th^ advertised lists of 
subscribers to charities : but, apart from the spice of romance in its story^ the 
following advertisement by the Duchess of Buckingham^ in 1734, combining a 
skilful blazonry of her own humanity with a caution against over-drawing on her 
bank of benevolence, throws their timid, indirect self-praise at second-hand en- 
tirely into the shade : — " Last Tuesday evening, a female child, of about three 
weeks old, was left in a basket at the door of Buckingham House. The servants 
would have carried it into the park, but the case being some time after made 
known to the Duchess, who was told it was too late to send to the overseers of 
the parish, and that the child must perish with cold without speedy relief, her 
grace was touched with compassion, and ordered it to be taken care of. The 
person who left the letter in the basket is desired, by a penny-post letter, to in- 
form whether the child has been baptized ; because, if not, her grace will take 
care to have it done ; and likewise to procure a nurse for it. Her grace doth not 
propose that this instance of her tenderness should encourage any further pre- 
sents of this nature, because such future attempts will prove fruitless.** These 
were the days in which ' The History of a Foundling ' might have been read. 

Even the reverend orator who advertises that the newest and most fashionable 
topics are discussed every Sunday from his pulpit had a prototype in those days, 
and one of much more daring genius — the Reverend Orator Henley. Here is 
one of that grave diviners announcements for 1726: — " On Sunday, July 31, the 
Theological Lectures of the Oratory begin in the French Chapel in Newport 
Market, on the most curious subjects in divinity. They will be after the manner 
and of the extent of the Academical Lectures. The first will be on the Liturgy 
of the Oratory, without derogating from any other, at half an hour after three in 
the afternoon. Service and sermon in the morning will be at half an hour after 
ten. The subjects will be always new, and treated in the most natural manner. 
On Wednesday next, at five in the evening, will be an Academical Lecture on 
Education, ancient and modem. The chairs that were forced back last Sunday 
by the crowd, if they would be pleased to come a very little sooner, would find 
the passage easy. As the town is pleased to approve of this undertaking, and 
the institutor neither does nor will act nor say anything in it that is contrary to 
the laws of God and his country, he depends on the protection of both, and 
despises malice and calumny.*' The advertisement of November, 1728, is still 
more daringly eccentric : — " At the Oratory in Newport Market, to-morrow, at 
half an hour after ten, the sermon will be on the Witch of Endor. At half an 
hour after five the Theological Lecture will be on the conversion and original of 
the Scottish nation, and of the Picts and Caledonians ; St. Andrew's relicks and 
panegyrick, and the character and mission of the Apostles. On Wednesday, at 
six or near the matter, take your chance, will be a medley oration on the history, 
meritSj and praise of Confusion and of Confounders in the road and out of the 


way. On Friday^ will be that on Dr. Faustus and Fortunatus, and Conjuration ; 
after each the Climax of the Times, Nos. 23 and 24. — N.B. Whenever the prices 
of the scats are occasionally raised in the week-days notice of it will be given in 
the prints. An account of the performances of the Oratory from the firsts to 
August last, is published, with the Discourse on Nonsense ; and if any bishop, 
clergyman, or other subject of his Majesty, or any foreign prince or state can, at 
my years, and in my circumstances and opportunities, without the least assist- 
ance or any partner in the world, parallel the study, choice, variety, and dis- 
charge of the said performances of the Oratory by his own or any others, I en- 
gage forthwith to quit the said Oratory. — J. Henley." 

Medical quackery was in full blossom at the beginning of last century. In 
1700 we arc informed : — " At the Angel and Crown, in Basing Lane, lives J. 
Pechey, a graduate in the University of Oxford, and of many years standing in 
the College of Physicians, London; where all sick people that come to him may 
have, ybr sixpence, a faithful account of their diseases, and plain directions for 
diet and other things they can prepare themselves ; and such as have occasion 
for medicines may have them of him at reasonable rates, without paying any- 
thing for advice ; and he will • visit any sick person in London or the liberties 
thereof, in the day-time, for two shillings and sixpence, and anywhere within the 
bills of mortality (or Jive shillings; and if he be called by any person as he passes 
by in any of these places, he will require but one shilling for advice." This ex- 
cellently graduated tariff of charges might be recommended to the consideration 
of the faculty at large. Dr. Herwig's announcement is more artistically put 
together than Dr. Pechey 's : — ** Whereas, it has been industriously reported 
that Dr. Herwig, who cures madness and most distempers by sympathy, has left 
England and returned to Germany: this is to give notice, that he lives at the 
same place, viz., at Mr. 6a^elman*s, in Suffolk Street, Charing Cross, about the 
middle of the street, over against the green balcony." Lest, however, the supe- 
riority of Dr. Herwig in the science of humbug should be attributed to his foreign 
birth, we quote from the advertisements in the ' Tatler,' August 24 to 26, 1710, 
the advertisement of an indigenous quack : — " Whereas J. Moore, at the Pestle 
and Mortar, in Abchurch Lane, London, having had some extraordinary busi- 
ness which called me into the country for these five or six weeks last past, and 
finding I have been very much wanted in my absence, by the multitude of 
people which came to inquire for me; these are to inform them that I am 
returned, and am to be consulted with at my house as formerly." This class of 
practitioners employed largely the services of the industrious fraternity of bill- 
distributers — as, indeed, they are still their principal patrons. Malcolm, in 
'Anecdotes of the Manners and Customs of London during the Eighteenth 
Century,* has preserved rather an ingenious bill which men were engaged to 
thrust into the hands of passengers : — " Your old friend Dr. Case desires you 
not to forget him, although he has left the common way of bills** 

Some of the nostrums of these gentlemen must have been rather agreeable to 
the taste. The following appears frequently in the ' Tatler :' — " The famous 
chymical quintessence of Bohea tea and cocoa-nuts together, wherein the volatile 
salt, oil, and spirit of them both are chymically extracted and united, and in which 
all the virtues of both tea and nut are essentially inherent, and is really a plea- 


sant refreshing preparation^ found, upon experience, to be the highest restorative 
that either food or physic affords ; for, by it, all consamptive habits, decays of 
nature, inward wastings, thin or emaciated constitutions, coughs, asthmas, 
phthysics, loss of appetite, &c., are to a miracle retrieved, and the body, blood, 
and spirits powerfully corroborated and restored. A few drops of it in a dish of 
Bohea tea or chocolate is the most desirable breakfast or supper, and outvies for 
virtue or nourishment twenty dishes without it, as those who have taken it will 
find, and scarce ever live without it." Still more toothsome must have been the 
•* nectar and ambrosia " of Mr. Baker^ bookseller, at Mercer s Chapel, *' pre- 
pared from the richest spices, herbs, and flowers, and done with rich French 
brandy." This compound, " when originally invented, was designed only for 
ladies' closets, to entertain visitors with, and for gentlemen's private drinking, 
being much used that way,^^ but, zeal for the public, and the diffusion of useful 
knowledge, stimulated Mr. Baker, the bookseller, to " offer it with twopenny 
dram-glasses, which arc sold inclosed in gilt frames, by the gallon, quart, or two- 
shilling bottles.'' As to cosmetics and perfumes, the advertising columns of the 
newspapers of Queen Anne*s reign bloom with immortal youth, and are redolent 
of *' spicy gales from Araby the blest." 

Unchanged, unchangeable is quackery of all sorts. But here is an advertise- 
ment from the * Tatler * (April, 1710), which, like the Duchess of Buckingham's 
foundling, carries us back into a state of society which has passed away : — ^' This 
is to give notice, that Luke Clark, and William Clark, his brother, both middle- 
sized men, brown complexions and brown wigs, went, as it appears by their 
pocket-books, on the 18th of March last from London to Kingston; but, upon 
examination, do not own what business they had there, nor where they were on 
the 19th, 20th, and 21st of the same month ; but say, that on the 22nd they 
came from London and got to Lincoln on the 23rd, and from thence to Castor, 
and so to Whitegift Ferry ; and on the 24th they came to Northcave, in the East 
Biding of Yorkshire, and remaining there two or three days, without any ap- 
pearance of business, were there seized by the constable; and, for want of 
sureties for their good behaviour, by a justice of peace were committed to York 
Castle. There were found upon them four pistols of different sizes, charged, 
with more bullets and powder ready made up in papers ; also two old black 
velvet masks, and several fir matches dipped in brimstone. Their horses seem 
to have been bred horses : the one being a large sorrel gelding, blind of the near 
eye, his near fore«foot and further hind-foot white, which they say they bought 
at the Greyhound, at Hyde Park Corner, on the 17th of March last ; the other, 
a brown gelding, thought to be dim-sighted in both eyes, a little white on three 
feet: they say they bought him in Smithfield the same day, and saw him 
booked in the market-book. One of them had a grey riding-coat and straight- 
bodied coat, both with black buttons; the other's riding-coat was something 
lighter. If these men have done any robberies, or done anything contrary to 
law, it is desired that notice thereof may be given within a reasonable time to 
Mr. Mace, in York, clerk of the peace for the East Biding of Yorkshire, or else 
these men will be discharged, being as yet only committed for want of sureties for 
their good behaviour." 

Perhaps the most curious feature of the advertising columns of the ' Tatler ' is 


the immense number of private lotteries^ announced under the convenient name 
of sales, in the latter part of 1710. Dipping into '' the file/' upon chance^ we 
find in the number for September 21-23: — "Mr. Stockton's sale of jewels, 
plate, &c., to be drawn in the great room at the Duke of Marlborough's Head, 
on Michaelmas-day> by parish boys and out of wheels.'' " Mrs. Honeyman, 
milliner, in Hungerford Street ; her twelvepenny sale of goods is put off till the 
29th inst." " Mr. Guthridge's sixpenny sale of goods, at the toy-shop over 
against Norfolk Street in the Strand, continues." *-' Mrs. Help's sale of goods, 
consisting of plate of considerable value, being near full, is to be drawn on 
Tuesday sevennight at the stone-cutter s in Downing Street ;" and '' Mr. William 
Morris's proposals for several prizes; 2500 tickets, in which there are 177 prizes^ 
the highest 100/., the lowest lis,, and 13 blanks to a prize; half-a-crovm the 
ticket.'* This is rather below than above the average quantity of such adver- 
tisements in a number of the ' Tatler' about that time. The temptations held 
out to gamblers in this small way were varied in the extreme. One advertise- 
ment " gives notice that Mr. Peters' sale of houses in Glouster Street, of 1000/., 
for half-a-crown, will be drawn within a fortnight at farthest." Another runs 
thus : — '' Tickets for the house on Blackheath, &c., to begin on Thursday the 
7th September next, at the Bowling-gpreen House on the said heath, where the 
sale is to be ; at 2«. 6d. per ticket ; the highest prize 220/., the lowest 10«. 
Note, the house is let at 14/. 10^. per an., and but one guinea per an. ground- 
rent, the title clear and indisputable." The price of tickets for '^ Mrs. Symonds' 
sale of a japanned cabinet and weighty plate, in which there is but 1 1 blanks 
to a prize/' was 5s. each. Mr. William Morris, mentioned above, risked for his 
2s, 6d. tickets ''a fine diamond cross, set transparent, with a button all brilliants, 
plate, atlasses on silk, six silk nightgowns, and several other valuable things." 
At Mrs. Mortly's India House, at the Two Green Canisters, on the pavement in 
St. Martin's Lane, were to be had '^ all sorts of Indian goods, lacquered ware, 
China fans^ screens, pictures. Sec, with hoUands, muslins^ cambrics, fine em- 
broidered and plain short aprons, and divers other things, to be disposed of for 
blank lottery tickets, at 7/. each, and the goods as cheap as for specie. These 
were the ''great goes," but for persons of less ample purses there were " sales '' 
for which the tickets cost 1^., 6d., 3d., and even as low as 2d. " Mrs. Painer's 
threepenny sale of goods is to be drawn on Tuesday next, the 15th inst., at the 
Queen's Head in Monm^outh Street, Soho. There are some tickets yet to be 
disposed of there, and at her own lodgings, a clockmaker's^ over-against Dean's 
Court in Dean's Street, St. Anne's ; at Mrs. Williams', at Charing Cross, chand- 
ler; and at the combmaker's in New Street, Covent Garden." These disguised 
gambling-houses germinated and multiplied in every court and blind alley of 
London, and the prices of the tickets were adapted to the pockets of all classes, 
from the duchess to the cindcr-wench, as the temptations were also suited to the 
tastes of each. This was the great school of '' mutual instruction," in which the 
citizens of the metropolis of Great Britain trained themselves to act worthily the 
parts they performed in the years of the Great South Sea Bubble, that colossal 
specimen of self-swindling by a nation, compared with which our paltry modem 
attempts — our Poyais kingdoms, Peruvian mining-companies, joint-stock com- 
panies, of all shapes, colours, and sizes, dwarf and dwindle into insignificance. 

This plan of getting rid of stale goods with profit is not yet altogether obso- 
lete. The raffles for watches, old teapots, guns, and telescopes, which take place, 
ftoin time to time, in remote and obscure country -towns, to the inconceivable 
excitement of their listless inhabitants, are the lingering antiquated fashions 
which were once supreme mode and bon-ton in the metropolis. Nay, the thing 
seems to be threatening to raise its head once more in London, and with a deli- 
cious hypocrisy, under the pretext of patronising and improving British art. The 
history of this " revival " is brief. In Scotland — where the genius of economy is 
rampant, and also the love of patronising, a number of amateurs have for some 
years been in the habit of clubbing to buy pictures at the Edinburgh exhibitions, 
and dividing the spoil by lot. An imitative association was set on foot here, cither 
by picture-fanciers who had a mind to get pictures, or by artists who wished to get 
their unsaleable stock out of their studios — no matter which. So far these asso- 
ciations were what they gave themselves out for. The fashion has become con- 
tagious, and now we find, starting up in every street, "little-goes" for the 
" sale " (to adopt the phraseology of 1710) of printsellers' and picture- dealers' 
unsaleable stock. The system is an admirable one for accelerating the empty- 
ing of lumber rooms with advantage to their owners, and for increasing the 
already portentous number of walls in respectable houses stuck all over with 
stiff and glaring daubs. And this device for enabling demure conventional 
moralists to indulge the taste for gambling inherent in all human beings, with 
little apparent risk or breach of decorum, is trumpeted with the hundred Stentor- 
power lungs of the puffing press as the day-dawn of a new and brilliant era in 
British art! The truth is, that the "teapots," "japanned cabinets," and " but- 
tons of brilliants," which attracted the gulls of Queen Anne's reign, were quite 
as much entitled to the epithet— " works of art," as the pieces of plastered 
canvas vended by means of the London littlc-gocs of the present day. 

[Eau iDdU Iloiut'.l 


If the Kast India House only anesta the eye of the passenger, there is nothing 
in the bailding itself particularly calculated to malce him pause in the midst of 
the busy thoroughfare of lieadenhall Street ; but if he be gifted with the divine 
faculty cf accurately delineating and colouring abstractions, then, indeed, it 
yields to none in the interest of the associations which cluster thick aronnd it. 
It has been said of Burke, by a very brilliant writer of the present day, that so 
ririd was his imagination on whatever related to India, especially as to the 
country and people, that they had become as familiar to him as the objects which 
lay on the road between Beaconsficld and St. James's. " All India was present 
to the eye of his mind, from the hall where suitors laid gold and perfumes at the 
feet of sovereigns, to the wild moor where the gipsy-camp was pitched — from 
the bazaars, humming like bee-hives with the crowd of buyers and sellers, to the 
jungle where the lonely courier shakes his bunch of iron rings to scare away the 
hyienas. The burning sun ; the strange vegetation of the palm and cocoa-tree ; 
the rice-field and the tank ; the huge trees, older than the Mogul empire, under 

VOL. V. E 


which the village crowds assemble ; the thatched roof of the peasant's hut, and 
the rich tracery of the mosque where the imaum prayed with his face to Mecca ; 
the drums, and banners, and gaudy idols; the devotee swinging in the air; 
the graceful maiden, with the pitcher on her head, descending the steps to the 
river side ; the black faces, the long beards, the yellow streaks of sect ; the tur- 
bans and the flowing robes; the spears and the silver maces ; the elephants with 
their canopies of state ; the gorgeous palankin of the prince, and the close litter 
of the noble lady — all these things were to him as the objects amidst which his 
own life had been passed." * If such should be the rich, varied, and animated 
picture which the imaginative eye suddenly conjures up in the not very spacious 
or striking part of the great eastern thoroughfare in which the India House 
comes into view, not less glowing are the historical recollections which attach to 
the edifice in connexion with Anglo-Indian power. History presents nothing 
more strongly calculated to impress the imagination than the progress of English 
dominion in the East under Clivo and Warren Hastings, and Comwallis and 
Wellesley. Instead of clerks and mercantile agents living within the precincts 
of a fort or factory only by permission of the native rulers, who regarded them as 
mere pedlers^. Englishmen have become the administrators of the judicial, finan- 
cial, and diplomatic business of a great country, — of provinces comprising above 
a million square miles and a population exceeding one hundred and twenty mil- 
lions, — states which yield taxes to the amount of 17,000,000^. and maintain an 
army of four hundred thousand men. All the business of government has passed 
into English hands. There is still a Nabob of the Camatic, but he is a British pen- 
sioner on the revenues of the land which his ancestors once ruled. At the capital 
of the Nizam a British resident, the representative of the East India Company, 
is the real sovereign. There is still a Mogul who plays the sovereign, but the 
substance of his power has passed away. Youths from Haileybury College, and 
from the military school at Addiscombe, rising by regular gradations, have suc- 
ceeded to the power once wielded by the Mahommcdan conquerors of Hindostan, 
and which they exercise in a manner far more beneficial to the people. They are 
carefully educated for judicial, financial, diplomatic, and military ofiBlces, and are 
expected to be versed in the language of the people of whose welfare they are to 
be the guardians. This is a noble field for talent and ambition. When we first 
attempted to share with the Portuguese and Dutch in the commerce of the East, 
the qualifications required were but little higher than are now esteemed necessary 
in a custom-house ofiScer of the lowest class. A turbulent youth was sent out to 
die of a fever, or to make his fortune. The salaries were so low that it was impos- 
sible to live upon them^ and all sorts of irregular and unscrupulous practices were 
connived at, which saved the pockets of the adventurers at home at the expense 
of the native interests. The writer already quoted shows the present and former 
state of official servants in India. "At present," he says, ''a writer enters the 
service young ; he climbs slowly ; he is rather fortunate if, at forty-five, he can 
return to his country with an annuity of a thousand a-year, and with savings 
amounting to thirty thousand pounds. A great quantity of wealth is made by 

* < Edinburgh Review,* No. U2, Article on Lord CUre. 


English fiinctionarieB in India ; but no single functionary makes a very large 
fortune^ and 'vrhst is made is slowly, hardly, and honestly earned. Only four or 
five high political offices are reserved for public men from England. The resi** 
dencies, the secretaryships, the seats in the boards of revenue and in the Sudder 
courts are all filled by men who have given the best years of life to the service 
of the Company; nor can any talents, however splendid, nor any connexions, 
, however powerful, obtain those lucrative posts for any person who has not entered 
by the regular door and mounted by the regular gradations. Seventy years ago 
much less money was brought home than in our time, but it was divided among 
a very much smaller number of persons, and immense sums were often accumu- 
lated in a few months. Any Englishman, whatever his age, might hope to be 
one of the lucky emigrants.** A new class of men sprung up at this period, to 
whom the appellation of * Nabobs ' was given : tlie ephemeral literature of that 
day is filled with the popular conceptions of the character^ and the nabob is 
usually represented as ^' a man with an immense fortune, a tawny complexion, 
a bad liver, and a worse heart.*' The public mind for thirty years was filled 
with impressions of their wealth and supposed crimes. 

The progress of good government is nowhere more evident at the present time 
than in the administration of India. Even if the misgovemment now existed by 
which individuals could amass immense wealth, other circumstances would be 
entirely wanting to render the retired Indian a veritable Nabob of the old school, 
as he exists, somewhat caricatured of course, in the play and novel of seventy 
years ago. At that period the voyage to or from India was seldom accom- 
plished in less than six months, and often occupied a much longer time : a year 
and a half was calculated as the average period between the dispatch of a report 
from Calcutta and the receipt of the adjudication thereon by the Directors in 
Leadenhall Street. Slow, tedious, uncertain, and unfrequent as was the intercourse 
of the servants of the East India Company with the mind of England in those days, 
what could be expected but that it should produce strong effects on those who 
went out in youth and spent thirty years of their life in India, and that at their 
return they should exhibit some rich peculiarities of character, easily assailable 
by the light shafts of ridicule, if not open to the violent attacks of those who sus- 
pected them of dark crimes committed in their distant pro-consulships while 
amassing their wealth ? Even Warren Hastings, so consummate a politician in 
India, was at fault when he had to deal with party interests and feelings at 
home : he had lost that fine and delicate appreciation of things which is gained 
by observation from day to day. Steam navigation has done and will do much 
to elevate the character and objects of our Indian policy, and to imbue its func- 
tionaries with more enlarged views of their duties ; for rapidity and certainty of 
communication is gradually bringing the eyes of the people upon this distant 
part of our empire. Steam has placed Bombay within five weeks' distance of 
London,* and the seat of the supreme government in India has been reached in 
six weeks from the seat of the imperial government. Private intercourse is 
rapidly increasing in consequence of these great improvements. Before the 

* In August, 1841, tlie London mail reached Bombay in thirty-one days and five hours. 



establishment of lines of steam-communication with India in 1836, the number 
of letters annually received and dispatched frotn the several presidencies and 
from Ceylon was 300^000. In 1840, the number had risen to 616,796> and to 
840,070 in 1841. The number of newspapers sent from India to Europe in 1841 
was about 80,000 ; and 250,000 were sent to India ; and in 1842 it is believed 
that 400^000 were sent both ways, each cover being counted as one, though it 
might contain several newspapers. A man in the jungles may now be as well 
informed on the leading topics of the day in England^ as if he were the daily fre- 
quenter of a news-room here. The peculiarities which seemed unavoidable at 
one period have scarcely ground now on which to take root. 

It was in the reign of Queen Elizabeth that the capture of a Portuguese ship 
laden with gold, pearls, spices, silks, and ivory called forth a body of merchant 
adventurers, who subscribed a fund amounting to something above 30,000/., and 
petitioned Her Majesty for a warrant to iit out three ships, the liberty of ex- 
porting bullion (then deemed wealth, instead of its representative), and a charter 
of incorporation excluding from the trade all parties not licensed by themselves. 
While the discussions were pending the petitioners stated, in reply to an appli- 
cation from the government, who wished to employ Sir Edward Michelboume 
on the expedition, that they were resolved " not to employ any gentleman in any 
place of charge,*' and requested '' that they may be allowed to sort theire business 
with men of their own qualitye, lest the suspicion of the employment of gentle- 
men being taken hold uppon by the generalitie do dryve a great number of the 
adventurera to withdraw their contributions.*' A Charter was granted on the 
last day of the sixteenth century to George,' Earl of Cumberland^ and 215 
knights, aldermen, and merchants, under the title of the '' Governor and Com- 
pany of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies,** with exclusive 
liberty of trading for fifteen years, and a promise of renewal at the end of that 
term, if the plan should be found " not prejudicial or hurtful to this our realm." 
A century later the English had made such little progress in India, in compari- 
son with the Portuguese, that, in 1698, it was compulsory on the ministers and 
schoolmasters sent to the English establishments in India to learn the Portuguese 

The exclusive Charter of Queen Elizabeth was not at first respected by her 
successor, who, in 1604, issued a licence to Sir Edward Michelboume and other 
persons to trade to the East, but he was subsequently persuaded to adopt a dif- 
ferent policy; and on the 31st of May, 1609, he renewed the Company's Charter 
" for ever," but providing that it might be recalled on three years' notice being 
given, with some additional privileges, which encouraged the Company to build 
the largest merchant-ship that England had hitherto possessed : she was named 
the * Trades Encrease,' and measured eleven hundred tons : at her launch the 
King and several of the nobility dined on board, and were served entirely upon 
china-ware, which was then a very costly rarity, and appropriate to the destina- 
tion of the vessel. The direction of the Company was put under twenty-four 
committees ; the word committee signifying then, as we believe it does still in 
Scotland, a person to whom any matter is intrusted. ,It was at first hardly a 
Tlompany : each adventure was managed by associations of individual members 


on their own account, acting generally according to their own pleasure^ but con- 
forming to certain established regulations made for the benefit of the whole body. 
But in 1612, after twelve voyages had been made to the East Indies, the whole 
capital subscribed, amounting to 429,000/., was united, the management of the 
business was committed to a few principal parties, and the great body maintained 
such a general control as in recent times has been exercised by the Court of Pro- 
prietors. During the whole of the centuiy the history of the Company is chiefly 
a narrative of mercantile transactions, but somewhat more interesting than those 
of our days from their adventurous character, and diversified by the accounts of 
quarrels, battles, and occasional treaties with the Portuguese and Dutch, who 
were very unwilling to admit a commercial rival. 

Turning to the London history of the Company, we find the seventeenth cen- 
tury marked by several events which deserve to be briefly noticed as illustrative 
of the times. In 1623, just before the departure of a fleet for India, the Duke 
of Buckingham, then Lord High- Admiral, extorted the sum of 10,000/. before 
he would allow it to sail ; the bribe was given to avoid a claim for droits of 
Admiralty on prize-money alleged to have been obtained at Ormuz and other 
places. A like sum was demanded for the King, but it does not appear to have 
been paid. In 1635 Charles I. granted to Captain John Weddell and others a 
licence to trade for five years : the inducement to this violation of the Charter 
was probably the share which the King was to receive of the profits. In 1640 
Charles I. being in want of money, bought upon credit the whole stock of pepper 
in the Company's warehouses^ amounting to 607,522 lbs., and sold it again for 
ready money at a lower price. • Four bonds were given to the Company for the 
amount, payable at intervals of six months, but none of them were paid. In 1642 
13,000/. was remitted of the duties owing by the Company, but the remaining 
sum of about 50,000/. was never received. In 1655 the Republican Government 
threw the trade to India entirely open. The experiment of a free trade was not 
fairly tried; as the Company was reinstated in its monopoly only two years after- 
wards. In 1661 Charles II. granted the Company a new Charter, conferring 
larger privileges — the power of making peace and war. The year 1667-8 is the 
first in which tea became an article of the Company's trade. The agents were 
desired to send home " 100 lb. weight of the best tey that you can gett." In 
1836 the quantity of tea consumed in the United Kingdom amounted to fifty 
million pounds within a fraction — the duty on which was 4,674,535/., or more 
than one-twelfth of the whole revenue. In this same year 1667-8 the Company 
dispatched sixteen ships to India with the largest investment which had yet been 
sent out, the value of bullion and stock being 245,000/. In 1681 the Spitalfields 
weavers, thinking themselves injured by the importation of wrought silks, 
chintzes, and calicoes from India, riotously assembled about the India House, 
using violent threats against the directors. 

From 1690 to 1693 a dispute existed as to whether the right of conferring a 
Charter for exclusive privileges of trade devolved upon the Sovereign or the 
Parliament. In the former year the House of Commons decided the question in 
their own favour, and addressed the King upon the subject, but in 1693 the King 
granted a new Charter for twenty-one years, upon which the House again 


affirmed its right, and not only passed a resolution to that effect^ but directed an 
inquiry into the circumstances attending the renewal, when it was ascertained 
that it had been procured by a distribution of 90,000/. to some of the highest 
officers in the State. Sir Thomas Cooke, a member, and goyemor of the Com- 
pany, was committed to the Tower for refusing to answer the questions put to 
him ; and the Duke of Leeds, who filled the office of President of the Council, was 
impeached on a charge of having received a bribe of 5000/. Further exposures 
were put a stop to by the prorogation of Parliament. Five years afterwards, in 
1698, without much show of reason or justice, the Old Company, which had now 
been in existence nearly a century, was dissolved, three years being allowed for 
winding up its business. A New Company, incorporated by the name of the 
" English Company," was invested with the privileges of exclusive trade. The 
members composing the new body had outbid the older one by offering to lend 
the Government a larger sum of money. In 1700 the Old Company obtained an 
act authorising them to trade under the Charter of the New Company. The exist- 
ence of two trading bodies led to disputes and rivalry, which benefited neither, and 
exposed them both to the tyranny of the native princes. The capital of the Eng- 
lish Company was absorbed by the loan which it had made to Government as a 
bonus for its privileges, but the older body naturally profited from the greater 
experience of its members. In 1702 an act was passed for uniting the two Com- 
panies, which was completely effected in 1708, seven years having been allowed 
to make the preparatory arrangements. The united bodies were entitled " The 
United Company of Merchants of England trading to the East Indies," a title 
which was borne until the abolition of its trading privileges in 1834. The exclu- 
sive privileges of the Company were successively renewed in 1712, 1730, 1744, 
1781, 1793, and 1813. Very important changes were made on the renewal of the 
Charter in 1781. The Government stipulated that all dispatches for India 
should be communicated to the Cabinet before being sent off; and they obtained 
a decisive voice in questions of peace and war. This was a prelude to the esta- 
blishment of the Board of Control in 1784, by which, in everything but patron- 
age and trade, the Court of Directors were rendered subordinate to the Govern- 
ment. In 1794 a slight infringement was made on the Company's Charter by a 
clause enabling private merchants to export goods to or from India in the Com- 
pany's ships, according to a rate of freight fixed by act of Parliament, the Com- 
pany being required to furnish shipping to the amount of three thousand tons 
annually to the private traders. In 1813 the rights of the private traders were 
still further extended. In the twenty years from 1813 to 1833^ the value of 
goods exported by the private trade increased from about one million sterling 
per annum to three and a-half millions, a much larger amount than had ever 
been exported by the Company. 

In 1833 the act was passed by which the Company is now governed. This 
act has made greater changes in the state of affairs than all the former ones. It 
continues the government of India in the hands of the Company until 1854, but 
takes away the China monopoly and all trading whatever. As the proprietors 
were no longer a body of merchants, their name was necessarily changed, and it 
was enacted that ** The East India Company " should be their future appella- 


tion. Their warehouses^ and the greatest part of their property, were directed 
to be sold : the dividend was to be 10^ per cent., chargeable on the revenues of 
India> and redeemable by Parliament after the year 1874. The amount of divi- 
dends g^ranteed by the act is 630,000/., being lOjJ per cent, on a nominal capital 
of 6,000,000/. The real capital of the Company in 1832 was estimated at up- 
wards of 21,000,000/., including cash, goods, buildings, and 1,294,768/. as the 
estimated value of the East India House and the Company's warehouses, the 
prime cost of the latter having been 1,100,000/. The act directs that accounts 
of the Company's revenues, expenditure, and debts are to be laid before Parlia- ' 
ment every year in May ; also lists of their establishments, with salaries and 
allowances paid on all accounts. Englishmen were allowed to purchase lands 
and to reside in all parts of India, with some exceptions, which were removed in 
1837. These, and several other enactments relating to India only, have altered 
in a great measure the character of the Company. 

For some time after the English began to trade to the East, no footing was 
obtained on the Continent of India. The first factory was at Bantam, in Java, 
which was established in 1602 ; a few years afterwards there were factories in 
Siam ; and in 1612, after many attempts, a firman was obtained from the Great 
Mogul allowing certain privileges at Surat, which was a long time the head of 
all our trade in India. This firman was granted, or at least accelerated, by the 
success of the English in four naval fights with the Portuguese, whom the natives 
had believed to be invinci)>le. In the same year the English received several 
commercial privileges from the Sultan of Achin, in Sumatra, who requested in 
return that two English ladies might be sent to him, to add to the number of his 
wives ! In the following year they established a factory at Firando, in Japan ; 
and by 1615 the number of factories in the East amounted to nineteen. In 1618 
the Company placed agents at Gombroon in Persia, and Mocha in Arabia. In 
1639 they received from the native chief of the territory around Madras power 
to exercise judicial authority over the inhabitants of that place^ and to erect a 
fort there. This was Fort St. George ; it was the first establishment possessed 
in India that was destined to become a place of importance : it was raised to the 
rank of a Presidency in 1653. The first footing in Bengal, the source of all the 
subsequent power of England in India, was obtained in 1652. The immediate 
means of this privilege are curious. In the year 1645 a daughter of Shah 
Jehan, the Great Mogul, had been' severely burnt, and an express was sent to 
Surat to procure an English surgeon. A Mr. Broughton was . sent, who cured 
the princess and attained to great favour at court : from Delhi he passed into 
the service of Prince Shujah, with whom he resided when the prince entered 
upon the Governorship of Bengal, and Mr. Broughton's influence there obtained 
for his countrymen the privilege of trading custom-free, which was confirmed by 
a firman of Aurungzebe in 1680. Bombay, which had been ceded by Portugal 
to Charles II. as part of the marriage portion of the Princess Catherine, was 
made over by him to the Company in 1668. Calcutta was founded in 1692 on 
the site of a village named Govindporc, and the possession received an important 
increase in 1717, when the Mogul granted a patent enabling the English to pur- 
chase thirty-seven towns in the vicinity. This accession was obtained by the 


influenee of another surgeon, a Mr. Hamilton^ who had cured the Mogul of a 
dangerous disease. The system of uniting the separate factories under larger 
jurisdictions, named presidencies, was now fully established : Madras had been 
the eastern presidency from the middle of the century to 1682, when Bengal was 
separated ; and Surat had held supremacy over the western coast from 1660 
until 1687^ when Bombay was made the head of all the establishments in India. 
By the end of the c&atury the three presidencies, Bengal, Madras, and Bombay, 
were distinguished as they still are, with the exception that Bengal was not then 
the seat of the Supreme Government, a distinction which was given to it by an 
Act passed in 1773, when Warren Hastings was made Governor- General. 

The Home Government of the Company consists of, 1st The Court of Pro- 
prietors, or General Court ; 2nd. The Court of Directors, selected from the pro- 
prietors ; and 3rd. The Board of Commissioners, usually called the Board of 
Control, nominated by the Sovereign. 

The Court of Proprietors, or General Court, as its name imports, is composed 
of the owners of India Stock. It appears that, in the seventeenth Gentury5 every 
stockholder had a voice in the distribution of the funds of the Company : the act 
of 1693 provided that no person should vote in the General Courts who had less 
than 1000/. of stock, and that larger owners should have as many votes as they 
held thousands ; but that no person should have more than ten votes. The 
qualification for one vote was, by the act of 13th April, 1689, lowered to 500/., 
and the number of votes limited to five, which was the number allowed to a 
holder of 4000/, stock. By the act of 5th September, 1698, every owner of 500/. 
stock was allowed one vote, and the greatest owners had no more. By the law 
now in force, which was made in 1773, the possession of 1000/. gives one vote, 
although persons having only 500/. may be present at the Court : 3000/. entitles 
the owner to two votes, 6000/. to three, and 10,000/. to four votes. All persons 
whatever may be members of this Court, male or female, Englishman or foreigner. 
Christian or unbeliever. The Court of Proprietors elects the Court of Directors, 
frames bye-laws, declares the dividend^ controls grants of money exceeding 600/., 
and additions to salaries above 200/. It would appear that the executive power 
of this Court, having been delegated to the Court of Directors, may be considered 
as extinct ; at all events it never now interferes with acts of government, although 
instances have formerly occurred where acts of the Court of Directors have been 
revised by it. Its functions in fact are deliberative : they are like those of in- 
fluential public meetings in the English constitution, and its resolutions are sup- 
posed to be respectfully attended to by the Directors, and even by the Legisla- 
ture. It is always called together to discuss any proceedings in Parliament 
likely to afi^ect the interests of the Company. It may, at any time^ call for copies 
of public documents 1o be placed before the body for deliberation and discussion ; 
and is empowered to confer a public mark of approbation, pecuniary or other- 
wise, on any individual whose services may appear to merit the distinction, sub* 
ject however to the approbation of the Board of Control, in cases where the sum 
shall exceed 600/. 

The meetings of this Court have much the appearance of those of the House 
of Commons, and its discussions are conducted by nearly the same rules. 


The CliaiTmaii of the Court of Directors presides ez-officio, and questions 
are put through him as through the Speaker. There is occasionally a display 
of eloquence which would not disgrace the Senate, though more frequently per- 
haps the matters debated are hardly of sufficient general interest to produce so 
much excitement. Amendments are proposed, adjournments are moved, the 
previous question is put, the Court rings with cries of ** Hear, hear,*' '' Oh, oh !" 
&c. &c., and a tedious speaker is coughed down as effectually as he would be on 
the floor of the House of Commons. At the conclusion of a debate the question 
is often decided by a show of hands ; but if any Proprietor doubts the result, he 
may call for a division, when tellers are appointed, and the Court divides ac- 
cordingly. In especial cases any nine members may call for an appeal to the 
general body of Proprietors, to whom timely notice is sent, and the vote is by 
ballot The meetings always take place at twelve o'clock, and generally close 
at dusk : in cases of great interest they are much later, and in a recent instance 
the debate continued until two o*clock in the following morning. The number 
of members of the Court of Proprietors, in 1843, is 1880, of whom 333 have two « 
votes, 64 three, and 44 four votes. In 1825 there were 2003 proprietors. In 1 773, 
when all owners of stock amounting to 500/. had each one vote, and none had a 
plurality, the number of proprietors was 2153, of whom 812 held stock to the amount 
of more than 1000/. each. The interest taken by the public in Indian affairs was 
much greater then than is the case at present, and the proceedings of the Court 
of Proprietors, as described by one who has made the affairs of India his study, 
were '* stormy and even riotous — ^the debates indecently virulent." He adds : — 
^' AU the turbulence of a Westminster election, all the trickery and corruption 
of a Grrampound election, disgraced the proceedings of this assembly on ques- 
tions of the most solemn importance. Fictitious votes were manufactured on a 
gigantic scale."* It is said that during Clivers visit to his native country, in 
1763, he laid out a hundred thousand pounds in the purchase of India stock, 
which he then divided among nominal. proprietors whom he brought down at 
every discussion ; and other wealthy persons did the same, though not to an 
equal extent. The whole of the Directors were at this period appointed annu- 
ally. At present each Director is elected for four years, and six retire yearly, 
and are not re-eligible until they have been a year out of office. The chairman 
and deputy- chairman are elected annually, and generally the deputy becomes 
chairman after being a year in the deputy-chair. They are the organs of the 
Court, and conduct all communication requiring a personal intercourse with the 
Ministry and Board of Commissioners. It is believed that by far the greater 
share of the labour of the Court falls on the chairs ; and that, great as is the pa- 
tronage connected with the offices, they are by no means objects of ambition to 
the majority of the members. 

The functions of the Court of Directors pertain to all matters relating to 
India, both at home and abroad ; subject to the control of the Board of Com- 
missioners, and, in some cases, to the concurrence of the Court of Proprietors, 
with the exception always of such high political matters as require secrecy, which 

* * Edinburgb Review/ No. 14^ 


are referred to a select committee of their body. This Court has the power to 
nominate the Governors of all the Presidencies, subject to the approval of the 
Crown. They have also the patronage of all other appointments, without con- 
trol from the Board. The Committee of Secrecy, first appointed in 1 784, consists 
of three members of the Court, who receive the directions of the Board on sub* 
jects connected with peace, war, or negotiations with other powers, and send dis- 
patches to India under their directions, without communication with the rest of 
the Court. This Committee also receive dispatches from India sent in the 
Secret department, and communicate them immediately to the Board. The 
duties of the Court of Directors are extensive^ and for their ready dispatcji it is 
divided into three Committees, whose departments are indicated by their appel- 
lations : — ^the Finance and Home Committee ; the Political and Military Com- 
mittee ; and the Revenue, Judicial, and Legislative Committee. 

The Board of Control, whose proper designation is *' the Board of Commis- 
sioners for the Affairs of India,'* was established by the Act of 1784. The Board 
is nominated by the sovereign : it consists of an unlimited * number of members, 
all of whom, except two, must be of the Privy Council^ and must include the two 
principal Secretaries of State and the Chancellor of the Exchequer. Practically, 
all the Commissioners are honorary, except three, who alone are paid. All the 
members of the Board vacate office upon changes of ministry, but the unpaid 
ones are often re-appointed. The Board receive from the Court, and may con- 
firm, alter, or disallow all minutes, orders, and dispatches ; they may not only 
keep back dispatches prepared by the Court, but may compel the Court to send 
others prepared without the Courtis concurrence. They have access to all 
books, papers, and documents in the East India House, and may call for accounts 
on any subject. They communicate with the Secret Committee, and direct it to 
send secret .dispatches to India, the responsibility resting with the Board. In 
fact, since the abolition of the trade, with which the Board had nothing to do, 
the Court of Directors must be confidcred simply as the instrument of the 

The routine of business as transacted between the Court and Board is simple. 
On the receipt of a dispatch from India, it is referred to the Committee in whose 
province it lies, and from it to the proper department ; the chief of which causes 
a draught of a reply to be made under his superintendence, which he first sub- 
mits to the Chairs ; the Chairman brings the draught before the Committee, by 
whom it is considered and approved, or revised, and then laid before the Court 
The draught is there discussed, and, when approved, sent to the Board. If the 
Board approve the draught, it is returned, and dispatched forthwith by the 
Court : if altered, the alterations may ^become a subject of correspondence and 
remonstrance with the Board, with whom, however, the final decision lies. If 
the Chairs judge that any serious discussion is likely to arise upon any dispatch, 
they make, unofficially^ a previous communication to the Board, and the matter 
is discussed before it is laid before the Court. 

Since the functions of the Company have become wholly political, the esta- 

* They were limited to six by the Act of 1784, but this clause was repealed in 1793. 


blishment at the East India Hoase is necessarily much reduced from what it was 
when, in addition to other duties^ it had the direction and control of commercial 
concerns which required the constant employment of nearly four thousand men in 
its warehouses. Before the closing of its trade the number of clerks of all grades 
was above four hundred.* This number was not more than was really necessary. 
The duties of no public office in England can give a fair notion of what was 
required at the East India House, from the circumstance that the latter was a 
compendium of all the offices of government, including a department for the 
transfer of stock ; and was in addition a great mercantile establishment. The 
departments were necessarily numerous. The military department superintended 
the recruiting for the Indian army, the embarkation of troops for India, the 
management of military stores, &c. There was a shipping department and 
master-attendant's*office, whose functions arc obvious from their appellations : 
an auditor's office to conduct all financial matters relative to India — a sort of 
Indian exchequer. The examiner's office managed the great political concerns 
of the Company. There were an accountant's office, a transfer office, a trea- 
sury, to investigate all matters relating to bills and certificates granted in India» 
China, or elsewhere on the Company^ and to compare advices with bills when 
presented ; to prepare estimates and statements of stock, &c. for the Lords of 
the Treasury, the Parliament, and the Courts ; to conduct all business relating 
to the sale and transfer of stock ; to provide for the payment of dividends and of 
interest on bonds, to negotiate loans, to purchase bullion, and to manage sales of 
specie from India or China. The office of buying and warehouses managed the 
whole of the trade, both export and import: its functions were to prepare orders for 
India and China produce so as to suit the home markets, and to provide goods here 
for sale in India and China ; to superintend the purchase and export of military 
stores, and to manage the business of fifteen warehouses, employing nearly four 
thousand men, and in the article tea alone containing often fifty millions pounds 
weight (above 22,000 tons !) The Committee, of which this was the chief office, had 
also th0 superintendence of the sales. The value of goods sold in the year 
1834-5 amounted to 5,089,77/. Those of tea were the most extensive, and they 
are yet remembered with a sort, of dread by all who had anything to do with them. 
They were held only four times a-year — in March, June, September, and Decem- 
ber ; and the quantity disposed of at each sale was in consequence very large, 
amounting on many recent occasions to 8^ millions of pounds, and sometimes 
much higher : they lasted several 4<^y>> cind it is within our recollection that 
1,200,000 lbs. have been sold in one day. The only buyers were the tea- brokers, 
composed of about thirty firms; each broker was attended by the tea-dealers 
who engaged his services, and who communicated their wishes by nods and 
winks. In order to facilitate the sale of such large quantities, it was the prac- 
tice to put up all the teas of one quality before proceeding to those of another.; 
and to permit each bidder to proceed without much interruption so long as he 
confined his biddings to the variation of a fieurthing for what was technically 

* A parliamentary document of 1835 gives the number of persons in the home establishment at 494, at salaries 
amounting to 134,451/. This includes door-porters, fire-lighters, watchmen, messengers, &c. The number of 
clerks now in the House is about 150. 


called the upper and under lot ; but as soon as he began to waver, or that it 
appeared safe to advance another farthing, the uproar became quite frightful to 
one unaccustomed to it. It often amounted to a howling and yelling which 
might have put to shame an O. P. row^ and^ although thick walls intervened, it 
frequently was heard by the frequenters of Leadenhall Market. All this uproar, 
which would induce a stranger to anticipate a dreadful onslaught^ was usually 
quelled by the finger of the chairman pointing to the next buyer, whose biddings 
would be allowed to go on with comparative quietness^ but was sure to be suc- 
ceeded by a repetition of the same noise as at first. At the indigo sales much 
the same sort of scene took place. 

The above and several minor departments usually kept the establishment fully 
engaged ; and, though there were days in which a smaller body might have done 
the current work of the House, there were many in which the whole force of the 
establishment was absolutely necessary. The mere reading through, and 'com- 
menting on, the voluminous explanatory matter received from the Indian Govern- 
ments^ in addition to the dispatches, was no small labour. Of such matter there 
were received, from 1793 to 1813, 9094 large folio volumes, or 433 per annum; 
and from that year to 1^29 the number was 14,414, or 776 a-ycar. Facility in 
composition is as necessary a qualification in public men in India, as speaking 
to a politician at home ; and it has been observed that, while the latter is often too 
much of a talker, in India he is rather too much of an essayist. Testimony to 
the industry and ability of the East India clerks was borne by Mr. Canning, in a 
debate on the 14th March, 1822. This statesman, who had been several years 
President of the Board of Commissioners, said, " He had seen a military dispatch 
accompanied with 199 papers, containing altogether 13,511 pages; another, a 
judicial dispatch, with an appendage of 1937 pages; and a dispatch on the reve- 
nue, with no fewer than 2588 pages by its side. Much credit was due to the 
servants of the East India Company. The papers received from them were drawn 
up with a degree of accuracy and talent that would do credit to any office in the 
State. The Board could not, with all the talents and industry of the President, 
. the Commissioners, or their tried Secretary, have transacted the business 
devolved upon it, without the talents and industry with which that business was 
prepared for them at the India House." 

We shall conclude with a description of the East India House. It does not 
appear to be ascertained where the Company first transacted their business, but 
the ^tradition of the House is, that it was in the great room of ' The Nag's Head 
Inn,' opposite Bishopsgate Church, where there is now a Quakers' Meeting 
House. The maps of London, constructed soon after the great fire, place the 
India House in Leadenhall Street, on a part of its present site. It is probably 
the house, of which an unique plate is preserved in the British Museum, sur* 
mounted by a huge, square-built mariner, and two thick dolphins. In the Inden- 
ture of Conveyance of the Dead Stock of the Companies, dated 22nd July, 1702, 
we find that Sir William Craven, of Kensington, in the year 1701, leased to the 
Company his large house in Leadenhall Street, and a tenement in Lime Street, 
for twenty-one years, at 100/. a-year. Upon the site of this house what is called 
the old East India House was built in 1726; and several portions of this old 


House yet remain, although the present front, and great part of the bouse, wore 
added, in 1799, by Mr. Jupp. 

[Old Eut IdiUi Hoom, int.] 

The facade of the existing building is 200 feet in length, and is of stone. The 
portico is contpoeed of six large Ionic fluted coluninH on a raised baseoieiit, and 
it gives an air of much magnificence to the whole, althougli the closeness of the 
street makes it somewhat gloomy. The pediment is an emblematic sculpture 
by Bacon, representing the Commerce of the East protected by the King of 
Great Britain, who stands in the centre of a number of figures, holding a shield 
stretched over them. On the apex of the pediment stands a statue of Britan- . 
nis : Asia, seated upon a dromedary, is at the left corner ; and Europe, on 
horseback, at the right. 

The ground-floor is chiefly occupied by court and committee rooms, and by 
the Directors" private rooms. The Court of Directors occupy what is usually 
termed the ' Court Hoom,' while that in which the Court of Proprietors assemble 
is called the ' General Court Room.' The Court Room is said to be an exact cube 
of 30 feet : it is splendidly ornamented by gilding and by large looking-glasses ; 
and the effect of its too great height is much diminished by the position of the 
windows near the ceiling. Six pictures hang from the cornice, representing the 
three Presidencies, the Capo, St. Helena, and Tellichery. A fine piece of 
sculpture, in white marble, is fixed over the chimney : Britannia is seated on a 
globe by the seashore, receiving homage from three female figures, intended for 
Asia, Africa, and India. Asia offers spices with her right hand, and with her left 
leads a camel ; India presents a large box of jewels, which she holds half open ; 
and Africa rests her hand upon the head of a lion. The Thames, aa a river-god. 


stands upon the shore ; a labourer appears cording a large bale of merchan- 
dise^ and ships are sailing in the distance. The whole is supported by two cary- 
atid figures, intended for brahmins, but really fine old European-looking philo- 

The General Court Room, which until the abolition of the trade was the Old 
Sale Room, is close to the Court Room. Its east side is occupied by rows of 
seats which rise from the floor near the middle of the room towards the ceiling, 
backed by a gallery where the public are admitted : on the floor are the seats for 
the chairman, secretary, and clerks. Against the west wall, in niches, are six 
statues of persons who have distinguished themselves in the Company*s service : 
Lord Clive, Warren Hastings, and the Marquis Cornwallis occupy those on the 
left, and Sir Eyre Coote, General Lawrance, and Sir George Pococke those on the 
right. It is understood that the statue of the Marquis Wellesley will be placed 
in the vacant space in the middle. The Finance and Home Committee Room 
is the best room in the house^ with the exception of the Court Rooms, and is 
decorated with some good pictures. One wall is entirely occupied by a represent- 
ation of the grant of the Dewannee to the Company in 1765, the foundation of all 
the British power in India; portraits of Warren Hastings and of the Marquis 
Cornwallis stand beside the fireplace ; and the remaining walls are occupied by 
other pictures, among which may be noticed the portrait of Mirza Abul Hassan, 
the Persian Envoy, who excited a good deal of attention in London in the year 

The upper part of the house contains the principal offices and the Library 
and Museum. In the former is perhaps the most splendid collection of Oriental 
MSS. in Europe, and, in addition, a copy of almost every printed work relating 
to Asia : to this, of course, the public is not admitted ; but any student, properly 
recommended, is allowed the most liberal access to all parts of it. We may 
instance, as worthy of all imitation, where buildings contain articles of value, that 
large tanks, always full of water, stand upon the roof of the building, and that 
pipes, with stop-cocks, extend from them to all parts of the house, so arranged 
that, in case of fire, any of the watchmen connected with the establishment can at 
once deluge that part with water enough to repel any apprehension of its spread* 
ing beyond the spot. 

The opening of the Museum at the India House to the public once a-week, on 
Saturdays, from eleven to three, is a creditable act of liberality on the part of 
the Directors* The rooms appropriated to this purpose are not a continuous 
suite, but a passage leading from one suite to another contains paintings, 
prints, and drawings, illustrative of Indian scenery and buildings ; also models 
of a Chinese war- junk, a Sumatran proa, together with a few objects of natural 
history, as remarkable specimens of bamboo, &c. This passage leads to three 
small side-rooms, the first of which contains a Burmese musical instrument, 
shaped somewhat like a boat, and having a vertical range of nearly horizontal 
strings, which were probably played by means of a plectrum, or wooden peg. 
Opposite is a case illustrative of the state of the useful arts in India, containing 
models of looms, ploughs, mills, smiths* bellows, coaches and other vehicles, 
windlass, pestle and mortar, &c. This room also contains specimens illustrating 


the mann factoring proceBses of Oriental nations, with some objects of n^nial 
history. The next room is wholly devoted to natural history. In the third room 
there is another curious Burmese musical instrument, consisting of twenty-three 
flattiih pieces of wood, from ted to fifteen inches in length, and about an inch 
and a half in width : these bars are strung together so as to yield dull and sub- 
dued musical notes when struck with a cort hammer ; and their sizes are so ad' 
justed as to furnish tones forming about three octaves in the diatonic scale. At 
the end of the corridor is a tolerably large room, containing a number of glass 
cases filled with specimens of Asiatic natural history. There are Indian, Siamese, 
and Javanese birds, Sumatran and Indian mammalia, besides butterflies, moths, 
beetles, and shells. In another room are sabres, daggers, hunting- knives, pipes, 
bowls, models of musical instruments, serving to illustrate some of the usages of 
the inhabitants of Java and Sumatra. The Library, in another part of the 
building, is also partly appropriated as a Museum. The Oriental curiosities in this 
department comprise, among other things, specimens of painted tiles, such as are 
used in the East for walls, floors, ceilings, &c., Bhuddist idols, some of white 
marble, others of dark stones, and some of wood. There are many other objects 
connected with the religion of Bhudda, as parts of shrines and thrones, on which 
processions and inscriptions are sculptured, and a large dark-coloured idol repre- 
sents one of the Bhuddic divinities. In the centre of this room are three cases 
containing very elaborate models of Chinese villas, made of ivory, mother-of- 
pearl, and other costly materials ; and from the ceiling is suspended a large and 
highly-decorated Chinese lantern, made of thin sheets of horn. 

There are a few glass cases, which contain various objects worthy of notice. 
There is an abacus, or Chinese counting-machine, Chinese implements and ma- 


terials for writing, for drawing, for engraving on wood> and for printing ; also 
Chinese weighing and measuring machines, a Chinese mariner's compass^ Sycee 
silver, the shoe of a Chinese lady, and various Chinese trinkets. There are spe- 
cimens of tea, in the form in which it is used in various parts of the East — that 
is, in compressed cakes. On a stand, on the floor, is placed a childish piece of mu- 
sical mechanism, which once belonged to Tippoo Sultan : it consists of a tiger 
trampling on a prostrate man, and about to seize him with his teeth. The inte- 
rior contains pipes and other mechanism, which, when wound up by a key, cause 
the figure of the man to utter sounds of distress, and the tiger to imitate the 
roar of the living beast.* In passing to another apartment, which forms also a 
part of the Library, we enter a small ante-room, which is occupied by a splendid 
howdah, or throne, part of it of solid silver, adapted for the back of an ele- 
phant, in which Oriental princes travel : it was taken by Lord Combermere at 
Bhurtpore. The walls of this room are covered with weapons and arms used by 
different Oriental nations. The next room, filled chiefly with books, contains, 
however, several curious objects : here are Tippoo Sultan*s * Register of Dreams,* 
with the interpretation of them in his own hand ; and the Koran which he was in 
the habit of using. A visit to this Museum is certainly calculated to render im- 
pressions concerning the East more vivid and striking. 

* See the cut iii preceding page.^The constraction of the whole machine is very rude, and it is probably much 
older than the age of Tippoo. The machinery, though not of neat -workmanship, is simple and ingenious in con- 
trivance. There is a handle on the animal's shoulder which turns a spindle and crank within the body, and is 
made to appear as one of the black stripes of the skin. To this crank is fastened a wire, which rises and falls by 
turning the crank : the wire passes down from the tiger between his fore-paws into the man's chest, where it works 
a pair of bellows, which forces the air through a pipe with a sort of wljistle, terminating in the man's mouth. Tlie 
pipe is covered by the man's hand ; but at tlie moment when, by the action of the crank, the air is forced through 
the pip^ a string leading from the bellows pulls a small lever connected with the arm, which works on a hinge at 
the elbow ; the arm rises in a manner which the artist intended to show supplication ; the hand is lifted firom the 
mouth, and a cry is heard : the cry is repeated as oflen as the handle is turned ; and while this process is going 
on, an endless screw on the shaft turns a worm-wheel slowly round, which is furnished with four levers or wipers; 
each of these levers alternately lifts up another and larger pair of bellows in the head of the tiger. When by the 
action of one of these four levers the bellows- are lifted up to their full height, the lever, in continuing to tum, 
passes i)y the bellows, and the upper boiird Ijeing loaded with a large piece of lead, falls down on a sudden and 
forces the air violently through two loud-toned pipes terminating in the animal's moutii, and differing by the 
interval of a fiftli. Hiis produces a harsh growl. The man in the meantime continues his screaming or whistling ; 
and, after a dozen cries, the growl is repeated. 


It may appear at first glance a curious ciTCumBtance that the greatest events of 
which the edifice above-named has been the scene should be those which have 
had the least direct connection with its general objects or character. Instead of 
the election and banqueting of a Mayor, the represajon of some new system 
of swindling i or — ^what to some would seem to be almost synonymous — of soAie 
Dew proposition of municipal reform, each alike, figuratively speaking, stirring 
the very hair of civic heads with horror; or, lastly, instead of an inquiry into 
Bome delectable police case, the principal matters that now imitate Guildhall, or 
draw public attention towards it, — vi find here, in former times, sceptres changing 
hands, new religions proscribed, and their disciples sent to martyrdom, trials of 
men who would have revoluiionised the state, and who might, by the least turn 
of Fortune's wheel in a diiferent direction, have changed places in the court with 
those who sat there to decide upon their lives, or rather to destroy them in 
accordance with a previous decision — the more common state of things in our old 
crown proaecutions. Bat the connection of such events with Guildhall was not 
so remote, still less so accidental, as it seems. Without trenching upon the proper 
history of the latter, which belongs to another paper, we may here observe that 
when Guildhall was the concentrating point towards which, in all matters alfect- 
ing the independence, prosperity, and government of London, the intellect, wealth, 
VOL. V. F 


and numerical strength of London generally systematically tended, it is evident 
that no place throughout England was so favourable for those royal and political 
manoeuvres of which the historical recollections of Guildhall furnish such me- 
morable examples. If Gloster wishes to be king, it is to Guildhall that he 
first sends the wily Buckingham to expressly ask the suffrages of the people : if 
the bigoted council of the savage Henry determine to express in some exceed- 
ingly decisive manner their abhorrence of the spreading doctrines of the Befor- 
mation, and of the error of supposing that because Henry favoured them when 
he wanted a new wife, that he still did so when unable to think of anything but 
his own painful and disgusting sores, it is at Guildhall that the chosen victim— 
a lady, young, beautiful, and learned — receives her doom : if Mary would damage 
the Protestant cause whilst trying Protestant traitors, or James, the Catholic, at 
a similar opportunity, Guildhall is still the favourite spot. Whatever the effect 
sought to be produced, it was well known that success in London was the grand 
preliminary to success elsewhere. 

It was on Tuesday, the 24th of June, 1483, that the citizens were seen flocking 
irom all parts towards the Guildhall, on some business of more than ordinary 
import. Edward IV. had died a few weeks before, and his son and successor was 
in the Tower, under the care of his uncle, the Protector, waiting the period of 
his coronation. Doubt and anxiety were in every face. The suspicious eagerness 
shown to get the youthful Duke of York from the hands of his mother in the 
Sanctuary at Westminster, the almost inexplicable death of Hastings in the 
Tower, the severe penance inflicted on Jane Shore, the late King*s favourite 
mistress, and the sermon which followed that exhibition on the same day, the 
preceding Sunday, at PauVs Cross, where the popular preacher. Dr. Shaw, spoke 
in direct'terms of the illegitimacy of the young Princes, and of the right noble- 
ness of their uncle, all produced a growing sense of alarm as to the future inten- 
tions of the principal actor, Gloster. As they now entered the hall, and 
pressed closer and closer to the hustings, to hear the Duke of Buckingham, who 
stepped forth to address them, surrounded by many lords, knights, and citizens, 
it was not long before those intentions, startling as they were, became sufficiently 
manifest. '' The deep revolving, witty Buckingham'* seems to have surpassed 
himself that day, in the exhibition of his characteristic subtlety and address. 
Commencing with a theme which found a deep response in the indignant bosoms 
of his listeners, the tyrannies and extortions of the late King (which the Londoners 
had especial reason to remember), he gradually led them to the consideration of 
another feature of Edward*s character, his litnours, which had, no doubt, caused 
many a heart-burning in the City domestic circles, and thence by an easy transi- 
tion to his illegitimacy ; Buckingham alleging that the late King was not the 
son of the Duke of York, and that Richard was. To give confidence to the 
citizens, he added that the Lords and Commons had sworn never to submit to a 
bastard, and called upon them accordingly to acknowledge the Protector as King. 
The answer was — dead silence. The confident orator and bold politician was 
for a moment " marvellously abashed," and calling the Mayor aside, with others 
who were aware of his objects, and had endeavoured to prepare the way for them, 
inquired " What meaneth this that the people be so still?" '' Sir,*' replied the 
Mayor, '* perchance they perceive [understand] yon not well.'' " That we shall 


amend/' said Buckingham ; and ^' therewith, somewhat louder^ rehearsed the same 
matter again, in other order and other words, so well and ornately, and never- 
theless so evidently and plain, with voice, gesture, and countenance so comely 
and so convenient, that every man much marvelled that heard him ; and thought 
that they never heard in their lives so evil a tale so well told. But were it for 
wonder or fear, or that each looked that other should speak first, not one word 
was there answered of all the people that stood before ; but all were as still as 
the midnight, not so much rouning [speaking privately] among them, by which 
they might seem once to commune what was best to do. When the Mayor saw 
this, he, with other partners of the council, drew about the Duke, and said that 
the people had not been accustomed there to be spoken to but by the Recorder, 
which is the mouth of the City, and haply to him they will answer. With that 
the Recorder, called Thomas Fitzwilliam, a sad man and an honest, which was 
but newly come to the office^ and never had spoken to the people before, and 
loth was with that matter to begin, notwithstanding thereunto commanded by 
the Mayor, made rehearsal to the commons of that which the Duke had twice 
purposed himself; but the Recorder so tempered his tale that he showed every- 
thing as the Duke's words were, and no part of his own ; but all this no change 
made in the people, which alway after one stood as they had been amazed." 
Such a reception at the outset might have turned some men fVom their purpose 
altogether — not so Buckingham, who now, after another brief converse with the 
Mayor, assumed a different tone and bearing. " Dear friends," said he to the 
citizens, " we come to move you to that thing which, perad venture, we so greatly 
needed not, but that the lords of this realm and commons of other parts might 
have sufficed, saying, such love we bear you, and so much set by you, that we 
would not gladly do without you that thing in which to be partners is your weal 
and honour, which, as to us seemeth, you see not or weigh not ; wherefore we 
require you to give us an answer, one or other, whether ye be minded, as all the 
nobles of the realm be, to have this noble Prince, now Protector, to be your 
King ?** It was scarcely possible to resist this appeal by absolute silence. So, 
*' at these words, the people began to whisper among themselves secretly, that 
the voice was neither loud nor base, but like a swarm of bees, till at the last, at 
the nether end of the hall, a bushment of the Duke*s servants, and one Nashfield, 
and others belonging to the Protector, with some prentices and lads that thrusted 
into the hall amongst the press, began suddenly, at men's backs, to cry out as loud 
as they could, ' l^ing Richard ! King Richard !* and then threw up their caps in 
token of joy, and they that stood before cast back their heads marvelling thereat, 
but nothing they said. And when the Duke and the Mayor saw this manner, 
they wisely turned it to their purpose, and said it was a goodly cry and a 
joyful to hear every man with one voice, and no man saying nay.'* This scene, so 
graphically described by Hall (from Sir T. More), would form one of the richest 
hits of comedy, were it not for the tragic associations which surround the whole. 
As it is, one can scarcely avoid enjoying the perplexity of Buckingham and the 
Mayor at the unaccountable and most vexatious silence, or the backward look of 
the people at the lads and others, who at last did shout, or without admiring the 
tact and impudence of Buckingham in acknowledging with a grave face, and 
in grateful words, the cry that was at once so goodly, joyful, and so very unani- 



mous. It will be perceived how closely Shakspere has followed the accoant here 
transcribed, in the third act of his Richard III. ; and as is usual with him, by so 
doing, made the passage scarcely less interesting, as illustrating him^ than for its 
own historical value. 

Passing from the craft and violence which formed the two steps to power 
during so many ages, and of which the incident narrated, with its well-known 
concomitants, furnishes a striking example, we find, but. little more than half a 
century later, new trains of thought and action at work among men, high passions 
developed, struggles taking place for objects which by comparison make all the 
intrigues and feuds of rival and aspiring nobles appear contemptible, and main* 
tained with a courage unknown to the days of chivalry. The Reformation came ; 
and sufficiently terrible were its first effects. Division and strife extended 
throughout the land. By a kind of poetical justice, Henry himself, who drew 
the gospel light from Bullen*s eyes, was fated in later years to see an emanation 
from that light come in a much less pleasing shape, namely, in the disputatious 
glances of his wife Catherine Parr, who, as he grew more helpless and impatient, 
ventured to engage in controversy with him, and had well nigh gone to the scaf- 
fold for so doing. And though she escaped, a victim was found sufficiently dis- 
tinguished to gratify the inhuman and self-willed tyrant, who burned people not 
so much on account of their having any particular religion, as the daring to reject 
the one he proposed, or to keep it when accepted, if he altered his mind. This 
was Anne Askew, a young lady who had been seen very busy about court distri- 
buting tracts among the attendants of the Queen, and heard to speak vehemently 
against the Popish doctrine of transubstantiation. She was the daughter of Sir 
William Askew, of Kelsey, in Lincolnshire, and the wife of a neighbouring gen* 
tleman named Kyme, a violent Papist, who turned her out of doors when, after 
long study of the Bible, she became a Protestant. She then came to London to 
sue for a separation, and was favourably noticed, it is supposed, by the Queen, 
and certainly by the ladies of the court. But neither Henry uor his council, 
including such men as Bishop Bonner and the Chancellor Wriothesley^ were to 
be quietly bearded thus. Anne Askew, as she called herself, was arrested, and 
carried before Bonner and others. Among the questions put to her was one by 
the Lord Mayor, inquiring whether the priest cannot make the body of Christ ? 
Her reply was very striking : " I have read that God made man ; but that man 
can make God I never yet read.'' However, some sort of recantation was ob- 
tained from her, probably through the natural and graceful timidity of her youth 
and sex overpowering for the moment, in the presence of so many learned and 
eminent men, the inherent strength of her convictions. Such triumphs, however, 
are of brief duration. Anne Askew was discharged, but quickly apprehended 
again, and, after examination by the Privy Council, committed to Newgate. Her 
next public appearance was at Guildhall, where she was condemned, with some 
more unfortunates, to death for heresy. And now this poor, solitary, but brave 
and self-possessed woman was subjected to treatment that makes one blush for 
human nature. The grand object of the Council was, it appears, to find what 
ladies of the court they could get into their toils, since the Queen herself had 
escaped them. So after a vain attempt made by Nicholas Shaxton, the former 
Bishop of Salisbury, to induce her to imitate his example, and save her life by 


ftpostacy, for which attempt he got in answer the Bolemn assurauce that it had 
been better for him if he had never been born, she was carried to the Tower, and 
examined as to her connexions at court. She denied that she had had any, but 
was told the King knew better ; and then followed a question that shows the pri- 
vations she had already been intentionally exposed to : How had she contrived to 
get food and comfort in prison if she had no powerful friends ? " My maid," 
said Anne, " bemoaned my wretched condition to the apprentices in the street, 
and some of them sent me money, but I never knew their names." It was pro- 
bably at this period of the examination that she was laid on the rack, and that 
Wriotheslcy and Rich, having both applied their own hands to the instrument, 
obtained an admission from her that a man in a blue coat had given her maid tea 
shillings, saying they came from Lady Hertford, and another time a man in a violet 
coat eight shillings from Lady Denny ; but as to the truth of the statements she 
coald say nothing, and constantly persevered in her assertion that she had not been 
supported by these or any of the Council. To the eternal honour of her sex, it 
is understood that no amount of anguish could wring anything more from her, 
and in consequence Henry and the Council were compelled to be content with 
the victim they had. So, whilst still unrecovered from the effects of the rack, 
she was hurried off to Smithfield on the 16th of July, 1546, and chained with 
three others to stakes. Near them was a pulpit, from which poor Shaxtoo, as if 
not already sufficiently humiliated, was chosen to preach. At the conclusion 
of bis discourse, a pardon was exhibited for the whole if they would recant ; but 
there was no such stuff in their thoughts : Anne Askew and her companions died 
as heroically as their own hearts could have ever desired they should die. 

Anna Aikaw *Dd othni.] 

After all, martyrdom, it must be acknowledged, is not a pleasant thing ; and 
we need not wonder that, through the period extending from the reign of 


Henry VIII. to that of James I., bo many indications present themselves of Pro- 
testants and Catholics alike changing passive endurance for active warfare, and 
determining that it was as easy to run the risk of conviction for treason as for 
heresy, with a much greater probability of improving their position by success. 
As to each party, whether in power or not, applying its own dislike of the flames, 
its own sense of the monstrous injustice of such influences, its own knowledge of 
their inefficacy, to the case of the other, no such supposition seems to have been 
conceivable in the philosophy of the sixteenth century. So, burnings, plots, and 
insurrections follow each other in rapid succession through this terrible period, 
disturbing even the comparative repose of Elizabeth s brilliant reign. Two of 
the most striking of these events belong to the history of Guildhall — ^the one 
arising out of Sir Thomas Wyatfs attempt against the Catholic Mary, and the 
other from the Gunpowder Plot, destined to overthrow the Protestant James : 
each, we may add, forming one of the most interesting features of the altogether 
interesting history to which it belongs. Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, himself a 
Protestant, was the son of a zealous Papist, Sir George Throckmorton, who 
had refused to take the Oath of Supremacy, and been imprisoned in the Tower 
many years by Henry. On his release in 1543, Nicholas, his son, received the 
appointment of Sewer to the King, and, having accompanied the latter in the 
French expedition, was rewarded by a pension for his services. During the reign 
of Edward VI. he still further distinguished himself by his conduct at the battle 
of Pinkie (or Musselburgh), and rose still higher in kingly favour. Edward 
knighted him, received him into close personal intimacy, and, besides making 
him under- treasurer of the Mint, gave him some valuable manors. Everything, 
therefore, concurred to deepen the impression in favour of Protestantism made 
first on his mind, no doubt, by study and conviction. How little inclined Throck- 
morton was to interfere with the ordinary laws of legitimacy and succession to the 
crown under ordinary circumstances, may be inferred from his conduct at the 
commencement of Mary's reign. He was present at Greenwich when Edward 
died ; and, although aware of the designs of the friends of Lady Jane Grey, 
towards whom, as a Protestant, his sympathies must have tended, yet he did not 
hesitate to depart immediately for London^ and dispatch Mary's goldsmith to 
her with the intelligence of her accession. It is evident, therefore, that when, 
only a few months later, we find him on his trial for treason^ he must, supposing 
the charge to have any truth in it, have experienced some great disappointment 
as to the policy he had hoped to have seen pursued^ or some new event must 
have occurred utterly unlooked for, and most threatening to the Protestant 
interests. Such, no doubt, seemed, to a large portion of the nation, the marriage 
of Mary with Philip of Spain^ one of the most inexorable bigots in religious 
matters that ever existed, and whose power seemed to be almost as ample to ac- 
complish as his temper and fanaticism were prompt to instigate the destruction of 
the new faith wherever his influence might extend, and who did destroy it in the 
Spanish peninsula, however signal his failures elsewhere. One little incident 
tells volumes as to Philip's character. Whilst present at an auto-da-fe, when 
forty persons were marching in the horrible procession towards the stake, to 
which they had been sentenced by the Inquisition, one of the poor creatures 
called out as he passed the King for Mercy ! mercy ! " Perish thou, and all like 


thee/' waB the reply : ''if my own son were a heretic, I would deliver htm to the 
flames.'* Such was the man whom the Protestants of England heard, with 
natural terror, was about to be connected by the closest ties to the country, and 
enabled to exercise the most direct influence on its government ; for no man in 
his senses could place any reliance upon the promises of non-interference, non- 
innovation, &c., which were to be exacted as gpiarantees for the national freedom. 
If we add that the Catholics themselves, rising above the narrow views so com- 
mon at the period, and looking at the alliance as Englishmen rather than as 
Catholics, disliked it, what must have been the feelings of their religious oppo- 
nents ? The answer is to be found in the insurrection which broke out within a 
few days after the intelligence of the conclusion of the treaty of marriage be- 
came generally known. Sir Thomas Carew took arms in Devonshire, and 
obtained possession of the castle and city of Exeter, whilst Sir Thomas Wyatt 
threatened from a still nearer locality, Kent. Their objects appear to have been 
very uncertain, even among themselves. There can be little doubt, however, 
that if they had succeeded, Mary would have been dethroned ; for how else could 
they be sure they would not lose all they had gained, and probably their lives 
into the bargain ? Equally doubtful does it seem as to the party who would 
have taken the vaeant seat. If Elizabeth was concerned in the scheme, as it still 
seems very probable she was, there can be no doubt as to her views on the ques- 
tion : but, on the other hand, the movement seems rather to have indined in 
favour of Lady Jane Grey ; for, not only does the early attack on the Tower, 
where she had been confined from the time of her relatives' attempt to make her 
queen on the death of Edward, seem to intimate as much, but it is hardly to be 
conceived that, for any less personal advantage, the selfish and unprincipled 
Duke of Suffolk^ Lady Jane Grey's father, just released firom an apparently 
inevitable death on account of the said attempt, would have joined in a new 
one. Modem political tactics no doubt explain the whole. The parties acted 
together to meet the one evil which threatened all, leaving the after measures to 
be determined by chance, or by the intrigues, skill, and power of the individuals 
who might rise most prominently out of the combination, and turn the whole to 
their or their party's benefit. And if the most consummate tact and un&iling 
courage, joined to entire devotedness, could at such a crisis have secured the crown 
to Elizabeth, Sir Nicholas Throckmorton would have been the man to have 
accomplished that task. Attachment to her was, indeed, most probably the cause 
of the great prominence given to the trial of a man who had taken no public 
part whatever in the insurrection, and of the exceeding bitterness and zeai with 
which such charges as could be brought together against him were pressed. In 
the whole range of criminal proceedings, it would be difficult to find a more 
exciting trial than the one we are now about to describe, which commenced on 
the 17th of April, 1554, only six days after his friend Wyatt's execution. Our 
readers, in order to do justice to Throckmorton's wonderful eloquence, adroitness, 
and self-possession, must remember that a state trial had long been little else 
than a legal stepping-stone to the scafibld, and that now the appetite for blood 
was unusually sharpened by the imminent danger from which Mary had escaped. 
We must premise that it is to the dramatic character of the proceedings, as 
reported by Holinshed at great length, that the trial owes its chief attractions 


for a reader, and therefore to abridge the more important passages would be to 
destroy their vital spirit. We must, then, transcribe such of these as our 
space will admit in their integrity, with the addition merely of a few brief con- 
necting remarks. The roll of the judges on the bench shows the importance 
attached to the trial by the government, and, for any man but Throckmorton, the 
overwhelming amount of learning and intellect coming ready prepared to con- 
vict, not to try him. It comprised, besides Sir Thomas White (the lord mayor), 
the Earls of Shrewsbury and Derby, the Recorder and others, — the Lord Chief 
Justice Bromley; the Master of the Rolls, Sir N. Hare; a Judge of the Queen's 
Bench, Sir W. Portman ; and a Judge of the Common Pleas, Sir E. Saunders; 
together with the two Serjeants, Stamford and Dyer; and the Attorney- General 
Griffin. At the very commencement of the trial, before pleading. Sir Nicholas 
endeavoured to make some observations, which were stopped as informal, but 
which led to a spirited discussion, that thus early showed the spirit of the prisoner, 
and gave promise of the unprecedented struggle that was about to take place. 
This stopped, a weightier matter was handled. After some little private whisper- 
ings between the Attorney-General and the Recorder as to the jurymen, who, it 
was feared, apparently^ might not be packed with an eye to entire harmony of 
views, and a further whispering between the Attorney-General and Serjeant 
Dyer, the latter challenged two of their number, and when the prisoner asked 
the reason of the challenge, replied he did not need to show cause. *' I 
trust,'* was the impetuous outburst of Sir Nicholas, '' ye have not provided for 
me this day as formerly I knew a gentleman used, who stood in the same place 
and circumstances as I do. It chanced that one of the Judges being suspicious 
that the prisoner, by reason of the justice of his cause, was like to be acquitted, 
said to one of his brethren, when the jury appeared, ' I do not like this jury — they 
are not fit for our purpose — they seem to have too much compassion and charity 
to condemn the prisoner.' ' No, no,' said the other Ju<lge, Cholmley by name 
[the Recorder, then sitting on the benchl^ * V 11 warrant you they are fellows 
picked on purpose, and he shall drink of the same cup his fellows have done.* 
I was then a spectator of the pageant, as others are now of me ; but now, woe is 
me ! I am an actor in that woeful tragedy. Well, as for those and such others 
like them, the black ox hath lately trodden on some of their feet :* but my trust 
is, I shall not be so used." The very man, however, so appositely referred to — 
Cholmley — continuing to confer with the Attorney- General as to the jury. Sir 
Nicholas called out, " Ah, ah ! Master Ch6lmley, will this foul packing never 
be left?" 

" Why, what do I, I pray you. Master Throckmorton? I did nothing, I am 
sure. You do pick quarrels with me.** 

" Well, Master Cholmley, if you do well, it is better for you, God help you.** 
The jury were now sworn, and Sergeant Stamford stepped forward to state the 
case for the prosecution, when Sir Nicholas again interposed with a most im- 
pressive adjuration to the Sergeant not to exceed his office, and then the trial 
commenced. The charges in effect were that Throckmorton was a principal de- 
viser, procurer, and contriver of the late rebellion, which was sought to be proved 

* *' In this expreuion Throckmorton probably refers to Cholmley, who had been imprisoned for fome time on 
QSpicion of bvouring the Lady Jane Grey/*— Note by the Editor of the < Criminal Trials,' vol. i. p. 6S. 


by the written depositions and examinations of parties, mostly lying at the time 
nnder a danger similar to that of the prisoner^ and some of whom, as Wyatt, had 
been executed ; for such was the wretched state of the criminal law at the time. 
The chief allegations brought before the court in this way were, that Throck- 
morton had corresponded with Wyatt just before the insurrection ; that he had 
engaged to accompany Courteney, Earl of Devonshire, into the west of England ; 
that he had invited Carew and Wyatt to advance when they were in arms ; and, 
above all, that he had conspired to kill the Queen with William Thomas, Sir 
Nicholas Arnold, and others. Passing over the long but every where interesting 
portion of the trial in which the first three points formed the subject of inquiry, 
and through which Sir Nicholas fought his way step by step, allowing no fact to 
be taken for more than its worth (we might almost say lessening its actual value), 
exposing every attempt to twist the law unduly against him, showing the value- 
less character of the evidence obtained from men who might think their own lives 
depended upon the success of their evidence against his ; we pause awhile at the 
fourth, as the part best calculated to display the spirit of the two parties, and the 
general conduct of the trial. The examination of Sir Nicholas Arnold being read, 
which stated that Throckmorton told him that John Fitzwilliams was very much 
displeased with William Thomas, the Attorney-General remarked, alluding, we 
presume, to the general facts detailed in the examination, which Holinshed 
does not give, '' Thus it appears that William Thomas devised that John Fitz- 
williams should kill the Queen, and Throckmorton knew of it" 

'' I deny that I said any such thing to Sir Nicholas Arnold,'* replied the 
prisoner ; '' and though he is an honest man, he may either forget himself, or 
devise means how to rid himself of so weighty a burden as this is, for he is 
charged as principal : this I perceived when he charged me with his tale ; and 
therefore I blame him the less for it, that he endeavours to clear himself, using 
me as witness, to lay the contrivance at the door of William Thomas. But truly 
I never said any such words to him ; and the more fully to clear the matter, 
I saw John Fitzwilliams here just now, who can bear witness he never told me 
of any misunderstanding between them ; and as I knew nothing at all of any 
misunderstanding, so I knew nothing of the cause. I desire, my lords, he may 
be called to swear what he can as to this affair.** Then John Fitzwilliams drew 
to the bar, and offered to depose his knowledge of the matter in open court. 

Attorney 'General. ** I pray you, my lords, suffer him not to be sworn, nor to 
•peak ; we have nothing to do with him.'* 

Sir Nicholiu Throckmorton, ** Why should not he be suffered to tell the truth ? 
and why are you not so willing to hear truth for me, as falsehood against me 7" 

Sir N. Hare. ** Who called you hither, Fitzwilliams, or bid you speak ? You 
are a very busy fellow.** 

Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, ** I called him, and humbly desire he may speak 
and be heard as well as Vaughan [a witness, and the only one, who had been 
called personally against him], or else I am not indifferently used, especially as 
Mr. Attorney doth so press this matter against me.*' 

Sir R. Southwell " Go your way, Fitzwilliams, the court has nothing to do 
with you ; peradventure you would not be so ready in a good cause." 

And so John Fitzwilliams went out of the courts and was not suffered to speak. 


It is probable, however, that this rejection of evidence affected the priBoner's in- 
terests with the jury at least as favourably as the evidence itself could have done 
if heard. And Throckmorton took care to press the consideration directly home 
to them. " Since/' said he, " this gentleman's declaration may not be admitted, 
I hope you of the jury will take notice, that this was not for any thing he had to 
say against me, but, on the contrary, for fear he should speak for me. Now as to 
Master Arnold's deposition against me, I say, I did not tell him any such words ; 
so that, ]f they were material, there is but his Yea and my Nay for them. But 
that the words may not be so much strained against me, I pray you, Mr. Attorney, 
why might I not have told Arnold that John Fitzwilliams was angry with William 
Thomas, and yet not know the cause of the anger ? Who proves that I knew 
any thing of the design of William Thomas to kill the Queen ? No man ; for 
Arnold says not one word of it, but only that there was a difference between 
them ; and to say that implies neither treason, nor any knowledge of treason. 
Is this all the evidence you have against me, in order to bring me within the 
compass of the indictment?*' 

Serg^ Stamford. ** Methinks those things which others have confessed, together 
with your own confession, will weigh shrewdly. But what have you to say as to 
the rising in Kent, and Wyatt's attempt against the Queen's royal person in her 
palace ?*' 

Chief Justice Bromley. '* Why do you not read to him Wyatt s accusation, which 
makes him a sharer in his treasons ?*' 

Sir jR. SouthweU. " Wyatt has grievously accused you, and in many things which 
have been confirmed by others." 

Sir N, Throckmorton. " Whatever Wyatt said of me in hopes to save his life, 
he unsaid it at his death ; for, since I came into the hall, I heard one say, whom 
I do not know, that Wyatt on the scaffold cleared not only the Lady Elizabeth 
and the Earl of Devonshire, but also all the gentlemen in the Tower, saying none 
of them knew any thing of his commotion ; of which number I take myself to be 

Sir N. Hare. *' Nevertheless, he said that all he had written and confessed 
before the Council was true.** 

Sir N. Throckmorton. " Nay, sir, by your patience, Wyatt did not say so : that 
was Master Doctor s addition." 

Sir R. Southwell. " It seems you have good intelligence.** 

Sir N. Throckmorton. " Almighty God provided this revelation for me this very 
day, since I came hither ; for I have been in close prison for eight-and-fifty days, 
where I could hear nothing but what the birds told me, who flew over my head.** 

The law of the lawyers fared no better in Throckmorton*s grasp than their facts. 
After a rapid and masterly review of, and answer to, all that had been alleged 
against him, he took up new ground, namely, that according to the only two 
statutes in force against treasons, he could not, even if guilty, be attainted within 
the indictment. These statutes he now desired to be read. 

Chief Justice Bromley. '* No, there shall be no books brought at your desire : 
we know the law sufficiently without book.** 

Sir N. Throckmorton. " Do you bring me hither to try me by the law, and will 
not show me the law t What is your knowledge of the law to the satisfaction of 


these men, who have my trial in hand. Pray, my lord, and my lords all, let the 
statutes be read, as well for the Queen as for me.** 

Serg. Stamford. '* My Lord Chief Justice can tell what the law is, and will do 
it, if the jury are doubtAil in any particular.*' 

Sir N. Throckmorton. " You know it is but reasonable that I should know and 
hear the law by which I am to be judged ; and forasmuch as the statute is in 
English, people of less learning than the judges can understand it, or how else 
should we know when we offend ?" 

Sir N. Hare. " You know not what is proper for your case, and therefore we 
must inform you. It is not our business to provide books for you ; neither do 
we sit here to be taught by you : you should have been better informed of the 
law before you came hither.** [Our readers will do well to keep this remark in 
view, in order properly to enjoy what follows.] 

Sir N. Throckmorton. " Because I am ignorant I would learn^ and therefore I 
have the more occasion to see the law, partly for the instruction of the jury, and 
partly for my own satisfaction ; which methinks would be for the honour of the 
court. And now, if it please you, my Lord Chief Justice, I do principally direct 
my words to you. When the Queen was pleased to call you to that honourable 
office, I did learn of a great man, and one of her Majesty's Privy Council, that 
her Majesty, among other good instructiotis, charged and 'enjoined you to ' admi- 
nister the law and justice impartially, and without respect of persons. And not- 
withstanding the old error among you, which did not admit any witness to speak, 
or any thing else to be heard, in favour of the adversary, where her Majesty was 
a party^ it was her Highnesses pleasure that whatever could be produced in favour 
of the subject should be admitted to be heard ) and further^ Uiat you in a parti- 
cular manner, and likewise all other judges, were not to consider that you sat in 
judgment otherwise for her Majesty than for her subjects." Therefore this method 
of impartiality in your proceedings being principally enjoined by 6od*s command, 
as I designed to have reminded you at first, if I could have had leave to do it, 
and the same being also given in command to you from the Queen's own mouth, 
I think you ought in justice to allow me to have the statutes openly read, and to 
reject nothing that could be spoken in my defence : in so doing, you shall approve 
yourselves worthy ministers of justice, and fit for so worthy a mistress." 

Chief Justice Bromley. " You mistake the thing; the Queen said those words 
to Morgan, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas : but you have no reason to com- 
plain, for you have been suffered to speak as much as you pleased.** 

Sir N. Hare. *' What would you do with the statute-book ? The jury do not 
require it ; they have heard the evidence, and they must upon their consciences try 
whether you are giulty or not ; so that there is no need of the book ; if they will 
not believe such clear evidence, then they know what they have to do.** 

Sir R. Cholmley. " You ought not to have any books read here at your ap- 
pointment; for if any question arises in point of law, the judges are here to inform 
the court ; and now you do but spend time.*' 

Attorney-General. " My Lord Chief Justice, I pray you to sum up the evidence 
for the Queen ; and give the charge to the jury ; for the prisoner will keep you 
here all day.'* 

Chief Justice Bromley. " How say you, have you any more to say for yourself?** 


Sir N. Throckmorton. " You seem to give and offer me the law, but in very 
deed I have only the form and image of the law: nevertheless, since I cannot have 
the statutes read openly in the book, / will, with your leave, guess at them as well 
as I can ; and I pray you to help me if I mistake, for it is long since I have seen 
them.'* He then went on to point out, reciting the passage in question verbatim, 
that the Statute of Repeal, made in the last Parliament, had referred all treason- 
able offences to the statute 25th Edw. III., the essential part of which he also cor- 
rectly repeated, and that that required a man to be ''attainted by open deed, by 
people of his condition;" he then, turning to the jury, continued: "Now, I pray 
you, of the jury, who have my life in trial, mark well what things at this day are 
treasons ; and how these treasons must be tried and detected ; that is, by ' open 
deed,' which the law doth sometime call an avert act And now I ask, beside my 
indictment, which is but matter alleged, where does the 'open deed * of my com- 
passing and imagining the Queen's death appear? or where does any 'open deed' 
appear of my adhering to the Queen's enemies, giving them aid and comfort? or 
where does any ' open deed ' appear of taking the Tower of London ?" 

Chief Justice Bromley. " Why do not you, who are the Queen's learned counsel, 
answer him ? I think, Throckmorton, you need not to see the statutes, for you 
have them pretty perfectly." After this appeal, which one could almost fancy 
exhibited a latent sense of enjoyment on the part of the Chief Justice of the 
dilemma which seemed opening upon the lawyers, there ensued a long and 
spirited discussion on the meaning of the words of the statute, in which, to the 
evident mortification of the lawyers, the man who should have been " better in- 
formed " before he came there, disputed every point of law with such depth of 
legal learning as well as intellectual subtlety, that they were fain to bring the 
whole strength of the bench against him, with what success we must give 
' one further illustration. As a closing proof that the law admitted of the 
conviction of traitors apart from the statute of Edward, and in answer to 
some case brought forward by the prisoner, which very strongly demanded an 
answer, the Lord Chief Justice stated that a man, in the time of Henry IV., was 
adjudged a traitor, and yet the fact did not come within the express words of the 
said statute. ''I pray you, my Lord Chief Justice," was the instantaneous and 
crushing answer, " call to your good remembrance, that in the selfsame case of 
the Seal, Judge Spelman, a grave and well-learned man, since that time, would 
not condemn the offender, but censured the former judgment by your Lordship 
last cited, as erroneous'* The Chief Justice was silenced, whilst Sergeant Stam- 
ford could not help remarking, in the bitterness of his spirit, '* If I had thought 
you were so well furnished with book cases, I would have come better pre- 
pared for you." One other extract, a passage of the truest and perfectly un- 
studied eloquence, and we have done. Being about to offer another argument 
to answer the assumption, which the lawyers now returned to, as safer ground, 
that Wyatt*8 actions, taken in connexion with Throckmorton's presumed cog- 
nizance, proved the latter to be an adviser and procurer. Sergeant Stamford told 
him the Judges did not sit there to make disputations, but to declare the law; and 
one of those Judges (Hare) having confirmed the observation, by telling Throck- 
morton he had heard both the law and the reason, if he could b^it understand it, 
he cried out passionately, " Oh, merciful God ! Oh, eternal Father ! who seest all 


things, what manner of proceedings arc these? To what purpose was the statute 
of repeal made in the last Parliament, where I heard some of you here present, 
and several others of the Queen's learned counsel, grievously inveigh against the 
cruel and bloody laws of Henry VIII., and some laws made in the late King's 
time ? Some termed them Dracoes laws, which were written in blood ; others 
said they were more intolerable than any laws made by Dionysius or any other 
tyrant In a word, as many men, so many bitter names and terms those laws. 

Let us now but look with impartial eyes, and consider thoroughly 

with ourselves, whether, as you, the Judges, handle the statute of Edward III., 
with your equity and constructions, we are not now in a much worse condition than 
when we were yoked with those cruel laws. Those laws, grievous and captious 
as they were, yet had the very property of laws, according to St. PauVs descrip- 
tion, for they admonished us, and discovered our sins plainly to us, and when a 
man is warned he is half armed ; but these laws, as they are handled, are very 
baits to catch us, and only prepared for that purpose ; they are no laws at all : 
for at first sight they assure us that we are delivered from our old bondage, and 
live in more security ; but when it pleases the higher powers to call any man*8 
life and sayings in question, then there are such constructions, interpretations, 
and extensions reserved to the Judges and their equity, that the party tried, as I 
now am, will find himself in a much worse case than when those cruel laws were 
in force. But I require you, honest men, who are to try my life, to consider 
these things : it is clear these Judges are inclined rather to the times than to the 
truth; for their judgments are repugnant to the law, repugnant to their own 
principles, and repugnant to the opinions of their godly and Jearned pre- 

After a summing up by the Judge, in which Sir Nicholas had to help his 
** bad memory " as to the answers given to the charges, and after a most solemn 
address to the jury by the latter, the case was left to them — the final 
judges, fortunately, of the matter, as they were the only ones in whom the pri- 
soner could have had any hope from the commencement of the trial. As they 
were dismissed, Throckmorton, whom nothing escaped, who was as shrewd and 
sagacious one moment as impressive and irresistible the next, through the whole 
proceedings, took care to demand that no one should have access to the jury. 
What terrible hours must those have been that now elapsed before the return of 
the jury into the court ! — but at last they came. After the usual preliminary 
form, followed the momentous question, '' How sa^ you ? is Sir Nicholas Throck- 
morton, knight, the prisoner at the bar, guilty of the treason for which he has 
been indicted and arraigned ? Yea or no ? '' 

Foreman. "No." 

The Lord Chief Justice would fain have frightened the jury into another 
verdict ; and when that did not succeed, began to consult with the Commissioners, 
but Sir Nicholais gave them not a moment, steadily but respectfully reiterating his 
demand for his discharge; and at last it was given. Thus ended the most 
interesting trial perhaps on record, for the exhibition of intellectual power. The 
jury were not allowed to escape unpunished ; imprisonment and fines fell heavily 
upon them, for daring to do what they had the absurdity to believe they were 
placed there to do — decide according to their conscience, even though it were in 
a State prosecution. 


The trial of Garnet, before alluded to, though deeply interesting in itself, and 
still more important in a political sense than Throckmorton's, would read but 
flat)y after the latter; the Jesuit, with all his double-dealing and wily caution, 
fell into a trap at which Throckmorton would have laughed. A brief record of 
the case, therefore, as a whole, will be at once more attractive and suitable to 
oar remaining space. When the Gunpowder Plot first frightened the isle from 
its propriety, and alarmed James to that degree that the veritable explosion, 
had he escaped, could hardly have increased the consciousness of the wrongs 
he had done to the Catholics, and which they sought to avenge by so monstrous 
and wholesale an act of slaughter, coupled with the instincts of cruelty and 
destruction, which the weak so often exhibit after danger, seem to have 
wrought greatly upon hia mind, and to have induced him not to remain content 
with the lives of the conspirators, and their aiders and abettors, taken though 
they were in a mode, and to an extent, that leduces the Government of the day 
to a level with the men it punished for barbarous inhumanity, but to strive 
also to fix upon the entire Catholic people the guilt of sharing in the conspi- 
racy. Again and again, therefore, did the Commission examine Fawkes and his 
companions, with the usual accompaniment of examinations in those days — 
torture, aided by the searching minds of Popham, Coke, and Bacon ; and 
at last sufRcient matter was extorted, chiefly from Bates, Catesby's servant, to 
warrant the issue of a proclamation for the apprehension of three priests — 
Gerard, Greenway, and the Superior of the Jesuits in England, Garnet. The 
two former escaped to the Continent, whilst the latter, having sent a letter to the 
Zxtrds of the Council, strongly asserting his innocence, disappeared, and for a 
long time baffled alt attempts at discovery. At last, Humphrey Littleton, con- 
demned to death at Worcester for harbouring two of the conspirators, in order to 
save his own life, told the sheriJT that some Jesuits named in the proclamation 
were at Hendlip, a spacious mansion, about four miles from Worcester, which 
was only pulled down in the present century. It is to be regretted it is lost, not on 

[HmdiiptioiiH. laoo.] 


account of the interest attached to it by the romantic adventure we are about to 
mention, but an a specimen of the buildings of the age when concealment was too 
frequently necessary in order to escape from religious and political persecutiqns. 
" There is scarcely an apartment," says the author of the account of Worcester- 
shire (' Beauties of England and Wales *), who describes it as he himself saw it, 
" that has not secret ways of going in or going out; some have back staircases 
concealed in the walls ; others have places of retreat in their chimneys ; some 
have trap-doors ; and all present a picture of gloom, insecurity, and suspicion.** 
Thither, on receiving Littleton's information, went Sir Henry Bromley of Holt 
Castle, with elaborate instructions from Lord Salisbury as to the modes of 
search he was to adopt. For some time Sir Henry was perfectly unsuccessful, 
and, as he says, '' out of all hope of finding any man or any thing/' until he 
discovered *' a number of Popish trash " hid under boards in three or four several 
places, which stimulated him to continue a watch, and, at last, two unhappy men 
came forth '^ firom hunger and cold,*' one of whom it was thought was Green- 
way. With fresh vigour was the search now prosecuted, and one of the men, 
on the eighth day, discovering an opening into a cell not previously known, 
there came forth two more persons, both Jesuits, and one of them the anxiously 
sought-for Oamet. He was immediately conveyed to the Tower, where he was 
examined almost daily for ten days, but without any conclusive proof being fur- 
nished of his own guilt, or the guilt of the others named in the proclamation. 
Especial reasons of state seem to have saved Garnet firom the torture, but his 
servant Owen and the other two Jesuits, Oldcome and Chambers (who with 
Oamet made the four found at Hendlip), were not only tortured, but one of 
them (Owen) with such infamous severity, that the unhappy man ripped up his 
own body with a table-knife to escape any further infliction. A new scheme was 
now tried, worthy of the institution from which it had probably been derived — ^the 
Spanish Inquisition — and Garnet was at once caught. He and Oldcome were 
placed in adjoining cells, and informed by the keeper, under strong injunctions of 
secrecy, that, by opening a concealed door, they might confer together. And 
here every day or two they met, their whole conversation at the mercy of two 
listeners, who made regular written memorandums of it for the Council. Add 
thus was laid the groundwork of the great body of criminatory evidence subse- 
quently established against Garnet at Guildhall, where, in order, as both Lord 
Salisbury and Sir Edward Coke stated on the trial, to compliment the loyalty of 
the citizens by so exemplary a display of Popish treason, the trial took place, on 
the 28th of March, 1606 ; and ended in his conviction and execution, amidst a 
general feeling among the Catholics that he was a martyr. This feeling was 
still more strongly called forth by the strange imposture known as Garnet's 
Straw. The history given by the presumed author of the imposture, Wilkinson, 
states that a considerable quantity of dry straw having been cast into the basket 
with Garnet's head and quarters, at the execution, he standing near, found the 
straw in question thrown towards him — how, he knew not. " The straw," he con- 
tinues, " I afterwards delivered to Mrs. N., a matron of singular Catholic piety, 
who enclosed it in a bottle, which being rather shorter than the straw, it became 
slightly bent. A few days afterwards, Mrs. N. showed the straw in the bottle to 
a certain noble person, her intimate acquaintance, who, looking at it attentively. 


at length said, ' I can see nothing in it but a man's face.* Mrs. N. and myself 
being astonished at this unexpected declaration, again and again examined the 
ear of the straw, and distinctly perceived in it a human countenance/' &c. The 
prodigy excited universal attention, and led at last to a very prevalent belief 
among the Catholics at home and abroad that a miracle had been vouchsafed to 
prove the Jesuit's innocence. At first the appearance of the face was very simple, 
but, gradually, to accommodate the increasing demands of wonder and superstitions 
belief, the whole expanded into an imposing-looking head, crowned and encircled 
by rays, with a cross on the forehead, and an anchor coming out of the ear at the 
sides. At last it engaged the attention of the Privy Council, who exposed the 
fraud, and then very wisely left the matter to drop gradually into oblivion. 
Of the other events in what we may call this episodical history of Guildhall, there 
are but two possessing any high claims to recollection — ^the trial of the poet 
Waller, in the period of the Commonwealth, which we can only thus briefly refer 
to, and that of the poet Surrey, in the reig^ of Henry VIII., which will be noticed 
elsewhere. The building itself belongs to the municipal government of London, 
which will form the subject of our next paper. 


AxTiQUARiKS tell uB tliat there wu an ancient Baxon lav — imposed probably by 
the rnlen of that people after the conquest oF this country, the better to keep its 
wild and conflicting elements in order — which ordained that every freeman of 
fourteen years old should find sureties to keep the peace ; and that, in conse- 
quence, " certain neighbours, consisting of ten fomilies, entered into an aseo- 
ciation, and became bound to each other to produce him who committed an 
offence, (» to make satisfaction to the injured party. That they might the better 
do this, they raised a sum of money amongst themselves, which they put into a 
common stock, and when one of the pledges had committed an offence, and was 
fled, then the other nine made satisfaction out of this stock, by payment of 
money according to the offence. In the mean time, that they might the better 
identify each other, as well as ascertain whether any man was absent on unlawful 
basiness> they assembled at stated periods at a common table, where they ate 
and drank together."* This primitive custom, so simple and confined in its ope- 
rations, was to beget mighty consequences in the hands of the amalgamated 
Anglo-Saxon people. We find its associating principle following them into the 
fiwtified places or burghs where they first assembled for the purposes of trade 

* JohnNo'i Caocnui, Lam of Iiu, tmucribed rnmi Herbett'i ' Li*«r; Companlu,' toI. i. p. 3. 
VOL. V. . a , 


and commerce (the nuclei of our towns) , and affording to them an infinitely safer 
defence against aggression than any fortifications could give, in the Trade Guilds. 
1(, therefore, there be one of the great and still existing institutions of anti- 
quity, possessing in its history matters of deeper interest and instruction than 
any other, it is that of our municipal government, whose very meeting-places 
constantly remind us by their designation what they were — the guild-halls, and 
what we owe to the system, which has, unfortunately, through causes into which 
it is not our province to enter, enjoyed of late years more of the popular con- 
tempt than of popular gratitude : a feeling which, if it promised to be perma- 
nent, might well excite the apprehension of the political philosopher as to the 
ultimate well-being of the country. All considerations, then, tend to invest the 
very word guildhall with a more than ordinary sense of the value of the associa- 
tions that may belong to a name, and which is of course enhanced when it refers, 
not merely to a hall of a guild, but to the hall of the guilds generally of the 
metropolis, as in that we are about to notice in connection with Civic Government. 
The building itself, as we now approach it from Cheapside, through King 
Street, appears no unapt type of the discordant associations that have grown up 
around the institution : the old hall, in the main, is there still, but with a new 
face, which shows how ludicrously inadequate were its builders to accomplish their 
apparent desire of restoring it in harmony with, but improving upon, the gene- 
ral structure ; and they seem to have had some misgivings of the kind them- 
selves ; for they have so stopped short in the elevation, as to leave the dingy 
and supremely ,'ugly brick walls, with their round-headed windows* added by 
their predecessors to the upper portion of the hall after the fire of London, ob- 
trusively visible. It is possible that the " little college '* which stood here prior 
to the year 1411, had been either in itself or in its predecessors founded by the 
Confessor, whose arms are yet visible in the porch ; at the time mentioned, the 
present hall was begun by the corporation, Thomas Knowles being then Mayor. 
Among the modes adopted of obtaining the requisite monies, are some which, 
though common enough in connection with ecclesiastical structures, are remark- 
able as applied to a guildhall : Stow, whose authority is Fabyan, having remarked 
that the companies gave large benevolences towards the charges thereof, adds, 
" Also offences of men were pardoned for sums of money towards this work, ex- 
traordinary fees were raised, fines, amercements, and other things employed during 
seven years, with a [partial, probably is meant] continuation thereof three years 
more.'** Even then the whole was not completed ; a variety of miscellaneous 
items of a later date occur in connection with the edifice, such as that in 
1422-3 the executors of Whittington gave 35/. towards the paving of the hall 
with Purbeck marble ; about the same time was also erected the Mayor's Court, 
the Council Chamber, and the porch; in 1481, Sir William Harryot, Mayon 
defrayed the expense of making and glazing two louvres in the roof of the hall; 
the kitchen was built by the *' procurement *' of Sir John Shaw, goldsmith and 
Mayor, about 1501 ; finally, tapestry, to hang in the Hall on principal days, 
was provided about the same time by Sir Nicholas Aldwyn, another Mayor. If 
we add to this, that a new council chamber was erected in 1614, that after the 
Great Fire the walls remained so comparatively uninjured, that only roofs and 
out-officcs had to be rebuilt, and that it was towards the close of the last century 

• < Survey,' ed. 1633, p. 282. 


that the " truly Gothic faqade/' as Brayley satirically calls it^ using the word in 
its less usual but sufficiently evident acceptation^ was built^ we shall not need to 
dwell any longer on the general history of the erection. Before we enter the 
porch, we may cast a brief glance at the surrounding buildings. The one on the 
left is the Justice Soom of Guildhall, where the ordinary magisterial business of 
that part of the City which lies west of King Street is conducted, under the super- 
intendence of an Alderman ; the other, or eastern portion, forming the business of 
the Justice Boom at the Mansion House, where the Mayor presides. The building 
opposite, on the right, contains the Courts of Queen's Bench and Common Pleas, 
held, with the Court of Exchequer, at Guildhall three several days during each 
term, and on the next day but one after each term, from time immemorial. The City 
receives 3^. 6d. for each verdict given in these Courts, in payment for the use of 
the buildings provided ; and there the connection ends at present, whatever may 
have been the case in former times, when the custom originated. In both courts 
the excessively naked and chilly aspect of the walls is somewhat relieved by the 
portraits of the judges, who, after the fire of London, sat at Clifford's Inn, to 
arrange all differences between landlord and tenant during the great business of 
rebuilding ; and who thus, as Pennant observes, prevented the endless train of 
vexatious lawsuits which might have ensued, and been little less chargeable than 
the fire itself. We wonder whether the judges or the legislature will ever take 
it into their heads to give us the blessing of such courts of reconciliation and 
summary determination of differences without a preliminary fire ! Sir Matthew 
Hale was the chief manager of the good work in question, which so won upon 
the City, that, after the affair was concluded, they determined to have the por- 
traits of the whole of the judges painted and hung in their hall, as a permanent 
memorial of their gratitude. Lely was to have been the artist, but, being too 
great a man to wait upon the judges at their respective chambers, Michael 
Wright, a Scotchman, obtained the commission. He is the painter of a highly- 
esteemed portrait of Lacy, the actor, in three characters, preserved in the 
collection at Windsor. Sixty pounds each was his remuneration for the portraits 
at Guildhall, and it certainly seems as much as they were worth. On the site 
of these Law Courts, there was standing, till the year 1822, the chapel or college, 
shown in our engraving of the exterior of Guildhall, in the preceding number, 
which was built so early as 1299, and had, in its palmiest days^ an establishment 
of a custos or warden^ seven priests, three clerks, and four choristers. '^ Here 
used to be service once a week, and also at the election of the Mayor, and before 
the Mayor's feast, to deprecate indigestion and all plethoric evils"* — the chapel 
having been given by Edward VI. to the City at the dissolution of the college. 
Adjoining the chapel there had been, before Stow's time, " a fair and large 
library," belonging to the Guildhall and College, which that wholesale pillager, 
the Protector Somerset, laid his hands upon during the reign of the young Ed- 
ward, on the plea of merely borrowing the books for a time. In consequence, 
till the present century, the citizens of London, in their corporate capacity, had 
scarcely a book in their possession ; but in 1824, an annual grant of 200/., and 
a preliminary one of 500/., for the formation of a new library, was made ; and 

• Pennant, 'London/ ed. 1791, p, 415. 



the collection, already ridi in pnblicationa in civic topography and hiatory, pm- 
miaea to become, in course of time, not unworthy of the body to which it belong*. 
As we enter the porch the genuine architecture of the original ■tructure stiikec 
• upon the eye with a Bense of pleuurable surpriw. Its arch within arch, its 
beautifully panelled walls, hioking not unlike a range ofclosed-np Gothic 
windows, the pillars on the atone seat, and the numerous groins that spring from 
them intersecting the vaulted ceiling ; and, lastly, the gilt bosses, so profusely 
scattered about, all aeem to have remuned untouched — certainly uninjured — 
from the days of their erection, (luring the reign of Bolingbrolce. They are, 
however, the only things here unchanged. A citixen of that period would be a 
little puzzled, we suspect, to understand, for instance, the long bills which hang 
an each side of the doors leading from the porch into the hall, containing a list 
of the brokers authorised by the Mayor and Aldermen to exercise their vocation 
in the City : the funded system would certainly be too much for him. We enter 
the hall, and it does not need many glances to tell us that it has been a truly 
magnificent place, worthy of the extraordinary exertion* made for its erection, 
and of the City— we might almost say, considering its national importance, of 
the empire, to which it belonged. Nay, it i* magnificent still, in spite of the 
liberties that have been taken with it, such as closing up some of its windows 
with enormous pile* of sculpture ; and above all, in spite of the miserable modern 
upper story, with its vile windows, and of the flat roof, which has taken the 
place of the oaken and arched one, with its carved pendants, its picturesque 
combinations, and its rich masse* of shade, such as we may be certain once rose 
from the top* of those clustered columns. But the vast dimensions (152 feet in 
length, 50 in breadth, and about 55 in height), the noble proportions, and the 
exquisite architecture are still there, and may possibly at no distant period lead 
to the restoration of the whole in a different spirit from that which at once 
mangled and burlesqued it, under the pretence of admiration, in the last century : 
already the restoring of the roof i* talked of. The crypt below the Hall has 
been but little interfered with, and still shows the original design of the architect 


The contents of the Hall are too well known to render any lengthened description 
necessary ; we may therefore briefly observe, that they comprise in one depart- 
ment of art the monuments of the great men whom the City has delighted to 
honour^ and in another the renowned giants Gog and Magog. Among the 
former is that of William Beckford, Esq., who so astonished George III. by 
addressing him against all courtly preeedenti on receiving the unfavourable 
answer vouchsafed by the monarch to the Remonstrance of the City on the 
subject of Wilkes*s election ; and so delighted the citizens, that they caused this 
memorial to be erected after his death, which is said to have been accelerated by 
the excitement of the times acting upon ill health. The others are Lord Nelson's, 
tbe Right Hon. William Pitt's, and his father's, the Earl of Chatham ; the last 
by Bacon, the only one that seems to us deserving even of criticism. Allan 
Cunningham says, an eminent artist remarked to him one day, ''See, all is 
reeling — Chatham, the two ladies [Commerce and Manufactufeji the lion, the 
boys, the cornucopia, and all the rest, have been tumbled out of a waggon from 
tbe top of the pyramid/' There certainly never was, in the history of art, men 
capable of such great things making such melancholy mistakes as our modem 
sculptors in a large proportion of their more ambitious productions. The 
author of the strange jumble here so justly satirised is also the same ma;n of 
whom Cowper no less justly says--* 

" Bacon there 
Gives more than female beauty to a stone, 
And Chatham's eloquence to marble lips s" 

referring, in the last line, either to the chief figure on this very monument, or to 
that on Bacon's other Pitt memorial in Westminster Abbey. The inscriptions on 
the monuments of Nelson and the two Pitts seem to have called forth the literary 
powers of our statesmen in a kind of rivalry : Burke wrote the Earl of 
Chatham's, Canning William Pitt*s, and Sheridan Nelson's. The fine old crypt 
beneath the Hall, extending through its entire length, is in such excellent pre* 
servation that we cannot but regret some endeavour is not made to restore it to 
the light of day. As it is, what with the rise of the soil on the exterior, and the 
blocking up of windows, we can only dimly perceive through the gloaming the 
pillars and arches which divide it lengthwise into three aisles. Some of the uses 
of the great civic hall are well known. On the dais at the east end are erected 
the hustings for the parliamentary elections of the City of London. The Cor- 
poration banquets are also given here; and their history from the time Sir John 
Shaw — excellent man! — built the kitchen^ in 1501, down to the visit of her 
present Majesty, would furnish rich materials for an essay on the art and science 
of good living, for that the latter is both, cooks and aldermen unanimously agree. 
The most magnificent of these feasts seems to have been that of 1814, after the 
overthrow of Napoleon, when the chief guests were the Prince Regent, the Em- 
peror of Russia, and the King of Prussia, when the dinner was served entirely on 
plate, valued at above 200,000/., when all the other arrangements were conducted 
on a correspondingly sumptuous scale, and when, in a word, the expenditure was 
estimated at 25,000/. On some occasions the Guildhall banquets have had an 
historical interest attached to them. A good dinner, it is well known, is often 
the readiest and most effectual way of opening an Englishman's heart. Charles L, 

acting upon this maxim, dined with the citizens just at that critical period of 
his history when a recourse to arms must hare appeared to all thoughtful minds 
the only ultimate solution of the contest between him and the people. The long 
Parliament had met ; Strafford had been arrested, tried, and executed ; the city 
exhibiting its sentiments with regard to that nobleman, while his fate was yet no- 
decided, by presenting a petition for justice against him, signed by 20,000 citizens. 
To arrest these and other similarly dangerous symptoms was, therefore, an object 
of the highest importance. The banquet took place en the very day of the king's 
return from Scotland, the 25th of November, 1641, the corporation having come 
out to meet him on the road. Its conduct was, of course, marked by every pos- 
sible indication of external respect, and Charles took care to return their compli- 
ments in a truly royal manner. . When the Lord Mayor, Recorder, and others met 
him, in the Kingsland road, with an address, he made a very gracious reply, is 
which he told them, that he had thought of one thing as a particular affection to 
them, which was the giving back unto thecity that part of Londonderry (Ireland), 
which had been formerly evicted from them ; and, in conclusion, be knighted both 
the Lord Mayor — Acton, and the Recorder. Then they all went on together m 
stately procession to Guildhall, where the dinner gave such high satisfaction to 
their Majesties (the Queen being also present) that, after it was over, Charics 
■ent for Mr. John Pettas, a gentleman, says Maitland, of an ancient famOy in the 


county of Suffolk, who had married the Lord Mayor's daughter, and knighted 
him too. The royal visitors were then conducted to Whitehall, where his Majesty 
could not part with the Lord Mayor till he had most graciously embraced and 
thanked him, and charged him to thank the whole city in his name. Whether 
enough had not been done yet to soften the harshness of the city politics, and in 
despair further efforts were made, or whether the first move was so successful 
that everything might be hoped for from a second of a like kind, we know not ; 
but whatever the cause, not many days elapsed before the Mayor received a 
patent of buronetcy instead of the knighthood so recently conferred (he was a 
new Mayor, be it remembered, the 9th of November having only just passed) ; 
and when a deputation of the citizens, consisting of the Mayor and certain Alder- 
men, with the Sheriffs and the Recorder, went to Hampton Court to thank their 
Majesties for all favours, and to ask them to winter at Whitehall, &c., Charles 
agreed to their request, and '' after his Majesty had ended his answer, and that 
Mr. Recorder and Sir George Whitmore had kissed his royal hand, the next 
alderman in seniority kneeled down to receive the like princely favour, when 
suddenly and unexpectedly his Majesty drew a sword, and instead of giving him 
his hand to kiss he laid his sword upon his shoulder and knighted him ; the like 
he did to all the other aldermen and the two sheriffs, being in number seven ;*' 
whilst as an appropriate conclusion, we presume, to so much princely favour, 
*' his Majesty commanded that they should dine before they left the court.*** 

The annual feast in Guildhall, on Lord Mayor's Day, is but the suitable close 
to the general business of the installation of the new chief magistrate, which 
takes place the day before, and to the somewhat tedious honours involved in the 
pageantry of the procession. The twenty-six Aldermen, and two hundred and 
forty common-councilmcn of the City, have seen with their own eyes that the 
existence of the Corporation has not been endangered by the bare presumption of 
any momentary lapse as to its possession of a head ; in other words, they have 
seen the Lord Mayor elect and the Lord Mayor in possession sitting side by side, 
and then changing chairs; and the public have had their share of the enjoyment 
attached to the event, namely, the gilded coach and the men in armour ; and now 
all parties, except the public, sit down comfortably to enjoy themselves after their 
toils, still further solaced by the fair faces and radiant eyes which glow and 
sparkle in every direction : the concentrated loveliness of the civic domestic world, 
which these occasions, with a few others of a more accidental character, as a fancy 
ball for the benefit of the Poles, alone adequately reveal to us. The election of 
the Mayor takes place on the preceding 29th of September, and the electors are 
the liverymen of the several companies met in Common Hall, as it is called. 
To these the crier reads a list of Aldermen, in the order of seniority, who have 
served as sheriff (who alone are eligible), and who have not already passed the 
chair of mayoralty. In ordinary cases the first two persons named are accepted, 
but the Livery, if it pleases, may depart from that order, or even select those in 
preference who have already been elected and served. If the decision of a show 
of hands be not accepted, a poll is taken, which lasts seven days. The two 
names finally determined upon are announced to the Mayor and Aldermen by the 
Common Sergeant; these also generally select the senior Alderman^ but may 

* Maitlaml, vol. i. p. 343-316. 


reject him^ as in a recent instance, for the othen The person elected then d^* 
clares his acceptance of the office (rejection subjects him to a fine of 1000^), 
and the Lord Mayor, Becorder^ Sheriffs, and Common Sergeant, returning to 
the Hall^ declare the result, and proclamation accordingly is made. There re- 
mains but to present him to the Lord Chancellor, in order to receive his assent 
on the part of the Crown to the election ; to administer the usual oaths before 
the Mayor and Aldermen on the morning of the 8th, after which the proceedings 
before alluded to take place ; and lastly, the presentation to the Barons of the 
Exchequer, when he is again sworn, a custom that is an interesting memento of 
the state of things after the Conquest, when the chief municipal oiEcers were 
the parties appointed by the king as the instruments of his pecuniary exactions, 
and who, when, in lapse of time, again elected by their respective municipalities, 
were sworn to pay duly into the Exchequer the crown rent then accepted in lieu 
of the former uncertain and arbitrary imposts : London had two of these officers^ 
called bailiffs, and paid 300/. yearly. 

The mummeries and sensual enjoyments which seem to round in and to form 
so large a portion of London municipal life has liad tine bad effect, which is as 
much to be regretted for the sake of its chief officers themselves, as for the insti- 
tution : they have turned aside the public attention, not merely from the capa* 
cities of the one, but have made it estimate very inaccurately the real nature 
and amount of the services performed by the other. Looking at it as a whole> 
it would be difficult to find a more arduous and responsible position than that of 
the mayoralty of London. Consider for a moment the Mayor's duties. He pre- 
sides at the sittings of the Court of Aldermen, both in their own and in what is 
called the Lord Mayor's Court, at the Court of Common Council, and at the 
Common Hall. He is Judge of the Court of Hustings, which, however, does 
not make any extensive demands upon his time; a Judge of the Central Criminal 
Court, and the same of the London Sessions held at Ouildhall. He is a justice 
of the peace for Southwark^ where he usually opens the Sessions^ and continues 
subsequently to preside. He is escheator in London and Southwark^ when 
there is anything esoheatable, not a matter now of very frequent occurrence* 
He is conservator of the Thames, an office that involves^ among other duties^ the 
holding eight courts within the year, and occasionally a ninth. He has to sign 
affidavits to notarial documents required for transmission to the colonies, to 
attend, wheti necessary, committees of the municipal body, and the meetings of 
the Sewage Commissioners, of which he is a member* Then, in matters of 
a more general nature, in which the City is concerned, or in which it feels in- 
terested, he is expected to take the lead, and in consequence is in continual com* 
munication with the Government ; he presides at public meetings ; distinguished 
foreigners have a kind of prescriptive claim on his attention and hospitality. 
He attends the Privy Council on the accession of a new sovereign ; at corona- 
tions he is chief butler^ and receives a golden cup as his fee. And as if his time 
were still insufficiently occupied with his own corporate business, and the 
diings naturally growing out of it, other institutions look to him for assistance : 
ho is a governor of Greenwich Hospital^ governor of King's College, a trustee of 
St. Paurs, and connected with we know not how many other schools, hospitals, 
and public foundations. Lastly, not that the list is exhausted, but that our 


spitce ifl^ he sits daily In his own jnstiee-room at the MuMion House^ for tMsaroely 
less than fonr hours a day on the average. We are not aware how the mere 
enumeration of saeh an overwhelming anfount of business as this may affect the 
fancy of the sportive wits who amuse themselves at the expense of the office and 
the officer, but we do know that the latter need desire no better revenge than to 
be allowed to catch one of these s&id gentlemen^ and place him in the civic chair 
lor a single week. 

Yet it miist be owned that some of the interest formerly attached to the 
Mayoralty, and most of the romance, have been lost. There are no opportunities 
now for the incipient Walworths to show their prowess ; no government, be it 
Whig or Tory, thinks now of making the Lord Mayor an occasional inmate of 
the Tower, as a mode of drawing his attention, as a wedthy and benevolent dtiten, 
to its financial necessities. The history of the Lord Mayors of London in the 
nineteenth century certainly looks rather insignificant beside the history of their 
predecessors some four or five centuries back. Take up any tolerably full index 
to a history of the metropolis, and mark the expressive items enumerated under 
the word Mayor. Here is ftaitland's, which, beginning With the first chief magis- 
trate (after the bailifis), Henry Fitz-Alwin, 1189^ and proceeding chronologically 
downwards, tells us that at one time the Mayor — submits to the king's mercy, 
at another — is arrested, and purchases his liberty at a dear rate — is committed 
to prison-^is, with four of the aldermen, delivered up to the prince to be fleeced—' 
is degraded — ^presented to the Constable of the Tower — again committed to 
prison — ^reprimanded by the privy council — flies with the other citizens^^assaulted 
— fined; ''Warm work^ my masters!" and this all in the first century and a half. 
The cause was, no doubt, to be found very much in the feelings and conduct of 
the Mayor and his brethren in those days ; they were neither content, on the 
one hand, to help the monarch to fleece their fellow-citizens^ nor would be fleeced 
themselves. Without being delivered up, on the other. And, after all, one Wonders 
why the monarch took so much trouble with men who were indignant at what he 
did rather than grateful for what he did not, but might have done ; and seeing 
how much more easy it was to seize and take care of a charter than a mayor, 
how much more profitable its gracious restoration. Possibly the fkct that the 
citizens of London could, if need were, use the arms with which they were then 
generally provided, may have had something to do with the matter, and rendered 
subtlety as necessary as force in dealing with them. Hence the interference of 
royalty in the earlier elections, and the variety of interesting events that sprang 
firom this interference, among which is one that it is strange has not been more 
dwelt upon, from the high interest attached to an actor therein. It may surprise 
many to hear that one of the greatest of English poets, Chaucer, ought also to be 
looked upon as one df the most eminent on the roll of the civic illustrious : no 
portrait, no memorial of any kind, reminds you in Guildhall of his name, yet 
was he an exile in the cause of corporate freedom. Bom in London, as he him- 
self tells us> and feeling more kindly love " to that place than to any other in 
earth," he was not one to remain in inaction when its liberties were threatened 
with utter destruction by Richard II. Fortunately, we possess his own state- 
ment of what his views on this subject had been from an early period of his life. 
'' In my youth," says the poet, " I was drawn to be assentant — and in my might 


helping — ^to certain conjuradons [confederacies], and other great matters of mling 
of citizens ; and thylke things being my drawers-in and exciters to these matters, 
were so painted and coloured^ which at the prime face meseemed them noble 
and glorious to all the people. I then weening mickle merit [to] have deserved 
in furthering and maintenance of those things, busied and laboured with all my 
diligence, in working of thilke matters to the end. And truly to tell you the 
sooth, merought little of any hate of the mighty Senators* in thilke city, nor of 
commons* malice, for two skilles [reasons] : one was, I had comfort to be in such 
plight, that both profit were to me and to my friends ; another was, for common 
profit in communalty is not, but [unless] peace and tranquillity with just govern- 
ance proceedeth from thilke profit :" observations worthy of the author of the 
' Canterbury Tales ;* and presenting an interesting glimpse of the principles 
that guided the poet in action. Prior to the event we are about to notice, 
Kichard had shown an almost open hostility towards the citizens, partly, it is 
said, on account of their manly remonstrances against the proceedings of his 
ministers, and partly from envy of their wealth. Accordingly, it appears, '^ he 
was accustomed," says Godwin, '' when thqy had fallfti under his displeasure, to 
oblige them to purchase his fbrgiveness with large contributions in money ;'* and 
he had also repeatedly imposed his own creature. Sir Nicholas Brember, as 
Mayor, upon them, in defiance of their wishes and rights. It may be here no- 
ticed that the City records show that, in former times, the election of the Mayor 
was claimed by some popular and large constituency, which, no doubt, was the 
entire body of citizens; we shall perceive, in Chaucer's own account of the 
matter, that this was an element of the struggle between Kichard and the Lon- 
doners. Describing (in his appeal to the government from the Tower, from which 
the foregoing passage is taken) the arguments used by his associates to induce 
him to adopt the line of conduct which had brought him into so much misery, 
he says, " The things which, quod they, be for common advant^e, may not 
stand, but [unless] we be executors of these matters, and authority of execution 
by common election, to us be delivered ; and that must enter by strength of your 
maintenance." Again, '' The government,'* quod they, '' of your city, left in the 
hands of tomencious [usurious or extortionate] citizens shall bring in pestilence 
and destruction to you, good men ; and therefore let us have the common admi- 
nistration to abate such evils.*' We have here still more clearly pointed out the 
motives that actuated Chaucer in engaging in the struggle between the King and 
the popular party in the City, and which rose to its climax in 1392; when the 
latter selected John of Northampton to be the candidate for the Mayoralty in 
opposition to Brember, and a most exciting contest ensued. Chaucer is supposed 
by Godwin to have had another motive besides his regard for the liberties of the 
City, namely, zeal for his patron, John of Gaunt, towards whose ruin, it seems, 
the proceedings of the Court were looked upon as the first step. Of the details 
of the struggle we know very little. Chaucer says of it, " And so, when it fell 
thst/ree election by great clamour of much people [who], for great disease of go- 
vernment, so fervently stooden in their election [of their own candidate] that 

* The Aldermeo probably of that day ; a body that we find continually leaning towarda royalty through tbe 
early ttrugglei of the citizens against it. 



they themselves snbmitted to every manner face [or, in other words, every ima- 
ginable disadvantage] rather than have sulFered the manner and the rule of the 
hated governors, (notwithstanding that [they], in the contrary, held much com- 
mon meiny [followers] that have no consideration but only to voluntary 
lusts without reason), then thilko governor [Brember] so forsaken," and 
fearing " his undoing for misrule in his time," endeavoured to hinder the 
election and procure a new one in favour of himself; and then burst out the 
insurrection, or in the poet's words, ''mokyl roar areared." The result shows 
how deeply he was himself concerned. After the " roar '* had been quelled 
by a large armed body, under Sir Bobert Knolles, on the part of the king, 
and Sir Nicholas Brember once more unduly installed in the chair, proceed- 
ings commenced against the principal leaders of the defeated party. Of 
these we find only two names mentioned — John of Northampton's, who was 
committed to confinement in Corfe Castle, and thence removed to Carisbrook 
Castle whilst preparations for his trial were made, and Chaucer's, against 
whom similar process was commenced^ but who, knowing the men with whom he 
had to deal, fled to Zealaifd. There he seems to have suffer ed much distress, 
and chiefly through the conduct of some of those with whom he had been con- 
nected in the business of the election. In 1386 he ventured to return to London, 
where he received a mark of the public approbation of his conduct by his being 
elected a member of parliament for Kent. It may have been this very election 
which determined the government not to overlook his former conduct, and so to 
get rid of a man whose abilities they must have dreaded ; for it appears that he 
was arrested in the latter part of the same year, sent to the Tower, and deprived 
of the ofiices he hcld^ namely, the ComptroUership of the Customs in the Port of 
liondon and the comptroUership of the small customs. Touchingly beautiful are 
his laments over his sad estate at this time. Having alluded to the delicious 
hours he was wont to spend enjoying the hlissful seasons, and contrasted them 
with his penance in the dark prison, cut off from friendship and acquaintances, 
** forsaken of all that any word dare speak " for him, he continues : ** Although 
I had little, in respect [comparison] among others great and worthy, yet had I 
a fair parcel, as methought for the time, in furthering of my sustenance ; and 
had riches sufficient to waive need ; and had dignity to be reverenced in worship ; 
power methought that I had to keep from mine enemies ; and meseemed to 
shine in glory of renown. Every one of those joys is turned into his contrary : for 
riches, now have I poverty ; for dignity, now am I imprisoned : instead of power, 
wretchedness I suffer ; and for glory of renown, I am now despised and fully 
hated." He was set at liberty in 1389, though not, it is said, until he had pur- 
chased freedom by dishonourable disclosures as to his former associates: the 
whole subject, however, is too much enveloped in mystery for us to venture on 
any unfavourable decision ; we can only be sure of the important fact, that no one 
suffered in consequence of Chaucer^s liberation. 

Ascendhig the steps opposite the entrance into the Hall, which lead to the 
other parts of the building, we find the room known as the court of aldermen, 
having a rich and elaborate ceiling in stucco, divided into compartments, the 
principal of them containing paintings by Sir James Thomhill. The cornice of 
the room consists of a series of carved and painted arms of all the Mayors since 


1780. The apartment, as its name tells us, is used for the sittings of the Court 
of Aldermen, who in judicial matters form the bench of magistrates for the me- 
tropolis, and in their more directly corporate capacity try the validity of ward 
elections and of claims to freedom, who admit and swear brokers, superintend 
prisons, order prosecutions, and perform a variety of other 'analogous duties : a 
descent, certainly, from the high position of the ancient eorculdmen, or superior 
Saxon nobility, from whom they derive their name and partly their functions. 
They were called '' barons " down to the time of Henry I., if, as is probable, the 
latter term in the charter of that king refers to the Aldermen. A striking proof 
of the high rank and importance of the individuals so designated is to be found in 
the circumstance that the wards of London of which they were ald^men were, in 
some cases, at least, their own heritable property, and as such bought and 
sold, or transferred under particular circumstances. Thus the aldermanry of a 
ward was purchased, in 1279, by William Faryngdon, who gave it his own name, 
and in whose family it remained upwards of 80 years ; andj in another case, the 
Knighten Guild having given the lands and soke of what is now called Portsoken 
ward to Trinity Priory, the Prior became, in consequence. Alderman, and so the 
matter remained in Stow*8 time, who beheld the Prior of his day riding in pro- 
cession with the Mayor and' Aldermen, only distinguished from them by wearing 
a purple instead of a scarlet gown. As to the present constitution of the body, 
it may be briefly described as follows : each of the twenty-six wards into which 
the city is divided elects one alderman, with the exception of Cripplegate- Within 
and Cripplegate-Without, which together send but one ; add to these an alder- 
man for Southwark, or, as it is sometimes called. Bridge Ward- Without, and we 
have the entire number of 26, including the Mayor. They are elected for life 
at ward-motes, by such householders as are at the same time freemen, and paying 
not less than 30#. per annum to the local taxes. The fine for the rejection of the 
office is 500/. Generally speaking, the aldermen consist of those persons who, as 
common-councilmen, have won the good opinions of their fellows^ and who are 
presumed to be fitted for the higher offices to which they as aldermen are liable, 
the Shrievalty and the Mayoralty. Leaving the Court of Aldermen for the 
Council Chamber, towards which we now advance through an elegant corridor, 
we find ourselves surrounded by the chief artistical treasures of the Corporation. 
Before we notice these we may conclude our sketch of the component parts of the 
latter, with a few words on the Common Council and the general body from which 
they are chosen. The members of the Council are elected by the same class as 
the aldermen, but in very varying — and in comparison with the sise and import- 
ance of the wards — ^inconsequential numbers. Bassishaw and Lime Street wards 
have the smallest representation, — 4 members, and those of Farringdon- Within 
and Without the largest, namely 16 and 17. The entire number of th6 Council 
is 240. Their meetings are held under the presidency of the Lord Mayor ; and 
the Aldermen have also the right of being present. The other chief offieers of the 
municipality, as the Becorder, Chamberlain, Judges of the Sheriffb Courts, Com- 
mon Sergeant, the four City Pleaders, Town Clerk, &c., &c., also attend. Of the 
functions of the Council it will be only necessary to observe, that it is the legis- 
lative body of the Corporation, and in that capacity enjoys an unusual degree of 
power, such as that of making important alterations in the constitution of the 


latter* that it dispenses the funds, manages the landed propertyi has the care of 
the bridges and of the Thames Navigation^ with many other powers and trusts. 
" In the earliest times/' say the Corporation commissioners, the words Commune. 
Ctmeilium appear to have been applied sometimes to the whole body of citizens, 
sometimes to the Magistracy (that is^ the Lord Mayor and Aldermen), or the 
Maf^iitraey and Sheriffs. In the reign of Henry III. a Folkmote seems to have 
been summoned to meet the Magistracy three or four times in the year, and on 
special occasions.'** We have already seen that the election of the Mayor was 
daimed by the citizens generally ; and altogether it seems evident, that in the 
Saxon time itxe folkmote, as the meeting of the entire body of people in the open 
air was called, or the busting or common hallj when within-doors, exercised the 
most important functions of local government. And although these rights were 
placed in abeyance during the first shock of the Conquest, they were again 
claimed and made the subject of frequent struggles, similar to that in which 
Chaucer was engaged, as reviving peace and prosperity afforded opportunities. 
From the Lord Mayor, Aldermen^ and Common Council, we descend to the 
Xavery and the freemen^ from which, step by step, the former have risen. Until 
of late years, the only path to freedom was through the halls of the companies 
(the ancient guilds), and they, in effect^ still form the true base of the civic struc- 
ture. As we shall devote an early number to them, we need only here observe 
that the Livery, of whom we hear so much, are favoured portionp of the general 
body of freemen in each company, who possess the right of electing the Mayor, 
Sheriffs, Chamberlain, and other municipal officers, who form, in a word, the 
Common HaU of the present day. Glancing back over the general features of 
the entire corporate body, the analogy frequently pointed out between the na- 
tional and the civic parliament appears no idle dream, such as we may fancy to 
have visited the slumbers of some ambitious aldermanic brain, but strikingly 
true^ clear, and interesting. We perceive an elective head, as the sovereign 
once was elective, a comparatively irresponsible, and at a certain period — ^when, 
indeed, the very same parties probably sat as barons in both parliaments — 
hereditary second estate, and a Commons representing, or professing to repre- 
sent, the citizens or the people. To carry it still farther, as Mayor, Aldermen, 
and Common Council sit in one chamber, so sat the component parts of the na- 
tional parliament when it first began to assume its present form ; as the parlia- 
mentary constituencies really form but a fraction of the people, so do the Livery 
stand towards the general body of the citizens. But the most interesting result 
of the comparison is one that, we suspect, does not altogether agree with the 
popular view of the subject — that the lesser apes the greater : when municipal 
government in England was in its freest, most energetic, and most flourishing 
condition, parliaments, in any just sense of the term as applicable to their ex- 
isting constitutions and powers, were unknown. In short, of our original local 
government, '' enough is discoverable to show most dearly that it had never 
been moulded by a central authority, but that, on the contrary, the central 
authority had been, as it were, built upon the broad basis of a free municipal 
organization." f 

* Report, p. 33. 
t Article^ Borouglw of England and Wfilea, * Penny Cyclopedia. 


The scene of these united assemblages owes little of its interest to its beauty 
or splendour. One would think, from the dingy appearance of the crimson 
lining of the walls, and the paltry matting of the floor, that the place belonged 
to the poorest rather than to the richest of municipalities, did not the numerous, 
and in some instances well-known, works of art around the walls, chiefly the pro- 
ductions of corporate patronage, show that it possessed no stinted exchequer. 
The sculpture consists of a full-length white marble statue of George III., by 
Chantrey, placed in a niche of a bluish-grey colour at the back of the seat of 
mayoralty, and of some busts, one of them Granville Sharpens, also by Chantrey, 
and one of Nelson, by the lady sculptor, the Hon. Mrs. Damer, who so worshipped 
its subject, that after the hero of the Nile had sat to her, she not only "loved to 
relate the conversations which she had with her ' Napoleon of the waves,' " but 
*' it was one of her favourite ideas to form a little book of his sayings and re- 
marks, for the use of her 'young relative, the son of Sir Alexander Johnston.*' * 
Among the pictures are Northcote's * Death of Wat Tyler,' Copley's ' Siege of 
Gibraltar,' Opie's ' Murder of David Rizzio,' with some interesting portraits by 
Sir W. Beechey, Sir T. Lawrence, Copley, and Opie ; of which Alderman Boy- 
dell's, by Beechey, may be particularised for the sake of the public-spirited man 
to whose generous and enlightened zeal art owes so much. One feature of the 
collection is curious — the number of representations connected with Gibraltar : 
there are no less than three 'Defences,' and all by "B,. Paton, Esq." 

The other noticeable portions of Guildhall are the Old Court of King's Bench, 
the Chamberlain's Office, and the Waiting or Reading Boom. In the first 
(where, among other pictures, is a pair of classical subjects — Minerva, by Westall, 
and Apollo washing his locks in the Castalian fountains, by Gavin Hamilton), 
the gpreater portion of the judicial business of the Corporation is carried on : that 
business, as a whole, comprising in its civil jurisdiction, first, the Court of Hus- 
tings, the supreme court of record in London, and which is frequently resorted 
to in outlawry and other cases where an expeditious judgment is desired ; secondly, 
the Lord Mayor's Court, which has cognizance of all personal and mixed actions 
at common law, which is a court of equity, and also a criminal court in matters 
pertaining to the Customs of London ; and thirdly, the Sheriff's Court, which 
has a common-law jurisdiction only : we may add that the jurisdiction of both 
courts is confined to the City and Liberties, or, in other words, to those por- 
tions of incorporated London, known respectively in corporate language as 
Within the walls, and Without. The criminal jurisdiction includes the London 
Sessions, held generally eight times a- year, with the Recorder as the acting 
Judge^ for the trial of felonies, &c. ; the Southwark Sessions, held in Southwark 
four times a-year ; and the eight Courts of Conservancy of the River. Passing 
into the Chamberlain's Office, we find a portrait of Mr. Thomas Tomkins, by 
Reynolds; and if it be asked, who is Mr. Thomas Tomkins, we have only to say, 
in the words of the inscription on another great man — Look around ! All these 
beautifully written and emblazoned duplicates of the honorary Freedoms and 
Thanks voted by the City, some sixty or more, we believe, in number, are 
the sole production of him, who, we regret to say, is the late Mr. Thomas 
Tomkins. The duties of the Chamberlain are numerous: among them, the 

* Cunningham*! < British Sculptors,' p. 263. 


most worthy of mention, perhaps, are the admission, on oath^ of freemen (till of 
late years averaging in number one thousand a-year) ; the determining quarrels 
between masters and apprentices (Hogarth's prints of the Idle and Industrious 
Apprentices are the first things you see within the door) ; and lastly, the Trea- 
snrership, in which department enormous sums of money pass through his hands. 
In 1832, the latest year for which we have any authenticated statement, the cor- 
porate receipts, derived chiefly from rents, dues, and market tolls, amounted to 
160,193/. 1 Is, 8d. ; and the expenditure to somewhat more. The Waiting Boom 
is a small but comfortable apartment, with the table covered with newspapers, 
and the walls with pictures; among which, Opie*s Murder of James I. of Scot- 
land is most conspicuous. There are here also two Studies of a Tiger and a 
Lioness and her Young, by Northcote. Near the door, numerous written papers 
attract the eye — the useful daily memoranda of the multifarious business eter- 
nally going on, and which, in addition to the matters already incidentally re- 
ferred to, point out one of the modes in which that business is accomplished 
— the Committees. We read of appointments for the Committee of the Boyal 
Exchange — of Sewers— of Corn, Coal, and Finance — of Navigation — of Police, 
and so on. 

The personal state of the head of so important an institution has always been 
an object of solicitude with the citizens. In his dignity they beheld the reflec- 
tion of theirs. Hence the almost princely list of officers forming his household : 
his sword-bearer, his sergeant-at-arms, his sergeant-carver, sergeants of the 
chamber, his esquires, his bailiffs, and his young men : hence his heavy annual 
expenditure, which is expected to exceed the ordinary sum appropriated for that 
purpose, amounting to nearly 8000/., by 3000/. or 40002. more. Yet, strange 
enough, with such a household and such a sum to be expended, they never 
thought of giving him a house till the last century ; and the Mayors, therefore, had 
to content themselves with their own, or to borrow the halls of their companies. 
The present pile, finished in 1753, was erected by Dance. It is of course hand- 
somely fitted up, and the plate, used on all important occasions, is valued at 
above 20,000/. The Justice Boom is immediately on the left of the chief 
entrance. A very interesting part of the business here is a remnant of a valuable 
old custom, which seems to show that the idea of a court of reconciliation is by no 
means a novelty in this country, though never fully developed. In this court 
private applications are continually made to the Mayor, for his advice and arbi- 
tration, and, we understand, with very beneficial results. The banquets which 
are here from time to time given, of a public character, as those to the chief 
members of the Government, or of a more private kind, as to the corporation, 
take place in the Egyptian Hall, an apartment of great size, with a detached 
range of large pillars, with gilded capitals, on each side, an ornamented roof in 
panels, and a throne for his lordship — the whole brilliantly illuminated by 
chandeliers. A long and very handsome corridor leads to the Hall, from which, 
near the centre, branch off the passages to the private apartments. As to the 
pictures, busts, and statues, which should give to all such mansions their prin- 
cipal charm, there is here a melancholy blank. What an opportunity for some 
new Boydell ; what a rich gallery of civic historical portraiture might not be 
summoned at the call of the enchanter to people these now desolate walls. The 

MaDBion Houw iUelf, ai a building only a century old, can hardly be expected 
to have much hiitorical interest attached to it. The most important event it* 
annali can yet boast ia, perhapa, the Wilkea riota, of which, during the mayor- 
alty ofWilkei'a friend, Braaa Croaby, the neighbourhood — as shown in the prints 
of the time, from ooe of which the following ia engraved — was the frequent 


If a stranger from any port of England, Scotland, or Ireland, however remote, 
were to panse in the midst of Broad Street, and inquire to what purpose that largo 
pile of building opposite to him wero appropriated, he would, ten to one, on 
learning that it was the Excise OiEce, have a livelier idea of the operations of 
the Board of Bevenne, which has its seat there, than the inhabitant of London, 
provided that neither had been brought into direct contact with its officers by the 
nature of bis business. In the country the officer of Excise, or the exciseman, as 
we may more familiarly call him, is often seen hurrying through the same hamlets 
and pleasant lanes, often at untimely hours, on errands which seem half myste- 
rious. In London nobody ever sees an exciseman, except those who are in the 
habit of receiving him as an official visitor, and to many the only representative 
of the existence of such a tax as the Excise is the great building in Broad Street. 
The forces hy which it levies some millions a-year for the Exchequer are as in- 
visible to them as the officers of another department — the Stamps. The Post 
Office sends forth its emissaries, every hour, through the streets of the metro- 
polis, and there is now scarcely any person who has not the satisfaction of contri- 
buting at least a few pence annually to this department of the revenue ; but it is 
only a limited number who personally have dealings with the Board of Stamps 
and Taxe8,or with the Customs and Excise. The latter is by far the most pervad- 
ing part of the taxing system, except the Post Office. One-half of the Customs' 

TOL. V. H 


duty of the United Kingdom is collected in the port of London, and two-thirds of 
it are obtained in the two ports of London and Liverpool. The great mass of 
inland dealers in articles of foreign produce, although they well know that by 
means of duties the price is enhanced to them by the wholesale merchant, and 
again by them raised to their customers, yet they see nothing of the agency by 
which this process is rendered necessary. In the case of the Excise, however^ 
every part of the country is parcelled out with as much distinctness as its legal 
and ecclesiastical divisions. There is first the *' Collection," which corresponds 
in importance with the county, and is the primary division; then the/' Collec- 
tion*' is divided into ** Districts,*' which may be regarded equivalent to the hun- 
dreds and wapentakes; and next come the " Sides" and '* Divisions,*' which are 
the parishes and townships of the Excise territory. Nearly 5000 officers of vari- 
ous grades are stationed in these districts, and are busily employed in going over 
every part of the one which is assigned to them, for the purpose of charging the 
Excise duties on various classes of traders. But before going further into the 
nature and operations of the Excise, it may be as well briefly to notice the history 
of the system^ more especially as this is not easily to be found in any single book ; 
and where it is given, the facts are stated with a brevity which is not very in- 

In this present year, 1843^ duties of Excise have been established in England 
exactly a couple of centuries. Clarendon states that an attempt was made to in- 
troduce these duties in 1626; and Prynne gives the following account of the 
matter in a small tract published in 1654, entitled, '' A Declaration and Protesta- 
tion against the illegal and detestable, and oft-contemned new Tax and Extortion 
of Excise in general, and for Hops, a Native and uncertain commodity in parti- 
cular." He states that, '^ Our late beheaded King Charles/' by the advice of the 
Duke of Buckingham and other evil counsellors, granted a Commission under the 
Great Seal to thirty-three Lords and others of the Privy Council, to set on foot an 
Excise in England. The production of the Commission was moved for in Par- 
liament, and on its being brought before the House, a debate took place, which 
ended in an unanimous vote as to the scheme being contrary to the Constitution. 
A conference with the Lords subsequently took place on the subject, in which Sir 
Edward Coke, on the part of the Commons, took a principal part. He described 
it as '* Monstrum, horrendum^ informe, ingens," descanting upon each of these 
strong terms; "Yet, blessed be God," he added, ' cui lumen ademptum,* — "whose 
eyes were pulled out by the Commons," which he hoped their Lordships would 
second before the monster was fully brought forth to consume and devour the 
nation. Eventually the King cancelled the Commission, and for a time the 
matter was dropped. 

In 1641, when the struggle between the Parliament and the King was be- 
coming one of life and death, and each party required all the means it could com- 
mand to carry on the contest, the Parliament still set their faces against raising 
a revenue from Excise duties ; and, in October, 1641, published a contradiction 
to the rumour that they intended to levy such duties. The entr}' on the Journals 
of the House, under this date, is as follows : — " The Commons House of Parlia- 
ment, receiving information that divers public rumours and aspersions arc by 
malignant persons cast upon this House, that they intend to assess every man's 


pewter^ and lay Excises upon that and other commodities^ the said House, for their 
vindication, do declare that these rumours are false and scandalous ; and forasmuch 
as those false rumours and scandals are raised by ill-affected persons, and tend 
much to the disservice of the Parliament, it is therefore ordered that the authors of 
these false, scandalous rumours shall be searched and enquired after, and appre- 
hended and brought to this House to receive condigpn punishment.'* As their neces- 
sities became greater, however, they were obliged to resort to the much-condemned 
impost On July 22, 1643, an ordinance of the Lords and Commons was issued for 
the speedy raising and levying of monies ** by way of Excise, or new impost,** for 
the maintenance of the forces raised by Parliament, '' until it shall please Almighty 
God| in his mercy, to move the King*s Majesty's heart to confide and concur with 
both his Houses of Parliament for the establishing of a blessed and lasting 
peace." It was further ordained, " for the better levying of the monies hereby 
to be raised, that an office from henceforth be erected and appointed in the City 
of London, to be called or known by the name of the Office of Excise, or new 
impost, whereof there shall be eight Commissioners to govern the same, and one 
of them to be treasurer, with several registrars, collectors, clerks, and other 
subordinate officers,** as the Commissioners may determine. ^Of the eight Com- 
missioners appointed, three were Aldermen of the City, and another was one of 
the Sheriffs of London. The office which they established was open from eight 
in the morning to eleven, and from two till five in the afternoon ; and it was placed 
under the cognizance of a Committee of the Lords and Commons, appointed for 
advance of money, which sat at Haberdashers' Hall. She Commissioners of 
Excise were empowered to call in the aid of the trained bands, volunteers, or 
other forces, if necessary. The first articles in the list of duties were ale, beer, 
cider, and perry. The brewers were required to enter weekly, in the new office, 
the quantity of beer sold, the names of the buyers, and were not to deliver any 
beer without first obtaining a ticket from the new Excise Office. The duty on 
strong ale or beer, of the value of 8s. the barrel, was 2.?. if sold to the retailers, 
and Is. if for private use. Private families, who brewed, paid a duty also. An Excise 
duty was also imposed, at the same time^ on wine and certain groceries, on wrought 
silks, furs, hats, lace, and one or two other articles. The Royalists at Oxford soon 
followed the example of the Parliament, and adopted the new system of taxation, 
but they also declared that it should only be continued during the war. Although 
the people of London were so favourable to the Parliament, the new Excise Duty 
created riots in London, and the populace burnt down the Excise House in 
Smithfield ; and Pymm, who is called by Blackstone the father of the Excise, 
in a letter to Sir John Hotham, remarks^ that it would " be necessary to use the 
people to it by little and little." The Parliament, however, went the length of 
subjecting meat and salt to the new tax, but they, some time afterwards, abolished 
it on these articles. A Declaration of Parliament was made in 1646, ''upon 
occasion of tumults and great riots, which then, lately before, had happened, and 
were privily fomented in several parts of the kingdom against the receipts of 
the Excise;" and it was upon. this occasion that they observed that as "this 
duty is by experience found to be the most easy and equal way, both in relation to 
the people and the public, so the Lords and Commons are resolved, through all 
opposition whatsoever, to insist upon the due collection thereof;" but they pro- 


100 LONDON. 

mise, when the peace of the kingdom is settled^ to show " how much more ready 
they are to ease the people of this charge than they ever could be willing to 
impose the same.** For the present the people were enjoined to pay the duties 
to officers appointed to receive the same in each hundred or wapentake ; the civil 
force was called upon to assist them ; and " Sir Thomas Fairfax, general of the 
whole forces of the kingdom, is hereby desired to order and enjoin all colonels, 
captains, officers, and soldiers^ under his command, upon application made to 
them, speedily to suppress all such tumults, riots, and unlawful assemblies** as 
those which had called forth the Declaration. The opposition to the Excise does 
not appear to have diminished much by the repeal of the duty on salt and meat. 
There were still frequent riots, the people being very averse to await with 
patience the time for taking off the others, although the Parliament stated 
in their Declaration that they could not at present take off further duties, and 
that, " in consequence of the Excise being pledged for debts, they must require 
its payment.** Allusion is then made to '' malcontents,'* who gave out that 
the charge of collection was so great that " half the receipt and income were 
consumed upon officers.*' This the Lords and Commons deny, and *' assure the 
kingdom that until the late obstructions and oppositions, the charge in collecting 
the Excise hath never amounted, upon the whole receipt, to full two shillings 
upon every twenty shillings received.'* They then point out the various im- 
portant public objects to which the Excise revenue (1^334,532/.) had been 
applied, and '^ to no private use whatever;" while on the credit of this revenue 
various debts, they saj^, were pledged, " which must be discharged before this 
receipt can in justice or honour be laid down." In the party pamphlets of this 
period neither of the two great parties could fairly attempt to raise a popular 
clamour against its opponents on account of the Excise. It is true that, in the 
early part of his reign, Charles I. was compelled to abandon his Excise scheme, 
and in one of his declarations he charged Parliament with imposing odious excises 
upon their fellow-subjects ; yet stem necessity obliged him to resort to them as 
well as the Parliament. Nevertheless the Royalist pamphlets endeavoured to 
show that the Excise was a scheme of the Bepublicans, and, like all other ob- 
noxious taxes, it brought upon the Government for the time being, for whose use 
it was paid, a full share of odium. In 1649 a scurrilous pamphlet appeared, 
purporting to be written by ' Mary Stiff, charwoman,' entitled ' The Good 
Women's Cryes against the Excise on all their Commodities.* It is printed as 
prose, but written in doggrel rhyme, and in not very decent language, and suffi- 
piently shows the nature of the popular outcry against the tax. 

One of the earliest financial measures of the Government, after the Bestora- 
tion^ was the abolition of the Excise on all articles of consumption, except ale, 
beer, cyder, and perry, which produced a clear annual revenue of 666,383/. 
These duties were divided into two equal portions, called the Hereditary and the 
Temporary Excise. The first was granted to the Crown for ever, as a compensa- 
tion for the abolition by act of Parliament of various feudal tenures, — as the 
court of wards, and purveyance, and other oppressive parts of the royal heredi- 
tary revenue. The other half was only granted for the life of the king. On the 
accession of James II., Parliament granted him for life the Temporary Excise, 
and increased it by additional duties on wines^ vinegar^ tobacco, andsugar^ which. 


however^ were only retained for a short period. The Government of the Bevolu- 
tion would gladly have made itself popular by abolishing the more obnoxious of 
the Excise duties^ but its necessities would not allow of such a course. The 
duty on glass and on malt was first imposed in William*s reign^ and the distil- 
leries were subjected to Excise duties as well as the brewers. The salt duty was 
reimposed, and the duty on ale and beer increased^ the latter producing an 
addition of 450^000/. a-year to the revenue. During the thirteen years of the 
reign of William III. the Excise duties averaged nearly a million a-ycar. The 
expensive wars of Annc*s reign rendered it necessary still further to increase the 
number of articles subject to Excise, and duties were imposed on paper, stained- 
paper, and soap. This branch of revenue produced an average of 1,738,000/. 
during the twelve years of her reign. The produce of the Excise, during the 
peaceable reign of George I.j averaged 2,340,000/. per annum, with no addition 
to the number of excisable articles, except a small duty on wrought plate. 

The Excise still remained the most obnoxious branch of the public revenue. 
The laws for its protection were very severe, and no other tax so constantly and 
inconveniently interfered with the trading classes, or excited so wide-spread a 
prejudice ; for the unpopularity of the duties on importation was chiefly confined 
to the towns on the coast, but the Excise laws were felt by persons in every 
corner of the country. It was a current opinion of the political writers of the day, 
in which Locke and Davenant had been deceived, that taxes of every description 
fell ultimately upon the land ; and this is a point of importance in the considera- 
tion of Sir Bobert Walpole's attempts to introduce his great scheme for extend- 
ing the Excise. He had Land and Trade against him, and was baffled by the 
most violent and ignorant burst of popular clamour which it was ever the fate of 
a minister to encounter. A short notice of Walpole*s scheme will not, perhaps, 
be unacceptable to those who take an interest in the history of finance ; and the 
reception it met with is also exceedingly characteristic of the times. At that 
period the fiscal laws of the country were daily outraged in the most open and 
daring manner. The highwaymen, who pursued their occupation with impunity 
on all the roads leading to London, had their counterpart in the desperate class 
of men who carried on the trade of smugglers along the coast, murdering the 
ofiUcers of the revenue, setting fire to custom-houses, and riding in armed gangs 
of twenty or more, within half a dozen miles of London, on the banks of the 
Thames. A committee of the House of Commons, appointed in 1732 to inquire 
into the frauds and abuses committed in the Customs, and which did not com- 
plete its task, reported that since Christmas, 1723, a period of nine years, 
the smuggling of tea and brandy had been conducted openly and audaciously^ 
that the number of custom-house officers beaten and abused amounted to 250, 
and six had been murdered. In the same period 251,320 lbs. of tea and 652,924 
gallons of brandy had been seized and condemned, and upwards of 2000 persons 
prosecuted ; and 229 boats and other vessels had been condemned. Owing either 
to the adroitness of the smugglers or the corruption of the revenue officers, only 
^808 hogsheads of wine had been condemned in these nine years ; but the num- 
ber " run" in Hampshire, Dorsetshire, and Devonshire was 4738 ; and informa- 
tions had been entered against 400 persons. The sense of honour amongst the 
mercantile classes of that day was at f^ Ipw point. It was proved before the 

102 LONDON. 

committee in question that by perjury^ forgery^ and the grossest collusion, the 
revenue was frequently defrauded to the amount of a third of the duty on tobacco ; 
and that in the port of London a loss of 100,000/. per annum was sustained by 
the dishonest manner in which the drawback on re-exportation was obtained^ 
which in some cases exceeded the sum originally received by government. 
When Walpole introduced his plan, on the I5th of March, 1733, for the cor- 
rection of these abuses, he held in his hand a book which had belonged to a 
tobacco-merchant in the City, shewing one of the modes of defrauding the go- 
vernment by collusion with officers of the revenue. False quantities were entered 
at the times of importation, and this column was covered by a slip of paper art- 
fully pasted down, on which were written the real quantities. The import duties 
were paid on the first or false quantity, and the drawback obtained on the real 
quantity ; and, of course, the one amount was larger than the other, and the 
government was defrauded to the extent of the difference. In the case which 
the minister quoted, the merchant obtained in each case a drawback to nearly 
twice the amount of what he had actually paid duty for upon importation* 
Another variety of fraud in the tobacco trade was that of receiving the drawback 
for exportation and then re-landing it. A great trade was carried on in this way 
with Guernsey, Jersey, the Isle of Man, and the ports of Dunkirk, Ostend, &c. 
Besides persons apparently respectable, and custom-house officers, who were en- 
gaged in plundering the revenue, watermen, lightermen, and City-porters called 
gangsmen, were equally active in " socking,*' — a cant term then in use for steal- 
ing tobacco from ships in the river. This practice was discovered in 1728 ; and 
it appeared that fifty tons of tobacco had been " socked " on board ships and on 
the quays, and deposited in houses from London Bridge to Woolwich, in the 
course of one year. One hundred and fifty custom-house officers were dismissed 
for participating in these frauds, and several of them were prosecuted at the 
expense of government. In mentioning this circumstance, Walpole observed, 
*' And it is not a little remarkable, when we recollect the professions of pa- 
triotism, virtue, and disinterestedness which are now so copiously poured forth, 
that not a single merchant, though the facts were so notorious and shameful, 
assisted the state, either by information or pecuniary exertion, to suppress the 
fraud or bring the delinquents to punishment." 

The plan of the minister for the correction of these abuses was, to benefit the 
fair trader by putting down his unprincipled competitors, and to improve the 
revenue without the addition of new duties. Conceiving that the laws of the 
Customs were insufficient to prevent fraud, there being only one check — that at 
the time of importation — he proposed that tobacco should be subject to the laws 
of the Excise as well as those of the Customs. While the total duty would not 
be increased, the Customs duty was to be only three-farthings the pound, and he 
added: — "I propose for the future that all tobacco, after being weighed at the 
Custom-house, and charged with the said three-farthings per pound, shall be 
lodged in a warehouse or warehouses, to be appointed by the Commissioners of 
Excise, of which warehouse the merchant-importer shall have one lock and key, 
and the warehouse-keeper to be appointed by the said commissioners shall have 
another, that the tobacco may lie safe in that warehouse till the merchant finds a 
market for it, either for exportation or home consumption.** If he sold for 


exportation, the quantity^ after being re-wcighed, was discharged of the Customs 
duty of three-farthings ; and if for home consumption, he paid also the same 
duty, and on delivering it to the buyer, an inland duty of fourpence to the 
proper officer appointed to receive the same. This is precisely, in in its main 
features, the admirable principle of the present warehousing system; but in 
vain did Sir Robert Walpole urge the merits of his plan, and plead for it '' as a 
most innocent scheme, hurtful to none but smugglers and unfair traders.". In 
vain did he assert and demonstrate, with great clearness, that his measure would 
increase the revenue, and *' tend to make London a free port, and, by consc* 
qucncc, the market of the world." The alarm had been thoroughly sounded 
from one end of the country to the other, even before the minister brought forth 
his project ; and when his intentions were only surmised the country was lashed 
into such a state of blind fury that it seemed to have lost its common sense on 
this occasion. Ballads were printed and sung about the streets^ with a wood-cut 
of a dragon with several heads at the top. This monster drew a chariot, in 
which sat a portly person (Walpole), receiving large sums of gold which issued 
from one of the mouths of the beast. A tobacconist set up a new device on his 
pa]>er, of three wooden shoes on a shield, with an exciseman and a grenadier, as 
supporters. According to the Craflsman,* the terms used in the game of 
Quadrille were changed, and to be " beested ' was to be excised, while one sort 
of card was called the Projector (Walpole), and others. Commissioners ; and so, 
it states, the humour ran through the town. The same violent partizan manu* 
factured a story of a lady having been robbed of two guineas only out of ten, 
by a highwayman, whoso politeness rather astonishing her, she had courage 
enough to express her surprise; on which he said, " Madam, I rob like a gentle- 
man ! I assure you I do not belong to the ' Projector ;* I am none of his gang.*' 
On the 15th of March, when Walpole introduced his new measure, ''not only 
the members solicited the attendance of their friends, but letters were delivered 
by the beadles and other officers in the parishes and wards of the city, to induce 
a numerous party to assemble at the doors and in the avenues to the House, in 
order to overawe the proceedings of the legislature.*'t Deputies from the pro- 
vincial towns had been sent to London to oppose the measure, and the corpora- 
tions throughout the country were very generally active for the same object. 
The newspapers of the day state, that on the 15th ''a vast number of eminent 
merchants and traders appeared in the Court of Bequests' lobby, and places con- 
tiguous to the House of Commons, to solicit against the excise." The debate 
was maintained with great spirit until two o'clock in the morning — an hour then 
very unusual, and on a division, there voted with the minister 266, against 205. 
As Sir Bobert left the house some of the exasperated people outside attempted 
to do him some personal injury, but were prevented by the interference of his 
son, and his friend General Churchill. Several divisions took place in subse- 
quent stages of the Bill, and the ministerial majority dwindled from 61 to 17. 
A private meeting was now summoned by Sir Bobert of the principal members 
who had supported the Bill, at which he was urged to proceed with the measure, 

* * Tbe Cnftnnan,* a weekly newspaper, commenced in 1727, m the organ of the country party. It was 
writteo with great fpirit, and some of the opposition leaden occasionally contributed to it 
t Coxe*8 * Lift of Sir R. Walpole,* vol. iu. p. 81. 

104 LONDON. 

notwithstanding the violence of the opposition both from within and without. 
Walpole is reported to have said that^ ''in the present inflamed temper of the 
people the Act could not be carried into execution, without an armed force ; and 
there will be an end of the liberty of Eng^land, if supplies are to be raised by the 
sword ;" and he would, he said, resign rather than enforce taxes at the expense 
of blood. On the 11th of April, when the Bill stood for a second reading, he 
moved that it should be postponed to the 12th of June, or, in other words, he 
abandoned his scheme. The Wine Bill, a measure of similar character, was 
never brought in. No great national victory could be hailed with such exube- 
rant triumph as that with which the country greeted the defeat of the minister's 
"monster project." 

This defeat was celebrated in London the same evening by bonfires, illu- 
minations, ringing of bells, and other public demonstrations of joy throughout 
the whole city: the Monument was illuminated. The demonstrations in the 
provinces were, if possible, still more fervent. The rejection of a great measure 
would now be known at such a place as Bristol by midnight, or within five 
hours after the event had been announced; but, in 1733, the news of the 
dropping of the tobacco bill was brought to that city by an express which 
arrived at eleven o'clock the following night. The merchants knocked at each 
other's doors to announce the good news ; bonfires were lighted in the streets, 
one of large size opposite the Excise-o£Sce ; at two in the morning the bells of 
the city-churches struck up a merry peal, and continued ringing all that day and 
even on the Saturday ; barrels of ale were also given away in the streets; and 
two effigies were burnt, probably the one representing the prime minister and 
the other an exciseman. The '' courier " for Liverpool with the good news passed 
through Coventry on Thursday, *' when the joy that immediately appeared in 
every countenance was inexpressible, and demonstrated itself by ringing of bells, 
bonfires, and illuminations, with the sound of trumpets, drums, and French horns, 
ivarming-pans, and everything that could make a noise, while healths went 
briskly round to all the honest (?) gentlemen that were against the excise." At 
Liverpool, the day on which the news arrived (Friday, 13th April) was spent 
** in ringing of bells, wearing of gilt cockades on leaf tobacco, under which was 
written 'No Excise;* ships' colours were displayed, and those of the Exchange, 
and guns fired in honour of the glorious 204." Efiigies were burnt both at 
Coventry and Liverpool. At Southampton, also, " somebody was carried round 
the town in effigy, and then thrown into the fire." At Chester, where messengers 
with the intelligence arrived on the 13th, there were lighted ''the greatest num- 
ber of bonfires ever known in the city :" one opposite the recorder s was kept 
in for five days. A great ball was given, and the Exchange was illuminated by 
204 candles, being the number of the worthy gentlemen who had opposed the 
obnoxious measure. From Lewes, the Craftsman received a private letter which 
began by saying : " No news (newspapers, we suppose, are meant) come to this 
place, but we are glad to hear from private accounts that the old English spirit 
still appears for the preservation of our liberties and properties.'* At Rye, most 
probably a great stronghold of smugglers, " every one expressed an insuperable 
delight in being happily rescued from further excises and wooden shoes,^* At 
Cambridge there were great rejoicings, but Cambridge was far outshone by 


Oxford. The rampant proceedings at the latter university on the defeat of the 
minister sufficiently indicate that political hatred of the most violent kind was 
the chief motive of the leaders of the opposition, and truly they had a super- 
fluity of ignorance and prejudice at their command, such as does not often glad 
the feelings of political bigotry. At Oxford, says Archdeacon Coxe^ in his ' Life 
of Walpole/ '^ the gownsmen joined and encouraged the mob, Jacobinical cries 
resounded through the town, and three days passed in this disgraceful manner 
before the Vice-chancellor and proctors could restore tranquillity." 

Walpole remained undismayed amidst this political storm> and so far from 
bein^ disgraced^ as was fondly anticipated by his opponents, the king dismissed 
several persons who had deserted the ministerial ranks. The Earl of Chester- 
field was deprived of the office of Lord Steward of the Household two days after 
the !Excise-bill was abandoned, and his dismissal was followed by that of five other 
peers who held official situations. Lord Cobham and the Duke of Bolton were 
deprived of their regiments, and the friends of the minister were appointed to 
several of the vacant posts. The king*s speech, on closing the session, alluded 
to ** the wicked endeavours that have lately been made us6 of to inflame the 
minds of the people, and^ by the most unjust misrepresentation, to raise tumults 
and disorders that almost threatened the peace of the kingdom.*' The extrava- 
gant ideas of liberty and of their own superiority over all other people which 
were entertained at this period by the English are quietly satirised by Gold- 
smith's ' Chinese Philosopher,* who listened to a conversation carried on between 
a debtor through the gate of his prison^ a porter, and a soldier, the subject being 
an apprehended invasion from France. The prisoner feared that liberty, the 
Englishman's prerogative, would be endangered if the French were to conquer. 
The soldier with an oath exclaims that it would not so much be our liberties as 
bur religion that would suffer, and the porter terms the French a pack of slaves 
fit only to carry burdens. Andrew Marvell, Blackstone, and Johnson were great 
vilifiers of the Excise. Marvell describes it as ^'a hateful tax;** Blackstone, 
writing in 1765, says that ''from its first original to the present time its very 
name has been odious to the people of England,** and the great lexicographer*s 
definition is well known.* The Excise laws have been so injudiciously framed, and 
in many instances rendered so unnecessarily vexatious, that they have^ in conse- 
quence, obtained more than their due share of the discredit which attaches generally 
to all taxes. Above six hundred acts of Parliament for enforcing Excise regulations 
are a trap to even the fairest trader; and, at the best, it is no light evil to conduct 
manufacturing processes under a system of interference and regulation enforced 
by heavy penalties. While the Commissioners of Excise Inquiry give some in- 
stances of the prejudicial effects of such a system, they also point out the manner 
in which they may be diminished. 

The Gin Act of 1736, an unwise and futile attempt to put down intemperance 
by a tax intended to make that liquor too dear for the poor, who solely or chiefly 

* Mr. Croker, in his vtrioniiii edition of Botwell, ihows that there is very good ground for believing that 
Johnson's inveterate hatred of the Excise liad its origin in a prosecution against his &ther for some breach of their 
laws. Hence the terms in which he speaks of a Commissioner of Excise in the ' Idler/ and the scurrilous definitiaa 
in the Dictionary. The latter was actually submitted by the Commissioners to counsel for an opinion as to its 
libellous chaiacter. — See Croker's ' Boswell.* 

106 LONDON. 

used it, is, at least, an instructive chapter in the history of Excise laws. Sir 
Joseph Jckyll, the Master of the Rolls, was the author of this Act, which 
raised the duty on gin and other spirituous liquors to twenty shillings the gallon, 
and required that only licensed dealers paying fifty pounds per annum for a 
license should be allowed to retail spirits. ''No man could,'* says Lord Choi- 
mondeley, ''no man would observe the law; and it gave such a turn to the spirit 
of the people, that no man could, with safety, venture to become an informer.*' 
The Jacobites endeavoured, as usual, to turn the discontent of the people at 
this measure to their own profit, and serious fears were for a time entertained of 
an insurrection of the populace of London. Sir Robert Walpole, writing to his 
brother Horace on the 30th September, 1736, gives an account of these machin« 
ations. " The scheme that was laid was, for all the distillers that were able^ to 
giye away gratis, to all that should ask for it, as much gin and strong waters as 
they should desire, and the great distillers were to supply all the retailers and 
small shops with as much as they should want, to be distributed and given away 
in like manner. The shops were to begin to be opened on Tuesday evening, the 
eve of Michaelmas Day, and to be continued and repeated on Wednesday night, 
that the mob, being made thus drunk, might be prepared and ready to commit 
any sort of mischief; and in order to this, anonymous letters were .sent to 
the distillers and town retailers in all parts of the town, to instruct them and in* 
cite them to rise and join their friends and do as their neighbours did.*' Several 
of these letters were placed [in the hands of the government by the officers of 
Excise. As a means of prevention troops were paraded in the several places 
where the mob were likely to assemble. What follows is taken from the news- 
papers of the day. On Tuesday a large party of the Life Guards and Horse 
Grenadiers remained all night under arms in Covent Garden, and troops were 
stationed at the house of Sir Joseph Jekyll, the author of the obnoxious bill. 
On Wednesday various parts of London and Westminster were patrolled by 
the troops. Several persons were taken into custody for shouting " No gin, 
no king," and many others were lying about the streets dead drunk with 
" taking leave of Geneva.'* The ' Craftsman ' of October 9th says, that *' Mo- 
ther Gin died very quietly;" but the real struggle against the law was of 
a nature not to be put down by an armed force, and in the above paper of 
the same day it is remarked, " but though the common people are deprived 
of gin, there are various drams invented and sold at the gin-shops in lieu 
thereof, as sangaree, tow-row, cyder boiled with Jamaica pepper, &c.'' At 
several brandy-shops in High Holbom, St. Giles's, Thieving Lane, Tothill 
Street, Rosemary Lane, Whitechapel, Shoreditch, the Mint, and Kent Street, 
drams were sold under the following names : — Sangaree, tow-row, cuckold's 
comfort, parliament-gin, make-shift, the last shift, the ladies' delight^ the 
baulk, King Theodore, or Corsica, and cholic and gripe waters. People carried 
spirits about the streets for sale in barrows, baskets, litters, &c. The apothe- 
caries were allowed to sell spirits to sick persons ; and on the first Saturday after 
the new act came into operation, the newspapers state that " several apothecaries' 
shops had so large a call for gripe and cholic waters, &c., by the poor sort of 
people, the masters were obliged to employ an additional number of hands in 
serving them." A person in St. James's Market sold drams coloured red in 


bottles, and a paper about them with the following directions : — " Take two or 
three spoonsful of this four or five times a-day> or as often as the fit takes you/' 
Id a number of the ' Old Whi(f for Nov. 4, when the Act had been in operation 
about a month, it is stated that, " since the suppression of gin, the coarse pieces 
of beef, &c. have sold much better at the several markets about town than before ; 
the lower class of people, being deprived of tKat liquor, have now good stomachs ;** 
and the writer observes that '* this must make meat cheaper generally, for if the 
coarse pieces fetch a price, the best pieces must be lowered." Some temporary 
effect of this kind might be produced at first, but the evasion of the Act soon 
became so extensive as to render its restrictions worse than useless. The num- 
ber of offenders against the law was so great, that there were presently a number 
of informers, in spite of the personal hazard attending the occupation. They 
were pelted in the streets, and one of them was actually murdered by the popu- 
lace. The newspapers of October 23rd announced that several apothecaries and 
chemists had been convicted, and had paid the penalty of 100/. for evading the 
Act. According to Lord Cholmondeley*s speech, it appears that even magis- 
trates endangered their safety in the execution of this law'; and between intimi- 
dation and the expenses of prosecution, it became a dead letter, while the people 
were more than ever addicted to the use of ardent spirits. Before the Act was 
put in force, eight of the justices at Hicks' Hall made a report, which showed 
that within Westminster, Holbom, the Tower and Finsbury divisions, exclusive 
of London and Southwark, there were 7044 houses and shops in which spirituous 
liquors were sold, and this they believed to be short of the true number : they 
computed that there were not fewer than 20,000 such houses within the bills of 
mortality. At present the number of gin-shops in the metropolis, taking its 
limits in their widest sense, is under 6000, though the population has increased 
threefold* In 1742 the Gin Act was modified, after six years of vexatious and 
unprofitable trial, during two years of which period 2000 persons were convicted 
of offences against the law. 

Above half a century elapsed after the defeat of Sir Robert Walpole's Excise 
scheme before any minister ventured again to enter upon the consideration of 
new Excise duties. Two at least of Mr. Pitt's predecessors had been afraid of 
proposing any fresh taxes of this nature ; but he successfully carried measures 
of the very same nature as those which Walpole was compelled to abandon. In 
1784 he imposed an Excise duty on bricks, and several classes of traders were 
compelled to take out licences; and in 1786 he proposed to transfer the greater 
part of the duty on foreign wines from the Customs to the Excise, as a means of 
preventing extensive frauds upon the revenue : for even allowing the consumption 
to have been only equal to what it was in 1750, the revenue suffered an annual 
loss of 280,000/. Walpole's scheme relating to tobacco would have rendered 
necessary an '' army " of 126 additional excisemen : Mr. Pitt's plan respecting 
the wine-duty required an addition of 167 oflScers to the Excise establishment. 
The wine-merchants of London and their brethren in the country represented 
the difiiculty, if not the impossibility, of subjecting wine to the Excise laws^ 
and the danger of extending those laws ; but a great change had taken place in 
the public mind in the course of half a century, and the people remained per- 

108 LONDON. 

fectly quiescent. Six divisions took place on the bill^ but the minority never 
exceeded 38. In order to put an end to the smuggling of tobacco, by which the 
revenue sustained a loss of 3(>0,000/. a-year (out of 12 million lbs. consumed 5 
millions were smuggled), the same minister proposed in 1789 to transfer the 
greater part of the duty from the Customs to the Excise, and, of course, to sub- 
ject the manufacturer to the survey of the exciseman. On this occasion he 
alluded to the success of the transfer of duties in regard to wine ; and although a 
few members [expressed their disapprobation of the extension of the Excise 
system, the measure was carried through both Houses with great ease. In the 
following year a motion for the repeal of the Excise duty on tobacco was 
brought forward, and was supported by 147 votes ; but it was resisted by the 
minister, who had a majority of 41. He showed that the change effected in 
the previous session was already benefitting the country at the rate of 300,000/. 

Pitt could now carry any fiscal measures which he seriously thought neces- 
sary ; and in 1793 not fewer than twenty-nine articles were subject to the Excise 
laws, and the gross amount of this branch of revenue was about ten millions and 
a half. In 1797 the number of oflScers employed in England was 4777. The 
highest amount which the Excise produced in any one year, for England, was 
27,400,300!. in 1821 ; and the largest number of officers in this department, for 
the United Kingdom, was 7986 in 1815, their salaries amounting to 904,922/. 
Between 1824 and 1835 duties were transferred to the Customs, which yielded 
11,238,300/. a-year, and others were entirely repealed, amounting to 6,782,000/., 
making together 18,020,300/. The duty on several articles has also been 
reduced. The amount of duty paid into the chief ofiSce, in 1829, for the 'London 
Collection,* was 6,013,159/., and in 1835 only 1,462,919/. In 1841 the gross 
Excise revenue for the United Kingdom was 15,477^674/., and the charges of 
collection amounted to 1,047,360/., or 6/. 15^. 3d. per cent. At present only ten 
articles are subject to the Excise Duty, namely, auctions, bricks, glass^ hops, 
licences, malt, paper, soap, British spirits, and vinegar. 

In 1835 the number of traders in England, Ireland, and Scotland, who were 
surveyed periodically by Excise officers, was 588,000, divided into five classes. 
Firstly, persons visited for the purpose of charging the ** growing " duties, as 
maltsters, soap-makers, brick-makers, paper-makers, &c. Secondly, persons 
who paid a licence according to the extent of their business, as brewers and 
tobacconists. Thirdly, innkeepers and retailers of beer, and others who dealt in 
articles upon which an Excise duty was levied. Fourthly, persons who dealt in 
tea, coffee, pepper, tobacco, and other articles which paid Customs duties ; and, 
lastly, there were others who paid no duty, but were subject to a cautionary sur- 
vey — tallow-melters, for example, as a check upon soap-makers. The cost of 
these surveys amounted to 533,902/. for the English country Collections, and to 
41,390/. for the London Collection. The duty on spirits in the London Collec- 
tion amounted to 928,556/., and on soap to 208,266/. The limits of the district 
in which the chief ofiSce is situated excludes parts of the metropolis, so that the 
above statements do not afford a correct notion of its relative importance. Some 
traders who live in London go out of London to pay their duties, those who 


reside just bejond tlie extremity of Southwark paying at Greenwich in the 
Bocbcster Collection ; and those in a part of St. Fancras parish are in the Hert- 
ford Collection, while a trader living near Croydon pays his duties in Broad 
Street In 1835 three distilleries at Bromley, Whitechapel, and Thames Bank 
coDtribnted 622,000^, and two Boap-manuracturcrs in the metropolitan district 
paid 150,000/., but not all of them at the chief office. Since 1835 several of 
the surveys have been abolished either by acts of Parliament or by direction 
of the Treasury. Thus, above 310,000 detders in tea, wine, tobacco, and brewers 
have been exempted from Excise control. The number of surveys in one year 
of tea, wine, and tobacco dealers was about fifteen millions; 1,657,959 permits 
irere annually required before goods in certain quantities could leave their 
premises ; and 778,988 stock-books were supplied to them to keep an account of 
their stock and sales. These administrative improvements are of real practical 
ralue, and the restrictions so long insisted upon arc proved on the whole to have 
been useless. 

We have now to speak of the establishment in Broad Street, which is charged 
with the collection and management of the Excise revenue. Before 1823 the 
Excise revenue in Scotland and Ireland was managed by separate boards, con- 
sisting all together of twelve commissioners, each board being independent of the 
English board. The bnsincsi is now better conducted by seven instead of 

twenty-one commissioners. The Chairman has a salary of 2000/. a year; the 
Deputy-Chainnao has 1500/., and the other Commissioners have 1200/. per 
annum each. The Commissioners hold courts, and decide summarily in 
cases of infraction of the Excise laws. Formerly the Board never had any com- 
munication with traders, except by verbal messages through their officers, but 
since 1838 they have adopted the plan of giving written answers. The number 

110 LONDON. 

of persons employed at the chief office is about five hundred^ who were princi- 
pally distributed in the following departments^ in 1835 : — ^Thc 7 Commis- 
sioners^ who constitute the Board ; employed in the Secretary's office, 20 
persons ; in the Correspondents* office, 30 ; in the Solicitors*, 24, the two latter 
offices having each subdivisions for the Scotch and Irish business. In the 
Accountants* office there were 72 persons, with similar subdivisions; in the 
Beceiver-Generars department, 112, and 34 in that of the Comptroller-General; 
8 in the Auditor's office; 8 in the Security office; 10 in the Store office; 5 in the 
Diary office. The number of Surveying General Examiners was 112. Many 
important changes have taken place in the organization of the chief office since 
1835. The departments of Account for England, Scotland, and Ireland have 
been consolidated ; that of Comptroller of Cash has been abolished ; the Comp- 
troller-General and Auditor-Gencrars department have been consolidated. The 
Excise Printing-office was abolished by authority of the Treasury in 1841 ; but 
a Distillery, for the re-distillation of smuggled foreign spirits, is still under the 
management of the chief office. In the first twenty years after the peace consi- 
derable reductions were made in the Excise Office, in consequence of duties being 
abolished. The number on the English establishment reduced in these twenty 
years was 847. The total repeal of the salt duty was followed by the reduction 
of 196 officers; salaries, 18,962/. By the repeal of the leather duty 30 officers 
were reduced, salaries 3362/. ; by the repeal of the beer duty 228 officers, salaries 
24,045/. ; of the duty on printed cottons by the reduction of 148 officers, salaries 
15,064/.; and the reduction of the duty on candles was followed by a reduction 
of 207 officers, whose salaries amounted to 22,690/. In 1797 the Excise esta- 
blishment was considered to be in so efficient a state, and so well managed, that 
Mr. Pitt pointed it out as a model for other public departments. 

The outdoor business in London is conducted by twelve General Surveyors, 
to each of whom is assigned a district called a '' survey,** and these are broken 
up into about fifty smaller divisions, in each of which a house is rented for the 
business of the department. The English country establishment, in 1835, consisted 
of 55 Collectors and 2 Supernumeraries, 61 Clerks, 316 Supervisors, 1023 Divi- 
sions, 1499 Ride officers, 68 Permanent Assistants and 7 temporary, 54 Supernu- 
meraries, and 104 Permit Writers. The fifty-five Collections in England and 
Wales (exclusive of London) are divided into 315 districts, and these districts 
into '* rides ** and " foot- walks.'* Where the traders are scattered, and the officer 
is required to keep a horse, it is called a ride ; but where they are more nume- 
rous, and a horse is not necessary, it is called a division or foot- walk. The 
circuit of a '' ride ** is about eighteen miles, and that of a division is under six- 
teen. The Collector, the chief officer of a " Collection," is allowed a clerk, and 
visits each market-town eight times in the course of a year, to receive the 
duties and to transact other business connected with the department, besides 
having to attend to matters relating to the discipline and efficiency of the service. 
The number of officers in a Collection varies from forty to ninety. The super- 
visors are in charge of a " district,** and next come the ride and division officers, 
whose operations he constantly checks by surveying, at uncertain times, the same 
premises. The labours of a supervisor and the officers under him arc often very 


heavy. The latter are called upon to survey manufacturing processes at the 
roost untimely hours. Before going out each day the officer leaves a memoran- 
dum behind him, stating the plades he intends to survey, and the order in which 
he will visit them> and he is obliged to record the hour and minute when he 
commences each survey. He is never sure that the Supervisor will not re- 
survey his work, and if errors arc discovered they must be entered in the Super- 
visor's ''diary." These diaries are transmitted to the chief office in London 
every two months, and no officer is promoted without a strict examination into 
them, in reference to his efficiency. The Surveying-General Examiner is a 
check upon the Supervisors, and is dispatched from the chief office to a certain 
district, without any previous intimation. When a supervisor's character is 
taken out for promotion, his books are examined for one year, and the books of 
all the officers under him for a quarter of a year ; all the accounts are recast, 
and if in the books of the officers errors arc discovered, the supervisor is quite as 
responsible as if they had taken place in his own books ; and a certain degree of 
neglect on his part would retard his promotion. This inquiry is conducted by 
the country examiners; and when this has been done, the investigation is taken 
up by a surveying- general examiner, for the purpose of ascertaining the disposal 
of the supervisor s time : whether it has been judiciously employed or not ; 
whether he has been too long employed on a duty which ought to have occupied 
a shorter period, &c. Two months are required for completing the investigation ; 
and when the report is laid before the Board the name of the officer is not given. 
The clerks of the Diary office have all been distinguished for their ability as 
supervisors. No one is promoted unless, having served a certain fixed period in 
one grade, he petitions for advancement, but this involves the rigid examination 
just alluded to, which is technically termed " taking out a character." It is now 
doubted whether Mr. Pitt's plan for the periodical removal of officers from one 
district to another is attended with so much advantage to the service as has 
generally been supposed. A corrupt officer will endeavour to effect a collusion 
with the trader of another district, and the fraudulent trader will attempt to 
corrupt the new officer. Frequent removals also interfere with the comfort of 
families^ and interrupt education. About 1100 officers change their residences 
each year. 

Previous to 1768 the Excise Office was on the west side of Ironmonger Lane : 
it was formerly the mansion of Sir J. Frederick. In 1768 the trustees of the 
Grcsham estates obtained an act to enable them to make over the ground whereon 
Gresham College stood to the Crown for a perpetual rent of 500/. per annum. 
'' For this paltry consideration,*' says Mr. Burgon, in his ' Life and Times of Sir 
Thomas Gresham,* " was Gresham College annihilated ; nay, the very site of it 
parted with for ever.'' He adds : — " Will it be believed that the City and the 
Mercer's Company further agpreed to pay conjointly, out of their respective shares 
of the Gresham estate, 1800/. to the Commissioners of his Majesty's Excise^ to- 
wards the charge of pulling down the College and building an Excise Office.'* 
The dismantling of the College was begun on the 8th of August, 1768. The 
Excise Office is plain in design, but of most commanding aspect. The merits of 
this edifice are known far less extensively than many others of inferior character. 

112 _ LONDON. 

There are architects of the present day who itate that for grandeur of ma&B and 
greatness of manner, combined with simplicity, it is not surpassed by any building 
in the metropolis. It consists of two ranges, one of stone, the other of brick, sepa- 
rated from each other by a large court, which, during the rc-building of the 
Soyal Exchange, has be^n temporarily used by the mercantile and shipping 
interests as an Exchange. The entrance to each structure is by a staircase in 
the centre, which leads by a long passage to the various apartments of the 
commissioners and clerks. The arctiitect of the Excise Office was Mr. James 
G and on. 

[I^icIb; Oflko HicUa, 


It Is with great inntitntions as with great men — if they wonid preserve their 
reputation nnitnpaired, they should never survive the loss of their distinguishing 
powers ; or, we may rather say, the case of the institution is the worst, as being 
in every respect the most injurious of the two. The accidents of life die with 
the man, and are forgotten, leaving all that is truly worthy of remembrance alone 
to be remembered; but institutions unfortunately will not die except by a 
slow, lingering process that too often wears out alike our patience and our gra- 
titude, and at the same time makes us confound right and wrong together, by 
teaching us, however unconsciously, to infer their past from their present un- 
fitness. Saddening are the degradations to which they are subject through this 
unfortunate tenacity of life. Who, for instance, can read without regret of the 
once mighty fellowships of London, being told by authority that their " ruling 
bodies are in effect mere trustees for charitable purposes or chartered festivals," 

VOL. V. I 

114 LONDON. 

and that the '* freemen and liverymen^ or commonalty, are persons entitled to 
participate in these charities^ to partake of the feasts of the Company, and quali- 
fied to be promoted to the office of trustees ; and in this light alone are the 
different orders of the Companies to be viewed ** ? * It may be true ; but, rather 
than that such things should have been said, one cannot but heartily wish that 
the Companies had manfully perished in the breach when Charles II. opened 
his quo warranto battery against them, and, after destroying their independence, 
left them to sink into inglorious inactivity. But the Commissioners in the above 
passage refer only to the principal Companies, those which had grown so rich in 
the days of their prosperity as to have charities that now^ in their decline, re- 
quire management — 'funds that will support *' chartered festivals;" but how is it 
with the others ? Why, whilst some have disappeared altogether, the Musicians, 
alas ! are " very poor, and in debt to their treasurer," and the Masons can only 
occasionally — and the occasions are very infrequent — have a dinner even on 
Lord Mayors' days ? But the case that most touches our sympathies is that of 
the Pinmakers ; there is a romance and a pathos about their position inexpres- 
sibly attractive and touching : " No returns relating to any bindings or ad- 
missions to the Company, whether in right of patrimony or otherwise, appear in 
the Chamberlain*s books within the last forty years. It is supposed that one or 
two individuals belonging to the Company are yet living,*'t bearing about with 
them, no doubtf in their mysterious obscurity, a high consciousness of the unsus- 
pected dignities that have centered in their persons : but they are probably poor, 
as well as proud, and therefore doubly resentful of the neglect with which they 
have been treated : the very Commissioners said not a word more about them, — 
did not even propose a commission of discovery to restore them to the civic 
brotherhood; so they will die and make no sign, — the very skies looking as 
bright or as dull as usual, Cheapside in a state of perfect unconsciousness, — 
brother corporators dining, or talking of dining, at the very instant, haply, that 
the last of the " Pin-makers " is leaving the world. 

But now, forgetting awhile what the Companies are, let us see what they were 
three or four centuries ago. 

It is the morning of the festival of Corpus Christi; and the Skinners are 
rapidly thronging into the hall, in their new suits or liveries, and falling into 
their places in the procession that is being formed. As they go forth, and pass 
along the principal streets, most imposing is the appearance they present. Scat- 
tered at intervals along the line are seen the lights of above a hundred waxen 
torches " costly garnished,** and among the different bodies included in the pro- 
cession are some two hundred clerks and priests, in surplices and copes, singing. 
After these come the Sheriffs* servants, then the clerks of the compters, the 
Sheriffs* chaplains, the Mayor's sergeants, the Common Council, the Mayor and 
Aldermen in their brilliant scarlet robes ; and, lastly, the members of the Com- 
pany which it is the business of the day to honour, the Skinners, male and female. 
The church of St. Lawrence, in the Poultry, is their destination, where they 
all advance up to the altar of Corpus Christi, and make their offerings, and then 
stay whilst mass is performed. From the church they return in the same state 
to the hall to dinner. Extensive are the preparations for so numerous a company. 
Besides the principal and the side-tables in the hall, there are tables laid out 

* Corporation Comraiasion, Second Report, Introduction, p. 20. f Reixirt, p. 298. 


in all the chief apartments of the buildings for the use of the guests and their 
attendants : the officers of the Company occupying one^ the maidens another, the 
players and the minstrels a thirds and so on. Plate is glittering on every side ; 
the choice hangings are exciting admiration ; the materials for the pageant sus- 
pended from the roof attract many an inquiring glance ; the fragrance of the 
precious Indian sandal-wood is filling the atmosphere^ though not altogether 
to the exclusion of the still more precious exhalations which come stealing up to 
the nose and thence downward into the heart of tho anxious epicures^ who you 
may perceive looking on with a sort of uneasy^ abstracted air^ whilst the true 
business of the day — the election of the Masters and Wardens — is going on in the 
great parlour^ whither all the Assistants (the executive of the Company) have 
retired : the said epicures know, if you do not^ to how many accidents flesh is 
heir in the kitchen, how easily the exact point of perfection between too much 
and too little done may be missed in the roasted swans, or the exquisite flavour 
of the mortrewes degenerate into coarseness or insipidity^ if the cook swerves but 
a hair*s breadth from the true proportions of the materials. The guests now 
seat themselves, the ladies according to their rank at the different tables, but in 
the best places at each ; tho Lady-Mayoress with the Sheriffs* ladies sitting, of 
course, at the principal board, with the distinguished guests of the day ; the 
noblemen and others, with the Priors of the great conventual establishments of 
London — St. Mary Overies, St. Bartholomew, and Christ Church. Of the 
dinner itself what shall we say that can adequately describe its variety, pro-* 
fiision, and costliness, or the skill with which it has been prepared ? The boars* 
heads and the mighty barons of beef seem almost to require an apology for 
their introduction amidst the delicacies that surround them in tho upper division 
of the table (the part above the stately salt cellar), where we see dishes of 
brawn, fat swans, congor and sea-hog, dishes of '' great birds with little ones toge- 
ther," dishes of Lech^ Lombard, made of " pork pounded in a mortar with eggs, 
raisins, dates, sugar, salt, pepper, spices, milk of almonds, and red wine, the 
whole boiled in a bladder ;*' and we know not how many other dishes of similarly 
elaborate composition; whilst the ''subtleties*' so ''marvellously cunning 
ywrought," tell in allegory the history of the Company, and of the Saviour as 
its patron, and reveal to us the artist — ^if not exactly the hero — as cook. 
After dinner, whilst the spice-bread, hippocras, and comfits go round, the election 
ceremonies take place. The Master and Wardens enter with garlands on their 
heads, preceded by the minstrels playing, and the beadle; then the garlands are 
taken off*, and after a little show of trying whose heads among the Assistants the 
said garlands best fit, it is found, by a remarkable coincidence, that the persons 
previously chosen are the right wearers. The oath of office is then administered ; 
beginning, in the case of the Wardens, with an injunction that they shall swear 
that they will well and truly occupy the office, that they shall ' arear * no new 
customs, nor bind the commonalty of the said craft to any new charges, nor yet 
discharge any duty to their hurt ; and that they shall not lay down any of their 
good old customs, or acts written, without the assent of the said commonalty. 
With renewed ceremony a cup is next brought in, from which the old Master 
and old Wardens drink to the new Master and new Wardens, who finally assume 
their garlands, and are duly acknowledged by the fraternity. 


116 LONDON. 

The play is now eagerly looked for ; the tables are cleared away, the pageant 
is let down from the roof; the actors, nine in number, approach, and the entire 
audience is speedily engrossed in the history of Noah s flood. There remains 
but to pay for all the good things enjoyed — the members of the Company at a 
fixed rate for themselves, and at the Wardens* discretion for the guests they may 
have individually invited — to drink another cup of hippocras, and to depart. 
The annual solemnities arc not, however, finished till the Sunday following, 
when, according to the ordinances (we transcribe from the Fishmongers*), the 
members " afore mete tyme" shall " be all present in the same church in their 
livery aforesaid, there to hear a solemn mass or requiem for all the souls of the 
same fraternity, and for all Christian souls ; and at which mass the priest of the 
same fraternity, openly in the pulpit shall rehearse and recommend to all good 
prayers, by name, all the brethren and sisters, quick and dead, of the foresaid 
fraternity, and all Christians ;** after which there is another, but minor feast, and 
then the liveries are paid for. 

Following the newly-elected officers into the details of the business that 
awaited them, we begin to have some conception of the true nature of a metro- 
politan company at the period referred to. And first, as to their chief duty — ^the 
domestic government of the craft. This comprised many parts; among which 
the ordinary matters of binding apprentices, admitting freemen, and so on, 
formed but the least important. If there were young men belonging to the 
craft who, giving themselves up to idleness and unlawful games, wandered 
about as vagabonds within the City, it was the duty of the Master and Wardens 
to desire and require them to work for reasonable wages, and to take them before 
the Mayor and Aldermen for punishment if they refused. If members of the 
Company were rebellious to its ordinances, as by taking unsold wares into the 
country, or by employing " forens,*' that is, persons not free of the craft, and 
persisting therein, or were found to have spoken with disrespect of its officers, 
the Master and Wardens again had to bring back the rebel and the slanderer to 
due subjection and reverence, either by entreaties, or by the still more cogent 
influences of fine and imprisonment. A case in the Grocers' books may here be 
mentioned. One Simon Potkin, of the Key, at Aldgate, having been fined by 
the Chamberlain, said, with humorous audacity, that he had given money to 
the Masters of his Company that he might sell at his own will. He got into 
trouble with his Company in consequence, but was finally pardoned on paying 
3^. 4d for a swan to be eaten by the Masters, out of which he was allowed 
his own share. This took place under the mayoralty of Whittington, who was 
particularly watchful of the misdeeds of the retail publicans. Safe keeping of 
the trade secrets was a matter most carefully enjoined and provided for, not only 
in the oath taken by all freemen, but in specific ordinances, to disobey which 
subjected the offender to the heaviest displeasure of the Company, and of course 
to punishment. The names of craft and mystery, so often applied to the trades, 
are said to be from this source, though Madox derives them from the French, 
who, he remarks, use mestiere for a craft, art, or employment. The preventing 
or arranging disputes among the members formed another important branch of 
the duties of the officers. Among the ordinances of the Grocers was one to the 
effect, that no member of the craft should take the house of a neighbour who 


also belonged to the fraternity against his wish, or do anything to enhance his 
rent, on penalty of a heavy fine. In cases of personal quarrel, where one party 
was evidently the offender, he was compelled to ask forgiveness; and in others, 
after an ineffectual attempt at mediation, parties were duly permitted to •' go to 
the law." Apprentices, of course, were still more directly beneath the super- 
vision and control of the Master and Wardens ; and some curious records exist in 
connexion with the discipline on this subject in the books of the Companies, as 
noticed in Mr. Herbert's valuable work.* Here is an example of the correction 
of an apprentice for a faux pas of a particular nature. The Wardens caused to 
be nnade two porters' frocks, like porters of crafts, and two hoods of the same 
canvas, made after vizor fashion, with a space for the mouth and the eyes left 
open only ; wherein, the next court-day, within the parlour, two tall men, having 
the said frocks upon them, because they should not be known, (for otherwise the 
** bold prentices" would no doubt have effectually prevented any more such kind 
attentions from the same quarter,) *' came in with twopenny worth of birchen rods, 
and there, in presence of the said Master and Wardens, withouten any words 
speaking, they pulled off the doublet and shirt of the said John Rolls, and there 
upon him (being naked) they spent all the said rods, for his said unthrifty de- 
meanour." Sumptuary laws also occupied the attention of the heads of the 
fraternity, and more particularly with regard to the class just mentioned, the 
apprentices. Those in the Ironmongers' Company, for instance, were to dress 
''in such wise that it be no dishonesty to the Company, but that they be appa- 
relled reasonable and honest, that is to say, for the holy days, hose, ' throwts/ 
shirts, doublets, coats, gowns or cloaks, with other necessaries, such as may be 
conveniently honest and clean ;" and on the " working day such as may be 
honest and profitable to keep them from cold and wet;" and then it is empha- 
tically added, " they shall not suffer their hair to grow long.'* Fishmongers' 
apprentices were directed by their Company to wear a gown in the fish-market, 
but not out of it. As to the more general application of sumptuary laws, we 
find some noticeable entries in the books of the Merchant Tailors; in 1574 a 
member was committed to prison ''for that he came to this house in a cloak of 
pepadore, a pair of hose lined with taffety, and a shirt edged with silver, con- 
trary to the ordinances." Another member, it appears, was warned that he had 
on " apparel not fit for his abilities to wear/' and enjoined reformation. But the 
most amusing illustration of the interference of the Companies in this matter is 
that given by Malcolm, on the authority of the Ironmongers' books. Elizabeth, 
it is well known, was scarcely less anxious about the dress of her subjects than 
about her own, with the difference, however, that her anxiety was to restrain the 
love of splendour in the one case, and to encourage it in the other. So, fresh orders 
to her milliners, and fresh precepts to the Companies, flew thick and fast, and it was 
in consequence of one of the latter that the citizens were regaled one day with a 
rich bit of fun at Bishopsgate, where two members of the Ironmongers' and two 
of the Grocers' Companies were found stationed as early as seven o'clock to 
examine the habits of every one who passed through. Lastly, there remain 
to be noticed, among the regular duties of the officers of the Cotnpanies, the 
Trade Searches, when the Grocers' Wardens were bidden " to go and essayen 
weights, powders, confections, plaisters, ointments, and all other things belonging 

* * History of the Twelve great Livery Companies.' 

118 LONDON. 

to the same craft ;*' those of the Fishmongers* to examine fish^ the Vintners* to 
taste wines, the Merchant Tailors' to examine cloth^ and measure the measure 
used in its sale, for which purpose they had a silver yard, with their arms en- 
graved upon it; and most of the other Companies had a like power. Where 
anything wrong was discovered, the process was very summary — seizure of the 
article, if worth seizing, destruction if it were not, with the addition of imprison- 
ment in very bad cases. In 1571^ certain makers of comfits being accused of 
mingling starch with the sugar in their delicacies, the stock — " a good quantity" 
— of one of the chief offenders was put into a tub of water, and so consumed and 
poured out. That this power was really beneficial, and therefore necessary to 
such of the Companies as had it not, is evident from the petition presented to 
the Court of Aldermen by the Wax-Chandlers* Company in the rcig^ of Ed- 
ward III., where they speak feelingly of their craft being "greatly slandered of 
all the good folk of the said craft and of the City, for that they have not Masters 
chosen and sworn of the said craft" before the Mayor and Aldermen, '' as other 
crafts have, to oversee the defaults which be in their said crafts :" the power 
they desire was accordingly granted them, of naming four searchers, and their 
bye-laws were at the same time sanctioned, the first of which explains the rule 
by which the searchers would have to be guided : " That no wax-chandler of the 
said craft make any torches, tapers, prykettes, nor none other manner of chan- 
dlerie of wax mixed with rosin and code, but of good wax and wick ;" and to 
facilitate ^discovery of the wrong-doers, every chandler was to have a mark, 
" and it set to torches, torchetts^ and tapers which he maketh.** Wo learn from 
these bye-laws that the members of the trade were accustomed to lend out wax 
tapers for hire ; that the tapers were both round and square, and that it was cus- 
tomary for persons to bring wax to them to be made into tapers at a certain 
charge for the making, and more particularly for " torches, torchetts, prykettes^ 
or perchers, chaundele or tapers for women ayenst Candelmas." A few words 
on the chief places where the Trade Searches had generally to be pursued, or in 
other words, on the localities of the different London trades, may not be unac* 
ceptable. Cloth Fair was, as its name implies, the chief mart of the Merchant 
Tailors' commodities, Foster Lane of the Goldsmiths^ Ironmonger Lane of the Iron- 
mongers^ Old Fish Street and Fish Street Hill of the Fishmongers, the Mercery 
— a part of Cheapside between Bow Church and Friday Street — of the Mercers 
and Haberdashers, and who were previously on the other side« where the Mer- 
cers' Hall now stands. Silks and velvets appear to have formed the chief articles 
of trade with the Mercers, as they gradually resigned to the Haberdashers the 
sale of all the less important wares. The Haberdashers dealt in hats^ millinery, 
small articles of jewellery, pins — a lucrative commodity — and a thousand other 
things, in addition to some of those. which still belong to the trade. The Drapers 
did their chief business in Blackwell Hall, the site of the present Bankruptcy 
Court ; the Grocers, or Pepperers, as they were once called, were mostly to be 
found in Soper Lane ; the Butchers in Cheapside, Newgate Market, and at the 
Stocks, the site of the present Mansion House ; whilst the Tanners favoured the 
localities '' without Newgate" and '' without Cripplegate." 

In this grant of powers to the Wax Chandlers, we see one example of the juris* 
diction of the Mayor and Aldermen over the Companies; a jurisdiction so com- 
plete, from time immemorialj that the Brewers in 1435» addressing the former. 



•tyle him " their right wonhipful and gracious lord and aoveieign, the Mayor of 
London ;" and precisely the same idea is conveyed, in different words, a century 
and a half later, when he is spoken of as " the Warden of all the Companies." 
The duties arising from the connection between the Companies and the Civic Cor- 
poration, therefore, form the second division of the duties of the officers of the 
former, and a great many unpleasant matters they involved. Some of them are 
interesting as illustrative of the working of the system. Thus, for instance, as to the 
monopoly enjoyed by the Companies, we may see that we should greatly err if we 
looked npon the constitution of the Companies as framed for that especial object, 
using the word monopoly in its present sense, though there ia no doubt it 
had a great tendency to establish the evils that, under a different state of things, 
have made the very idea hateful to us. But this tendency the more enlightened 
governors of the City made it their business to repress, and in a manner that 
must then have been tolerably effectual. The Brewers' records furnish a case in 
point, and Whittington is again one of the principal actors. In 1422 he laid an 
infonnation before his successor in the Mayoralty, Bobert Chichele, in con- 
sequence of which the latter " sent for the Masters and twelve of the most worthy 
of oar Company to appear at the Guildhall ; to whom John Fray, the Becorder, 
objected a breach of government, for which 202. should be forfeited, for selling 
dear ale. After much dispute about the price and quality of malt, wherein 

120 LONDON. 

Whittington, the late Mayor, declared that the ' brewers had ridden into the 
country and forestalled the malt to raise its price/ they were convicted in the 
penalty of 20/. ; which objecting to, the Masters were ordered to be kept in 
prison in the Chamberlain's custody until they should pay it, or find security 
for the payment thereof." Another feature of the connection, arising no doubt 
from the one just referred to, though we should hope not materially influencing 
it, is the system of making presents to the Mayor, of which we find many exam- 
ples; among them, ''for two pipes of red wine, to Richard Whittington's butler,** 
a "boar, price 2O9., and an ox, price 17^."' to William Waldeme, Mayor in 
1422-3, who " behaved well to the Company until two or three weeks before his 
retirement from office,*' when he began to annoy them, and they thus " assuaged 
his displeasure." When these presents took a more circuitous route, the object was 
openly acknowledged, as in an entry in 1423, in the Brewers* books, of ''money 
given to divers Serjeants of the Mayor, for to be good friends to our craft." 
After all there is nothing here to fix any stain of corruption on the eminent civic 
governors of the period ; though some of them, thinking very rightly that the 
mere acceptance of such gifts not only looked like bribery, but might really 
have that tendency at times, eschewed them altogether. Under the date 1423 
we read, that " William Crowmcre, Mayor this year, was a good man, and well 
pleased all the citizens, especially the Brewers ; when the Masters offered gifts 
to him, he thanked them, but would not receive any.*' The general domestic 
government of London, of course, afforded many points of intimate connection 
between the officers of the Companies and of the City ; when there was an Exchange 
to be erected, or a city ditch to be cleansed, precepts came from the Mayor 
to the different Masters and Wardens, to collect the sum of money to which their 
respective fraternities had been assessed, as their fair share of the expenses. 
Setting the poor to work, a still more weighty undertaking, was accomplished in 
the same way. But the most important labours which the Companies and the 
city undertook in matters relating to the domestic economy of London, was the 
supply of corn and coal in times of scarcity, to the poorer citizens, at a moderate 
price. The commencement of the custom, as to corn, may be dated from the 
early part of the fourteenth century, when, with that princely liberality that dis- 
tinguished so many of the citizens of London in early times. Sir Simon Eyre 
built a public granary at Leadenhall, and Sir Stephen Brown sent out 
ships to Dantzic, " causing [rye] com to be brought from thence, whereby he 
brought down the price of wheat from 3s. the bushel to less than half the money, 
for corn was then so scarce in England that poor people were enforced to make 
their bread of ' feame ' roots.'* * At first the cost of the supplies of com to the 
granary (made, of course, always when the com was cheapest), was defrayed by 
loans and contributions from the Mayor and Aldermen, and sometimes the citi- 
zens, but in 1521 the Companies were called on to assist, and from that time pre- 
cepts of a similar nature followed with a most unsatisfactory frequency, until at 
last the Mayor and Aldermen had some difiiculty in obtaining the sums required. 
The truth is, no doubt, that there was a continual loss on the business, and con- 
sequently that though funds were generally obtained, under the name of loans, 
they were in effect, gifts. The Companies were therefore desirous of leaving the 
matter entirely in the hands of the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, who were equally 

* Stow t Sunrex, ed. 1633, p. 89. 


desirous of leaving it with the Companies. In 1578 an arrangement was finally 
concluded, that the Companies should provide the quantities of corn that it was 
deemed necessary to have in store — 5000 quarters, and that the City should 
provide a place of deposit, which they did in the Bridge-house, on old London 
Bridge, where the gamers were divided into twelve equal parts for the twelve 
great Companies (who seem to have had the general management imposed upon 
them), and where mills and ovens were erected. This arrangement was soon 
disturbed by the cupidity and meanness of the government, who frequently 
exhibited a desire to turn the affair, in various ways, to its own selfish advantage. 
So, when in 1594, Sir John Hawkins applied for the use of the granaries and 
ovens for the royal navy, the Companies took the alarm ; and although Sir John 
understood and gave way to the Mayor's reasoning — that if the granaries were 
taken, the Companies would neglect making their provision and plead want of 
room, the latter saw in his acquiescence only a stronger proof that it was the corn 
rather than the granaries he desiderated ; and obtained permission of the Com- 
mon Council to lay in stocks of grain on their own premises. This seems for a 
time to have checked the Court; who, however, in 1622, returned to the charge, 
in a letter from James*s Lord High Steward — the Duke of Lennox, and two 
other great officers of the household. It is addressed to — '' Our loving friendu 
the Wardens and Assistants of the Company of Grocers: After our hearty 
commendations : Whereas, by the neglect of his Majesty's purveyors, his house 
is at this time altogether unfurnished with wheat, by means whereof there is a 
present want of 100 quarters of wheat for the service of his household, we do 
therefore pray and desire you, that out of your stock his Majesty may be sup- 
plied with 30 or 40 quarters of your best and sweetest wheat, until his own 
provisions may be brought in, the which we do faithfully promise shall be paid 
unto you again in November next, at the furthest ; and because it is intended 
that, by the exchange thereof, you shall lose no loss, we have therefore committed 
the care thereof to Mr. Harvey, one of his Majesty's officers of the Green Cloth, 
who shall see the same duly answered and brought into your granary by the 
time appointed ; and so, not doubting of your willing performances upon so 
present and needful occasion, we bid you, heartily, farewell. Your loving 
friends — Lenox ; Thomas Edmond ; John Suckling (father of the poet). White- 
hall, 27th September, 1622.'* Sweet words, and irresistible! Mr. Harvey, 
who was in attendance on the Court when the letter was read, being called in, 
promised ''so to mediate, that 10 quarters should be taken in satisfaction of the 
whole demand," which were granted. Mr. Herbert adds, with a laudable sense of 
the bare possibility of its return, *' whether it was ever repaid does not appear." 
At the fire of London the granaries were burnt, and never afterwards restored. 
The coal custom was so exactly of the same nature as that relating to com, that 
it is unnecessary to make any further allusion to it. 

The last division of the business of the Companies is that relating to its con- 
nexion with the government, of which the royal application, incidentally referred 
to in the preceding passage, betokens in a great measure the character. The 
sovereigns of England, from the earliest times down to the extinction of the 
Stuart dynasty, looked upon the City of London generally, and the Companies 
in particular, as a kind of reserve treasury, not, certainly, to be resorted to when 

122 LONDON. 

they could manage very well without, but as undeniably theirs when they could 
not. The impudence, as we cannot but call it, with which Elisabeth applied 
for money in these quarters is really ludicrous. The Ironmongers once received 
from her the following exquisite specimen of the manner in which royalty bor- 
rows, in which the reader will not fail to remark how attentive the Queen 
had been to consider how they should get, as well as the conditions on which 
they were to lend, the sum demanded. '' These," writes the stately Elizabeth, 
through her mouth-piece the Mayor, and, as we could fancy, with her ruff and 
stomacher looking stiffer and fiercer than ever, " these are to will and command 
you that forthwith you prepare in readiness the sum of 60/. of the stock of your 
hall, and if you have not so much in store, then you must borrow the same at 
interest, at the only costs and losses of your hall, to be lent to the Queen's 
Majesty for one whole year," &c., and this they were to fail in at their " peril !** 
But there is a still richer trait of the virgin Queen to be mentioned : having at 
one time, by these and similar means, got more money than she knew exactly 
what to do with, she actually made the citizens receive it back again in loans of 
from 50/. to 500/. each, on security of gold and silver plate, or other equally 
satisfactory deposits, at seven per cent. There is nothing in Swift or Fielding*8 
fictitious satires to equal this touch of positive truth. Elizabeth was, at the 
same time, too politic a guardian of her Exchequer to fill it by one method only : 
if the scourge could not but be felt, still it was not necessary to make it always 
be felt in the same place ; so, borrowing a hint from the continental governments^ 
she established in 1567 our first lottery, and her loving friends the Companies 
were immediately desired to avail themselves of its advantages. They did so, 
and, whatever they thought of the result, it was no doubt satisfactory to the 
ingenious author. Unfortunately, however, when another lottery was set on foot 
for armour, in 1585, the Lord Mayor had to use, among his other arguments, one 
of a very suspicious nature, but which, it seems, the experience of the former 
rendered necessary; he had to assure the Companies that there should be a 
" true delivery of the prizes to the winners,'* and to add something about the 
appointment of a body of persons to see Justice done. To quicken his own and 
the Sheriff's zeal in *' persuading every man to venture," her Majesty promised^ 
in respect of the '' forward service of the said lottery,*' one basin and one ewer, of 
100/. value, to each of them. The Merchant Tailors* books exhibit a very clear 
intimation of their ideas on the subject at the period in the following couplet :-^ 

" One bird in the hand is worth two in the wood ; 
ff we get the great lot, it will do us good." 

From forced loans and lotteries we advance to the patents, a system of direct 
infringement upon the chief powers and rights of the Companies, tor the most 
selfish purposes, and with the most reckless disregard of the certain evils that 
must accrue. The scheme was first directed against the Brewers* Company, but 
failed at the outset. With the Leathersellers it was more successful. One of the 
hangers-on of the court, Edward Darcy^ obtained a patent from Elizabeth to 
search and seal all the leather through England, and found it, says Strype, *' a 
very gainful business to him ;** but the whole body of persons connected, directly 
or indirectly^ with the trade, mustered their forces, and exhibited so formidable 


[I««theiHl1na' Hill, Biifaorigalt Simt.j 

an appearance that, to avoid a tumult, the patent was revoked. The wardens of 
the Leathersellers' Company distinguished tbemselvct greatly in this conteat by 
their firm adherence to the rights of the fraternity lodged in their keeping, in 
spite of threats and actual imprisonment. But, notwithstanding these checks, the 
scheme proceeded, till there were patentees for currants, salt, iron, powder, cards, 
calf-skins, felts, leather, ox-shin bones, train-oil, and many other articles. Hume 
observes, that when this list was once " read in the House, a member cried, ' Is 
not l)Tead in the number ? ' ' Bread ! ' said every one with astonishment ; ' Yes, 
I assure you,' replied he, ' if affairs go on at this rate we shall have bread re- 
duced to a monopoly before the next Parliament.' " This system, so vicious in 
itself, as transferring powers from highly respectable bodies of men, who had a 
deep interest in using them for the benefit of the community, to single indivi- 
dnals, whose only object or desire was to turn them to the greatest possible 
pecuniary advantage, was made infinitely worse by the practice of transfer of 
those powers as matters of bargain and sale from the original patentee to others; 
"who," remarks the author just mentioned, "were thereby enabled to raise com- 
modities to what price they pleased, and who put invincible restraints apon all 
commerce, industry, and emulation in the arts." It was in the reign of James 
Uiat the system rose to its highest point, then began to decline, and at last fell to 
rise no more in 1641, when the Parliament fined severely two patentees for ob- 
taining a wine-license from the King, Charles. We may conclude these notices 
of the connexion between the government and the Companies, by one or two of a 
more agreeable nature. Whenever any great public occasion rendered a pecu- 
niary demand upon the Companies reasonable, there seems to have been a 
liberality shown worthy of the metropolis ; they assisted largely in the early 
TOjagea of discovery that at different times left our shores, and more particularly 
tboae in which the two Cabots — father and son — were concerned. Whenever 

124 LONDON. 

armies were fitting out, their contingenta formed a very coBsiderable item in the 
whole: thus, on the Spaniards threatening us with their armada, the City fur- 
nished no less than 10,000 men and 38 ships. In ordinary times the Companies 
could always furnish a respectable force for their own and the City's defence, and 
had their armouries attached to their halls, though it was not till 1572 that they 
had a regularly enrolled standing army. In that year they selected from 
amongst their members 3000 of the " most sizeable and active young men," who 
were immediately placed in training, and subsequently reviewed by Elizabeth 
herself in Greenwich Park : a locality that reminds us of another feature of the 
conneiion between royalty and the Companies; the attendance of picked bodies 
of " handsome men, well and handsomely arrayed," to attend the Mayings in 
Greenwich; and of the chief officers, with the XJvery on all great state processions, 
as the entry of the sovereign into London, or of his bride, his coronation, or his 

From this glimpse into the economy of the metropolitan fraternities in their 
prosperous days, let us for a moment turn our eyes backward to their origin 
and rise. We have already in our preliminary remarks on Guildhall referred to 
the custom of frankpledge, which it is supposed formed the germ of the guilds, 
or, as we now call them, companies. When these guilds first assumed positive 
shape and efficiency is unknown, but the weavers of London received a charter 
so early as the reign of Henry II., and that only confirmed liberties previously 
enjoyed : this, say the Commissioners, ia the oldest of the Companies. In the 

same reign, besides the licensed, there were no less than eighteen other London 
guilds, but unlicensed, and which were fined by the King in consequence. The only 
guild of which we know the exact origin is that referred to in the interesting 
story told by Stow in his account of Portsoken Ward, but which evidently was of 
a somewhat irregular nature: — " In the days of King Edgar, more than six 
hundred years since, there were then thirteen knights or soldiers, well beloved 
of the King and realm, for services by them done, who requested to have a cer- 
tain portion of land on the east part of the city, being left desolate and forsaken 
by the inhabitants, by reason of too much servitude : they besought the King to 
have this land with the liberty of a guild for ever. The King granted to their 


request, with conditions following : to wit, that each of them should victoriously 
accomplish three combats, one above the ground, one under ground, and the 
third in the water ; and, after this, at a certain day, in East Smithfield, they 
should run with spears against all comers; all which was gloriously per- 
formed ; and the same day the King named it Knighten Guild."* And, we may 
add, the locality in question forms, either partially or entirely, the present ward 
of Portsoken. Of these early guilds, perhaps the most striking feature is their 
semi-religious character, of which we have given one illustration in the proces- 
sion to church on the election day, and the praying for the dead on the following 
Sunday ; — the designation of some of the Companies forms another : thus we have 
the " Guild or fraternity of the Blessed Mary, the Virgin, of the Mystery of 
Drapers," and the '* Guild or fraternity of the body of Christ of the Skinners." 
A chaplain was one of the regularly-constituted officers of all the larger Compa- 
nies. Although licensed, the guilds generally were not incorporated till the 
reign of Edward III., when that monarch, conscious of the growing strength and 
prosperity of the country through the instrumentality of the trades fraternities, 
raised them at once into the highest possible estimation and honour, by con- 
firming — ^in many cases by letters patent — the privileges they had previously 
enjoyed more by sufferance than of right — and in return for the payment of the 
ferm — and then by enrolling himself as a member of one of them, the Merchant 
Tailors. About the same time it was ordained that all artificers and people of 
mysteries should each choose his own mystery before the next Candlemas, and 
that, having so chosen it, he should thenceforth use no other. Edward also 
transferred the right of electing members to Parliament from the ward representa- 
tives to the Trade Companies, another important influence in raising them to their 
subsequent power. The number of Companies sending members to the Com- 
mon Council towards the close of his reign was forty-eight. Among these the 
Saddlers, the Weavers, and Tapestry-makers were next in importance, as send- 
ing four members each, to the Grocers, Mercers, Drapers, Fishmongers, Gold- 
smiths, and Vintners^ who sent six, and with them the Barbers ranked. It 
was not for a considerable time that the twelve great Companies assumed their 
final position as regards the other fraternities ; and many violent and occasionally 
bloody quarrels mark the history of the struggle for precedence. Their present 
order will be seen in the note below,f where we have given the complete list of 

• S tow's Survey, ed. 1633, p. 115. 

t List of the Companies of London in the order of theU' precedence^ the first twelve forming the Great Livery 
Companies^ and those tehich are extinct being marked in Italics, — 1. Mercers. 2. Grocers. 3. Drapers. 
4. Fisbmongers. 5. Goldsmiths. 6.^ Skinners. 7. Merchant Tailors. 8. Haberdashers. 9. Salters. 
10. Ironmongers. 11. Vintners. 12. Cloth workers. 13. Dyers. 14. Brewers. 15. Leathersellers. 16. Pewterers. 
17. Barbers. 18. Cutlers. 19. Bakers. 20. Wax Chandlers. 21. Tallow Chandlers. 22. Aroiourcrs and 
Braziers. 23. Grinders. 24. Batchers. 25. Saddlers. 26. Carpenters. 27. Cordwainers. 28. Painter-stain- 
en. 29. Curriers. 30. Masons. 31. Plumbers. 32. Innholders. 33. Founders. 34. Poulterers. 35. Cooks. 
36. Coopers. 37. Bricklayers. 38. Boyers. 39. Fletchers. 40. Blacksmiths. 41. Joiners. 42. Weavers. 
43. Woolmen. 44. Scriveners. 45. Fmiterers. 46. Plasterers. 47. Stationers. 48. Broderers. 49. Up- 
holderers. 50. Musicians. 51. Turners. 62. Basket-makers. 53. Glaiiers. 54. Homers. 55. Farriers. 
56. Paviors. 57. Lorimers. 5S. Apothecaries. 59. Shipwrights. 60. Spectacle-makers. 61. Clock- makers. 
62. Glovers.' 63. Comb-makers. 64. Felt-makers. 65. Frame -work Knitters. 66. Silk-throwers. 67. ;^i7Ar- 
men. 68. Pin-makers, 69. Needle-makers. 70. Gardeners. 71; Soap-makers. 72. Tinplate-workers. 
73. Wheelwrights. 71. Distillers. 15, Hat-band-makers, 76. Patten-makers. 77. Glass Sellers. 78. Tobacco 
Pipe-makers. 79. Coach and Harness makers. 80. Gun-makers. 81. Wire Drawers. 82. Long Bowstring' 
makers, 83. Playing-card-makers. 84. Fan-makers. 85. IVoodmongers. 86. Starch-makers, 87. Fish- 
ermen. 88. Parish Clerks. 89. Carmen. 

126 LONDON. 

the London Companies^ including those which sprung up during the mania for 
incorporation that prevailed in the latter part of the fifteenth and beginning of 
the sixteenth centuries^ or just when^ through a variety of concurring causes, 
but chiefly that the trade and commerce to be directed had become much too 
mighty a thing for the directors, the old faith in the necessity and value of the 
Companies was disappearing, and with that their faith their own energies. And 
thus when Charles 11. sought to destroy their independence by frightening them 
into a resignation of their charters, that he might re- grant them with such restrict 
tions as he saw fit, having neither strength within nor without, they succumbed 
at once, and almost licked the dust off the feet of the spoiler in so doing. That 
to these causes rather than to the King s arbitrary proceedings we may attribute 
the decline of the Companies is evident, from the circumstance that, although at 
the Bevolution of 1688 these proceedings were finally reversed, the Companies, 
with the exception of those which possessed large charities, or of those who 
still from peculiar causes continued in close connexion with their respective 
trades, steadily continued to decline from that time. Of the eighty-nine enume* 
rated in the list, eight are practically extinct, and a ninth, the Parish 
Clerks (the actors in the old miracle plays), has no connexion with the 
municipality of London. The others are divided by the Commissioners into 
three classes — 1. Companies still exercising an ejKcient control over their trade, 
namely, the Goldsmiths and the Apothecaries. Both these also belong to class 

2. Companies exercising the right of search, or marking wares, &c. ; in which 
are included the Stationers' Company, at whose Hall all copyright books 
must be " entered;" the Gunmakers, who prove all the guns made in the City ; 
the Founders, who test and mark weights ; the Saddlers, who examine the work- 
manship of saddles ; and, in a lesser degree, the Painters, who issue a trade-price 
list of some authority; and the Pewterers and Plumbers, who make assays. 

3. Companies, into which persons carrying on certain occupations in the City arc 
compelled to enter ; such are the Apothecaries, Brewers, Pewterers, Builders, 
Barbers, Bakers, Saddlers, Painter Stainers, Plumbers, Innholders, Founders, 
Poulterers, Cooks, Weavers, Scriveners, Farriers, Spectacle Makers, Clock 
Makers, Silk Throwers, Distillers, Tobacco Pipe Makers, and Carmen. This 
last -mentioned fraternity is the only one that exclusively consists of persons 
belonging to the trade, though the Stationers and the Apothecaries, with one or 
two others, have a majority of such members. Admission into the body of free- 
men is obtained by birth, apprenticeship, purchase^ or gift ; and thence into the 
livery, in most cases at the pleasure of the party, on payment of the fees, which 
are generally light where the claim arises from patrimony or servitude, but other- 
wise vary from a few pounds to as much as 200 guineas. The government of 
most of the companies is now intrusted to Courts of Assistants, formed from the 
senior members of the livery, and comprising Master, Senior and Junior War- 
dens, and a certain number of assistants, who succeed in rotation to the higher 
offices. Among the officers and classes who have disappeared from the Compa- 
nies, or changed their designation, arc the Pilgrim, the ancient head of the Mer- 
chant Tailors, so called from his travelling for them; the Master Bachelor and 
Budge Bachelor of the Drapers ; the Bachelor in foins of the Skinners ; with 
the Yeomanry of most of the companies^ who seem to have been the old freemen. 

Recurring to the words of the Commissioners, in which they describe the ex- 


isdng Companies as go many trusteeBbipB for ** charitable purposes'* and *^ char* 
tered festivals/* it is worthy of observation that one of the earliest objects sought 
by the guild, in some instances apparently their primary one, was the foundation 
of a common stock, for the relief of poor or decayed members. Large funds were 
established in course of time, and the charitable character thus attached to the 
Company led to their being chosen as trustees for the care and ^management of 
a variety of other charities founded by benevolent persons ; who, in the earlier 
periods of metropolitan history, were so numerous, that Stow devotes some five- 
and-twenty folio pages of his ' Survey' to the mere enumeration of their acts, 
under the appropriate and characteristic title of the Honour of Citizens and 
Worthiness' of Men: a noble chapter in the history of London. The variety of 
these charities is as remarkable as their entire amount must be magnificent; 
comprising as they do pensions to decayed members, almshouses, innumerable 
gifts of money to the poor, funds for the support of hospitals, schools, exhibitions 
at the universities, prisoners in the city gaols, for lectures and sermons, 
donations to distressed clergymen, and so on through an interminable list. 
The most interesting, perhaps also the most valuable, of the charities has yet 
to be mentioned — the loans of different sums to young beginners in business, to 
an amount, and for a time, amply sufficient to start them fairly in life with every 
expectation of a prosperous career. Some idea of the magnitude of the Com- 
panies' charities, on the whole, may be derived from two illustrations. The 
Charity Commissioners stated that the Goldsmiths' Company's annual payments 
to their poor alone amounted to about 2836/.; and we learn from the Cor- 
poration Commissioners that the Fishmongers, out of their princely income, 
averaging above 18,000/. a-year, disburse in all between 9000/, and 10,000/. 
in charities in England and Ireland : in which last*mentioned country this and 
some of the other Companies have large estates. 

As to the *' chartered festivals," that form the other distinguishing feature of 
the Companies in the present dayi we have already noticed the election dinner ; 
and have only to add, that, notwithstanding the magnificence of the feasts given 
by some of the Companies, as, for instance, the Merchant Tailors, they are not 
for a moment to be compared with their predecessors of the same locality. 
There may be eminent men among the guests, but no king sitting down " openly 
among them in a gown of crimson velvet of the fashion*' as a member, which 
Henry VII. once did : there may be speakers to please with their eloquence, and 
statesmen to flatter with the expression of kindred political views, but no Ben 
Jonson to prepare such an entertainment as that which greeted James I. ''with 
great and pleasant variety of music, of voices, and instruments, and ingenious 
speeches ;'* no Dr. Bull, to make the occasion still more memorable by the first 
production of such an air as ' God save the King.' The halls in which these 
festivals take place present many features of interest, but none of them are of 
very early date, the Great Fire having swept away most of those then in ex- 
istence. The hall of the Barber Surgeons, described in a previous number,* 
and that of the Leathersellers engraved in this, may be taken as interesting ex- 
amples of those which escaped. Of the halls recently rebuilt, the Goldsmiths', 

♦ No. LXII. 

128 LONDON. 

one of the most sumptuous gpecimens of domestic architecture in the metropolis, 
has also been fully treated of.* The Fishmongers', with its fine statue of Wal- 
worth on the staircase, its stained glass windows, its elegant drawing-room with 
a splendid silver chandelier, and its grand banquetting hall, is built, deco- 
rated, and furnished on a similarly splendid scale. Of the remainder we can 
but briefly refer to Merchant Tailors' Hall, with its tabular lists of the kings, 
princes, dukes, and other distinguished personages, who have been members, 
making one wonder who is not included in it rather than who is ; Drapers' Hall, 
on the site of the building erected by Henry VIH.'b vicar- general, Cromwell, 
with its public gardens, where was the house occupied by Stow's father, which 
Cromwell so unceremoniously removed upon rollers when making the said 
gardens out of his neighbours' land; Mercers' Hall, with its chapel, standing 
where, several centuries ago, stood the house of Gilbert Becket, father of the 
great archbishop, and husband of the fair Saracen who had followed him over 
the seas; the Clockmakers', with their library and museum, richly illustrative 
of the history of their trade ; and lastly, the Painter Stainers, who not only 
claimed a supervision over the highest branches of art, but had their claims 
admitted by the enrolment of such men as Verrio, KneUer, and Reynolds among 
their members. 

[Fbhmoiigen- Bill, Londoa B 
• No. LXXV. 



The name of this well-known place is one of the mafiy initancei of popular 
CDiraption, which, ehoutd the original be once forgot, from thenceforth become 
both the trouble and the delight of bewildered but zealous antiquaries. We are, 
however, as yet spared their theories as to the origin of Covent Garden, seeiag 
that we are told in many a bulky volume that there was on the spot, bo early as 
1222, a Ibi^ garden belonging to the monks of Westminster Abbey, which was 
therefore known as the Concent Oarden. And it is curious to note how the 
deities to whom the place was then dedicated have kept watch and ward over it 
through all the chants that have been experienced here; the only difference 
being that Flora, having grown more comprehensive and exotic, and, it must be 
acknowledged, artificial in her tastes, has changed her simple plat into a con- 
servatory ; and that Pomona, instead of having to superintend the supply of the 
Abbey table, now caters for no inconsiderable portion of mighty London. 

We have spoken of changes ; and perhaps no part of London forms a happier 
text for snch a theme, — no part that more strikingly illustrates the growth of 
London in comparatively recent times. Let us look at Covent Garden in 1560, 
as it is exhibited to us in a large Map of the period,* or at the view of the 
Strand given in a frontispiece to our first volume. It forms there an oblong 
walled space, sprinkled over with trees and some three or four cottages, or, u 
* Praentil in the coUectiab of Sii Huu Sloine, uul n-«ngi*T«l in bUitland. 

130 LONDON. 

Strype describes it, " fields, with some thatched houses, stables, and such like/* 
bounded by open meadows with footpaths on the north, by the enclosed and gay- 
looking parterres of Bedford House on the south, by the road from St. Giles's into 
the Strand and to Temple Bdr, with Drury House on the opposite side^ em- 
bosomed in green foliage on the east, and by St. Martin s Lane on the west, a 
fine leafy avenue carrying the eye onwards into the country, towards the beau- 
tiful hills of Hampstead and Highgate. That these features are correctly 
delineated in the map is evident from other proofs : Anderson, for instance, 
writing about the middle of the last century^ refers to his having met persons in 
his youth who remembered the west side of St. Martin's Lane to have been a 
quickset hedge. Towards the southern corner of the western side, St. Martin's 
church formed a portion of the boundary line^ with the Mews beyond it, '* so 
called of the King's falcons there kept by the King s falconer, which of old time 
was an office of great account, as appeareth by a record of Richard II. in the 
first year of his reign ; [when] Sir Simon Burley, Knight, was made constable 
of the castles of Windsor^ Wigmore, and Guilford, and of the manor of Ken- 
nington, and also master of the King's falconry at the Mews near unto Charing 
Cross." * The Bedford family, to whom we are indebted in a great measure for 
the difference between the Covent Garden and precincts here described, and the 
same localities of the present day, is the one referred to in Malcolm's remark, 
** Strange, that a fifth of London should have been erected by this family within 
two centuries !" 

But for the dissolution of the monasteries, all these as well as many other 
important metropolitan changes could hardly have taken place : then it was that 
the Convent Garden, with a field called Seven Acres, or more popularly, from 
its shape. Long Acre, was granted by Edward VI. to Edward Duke of Somerset, 
and again in 1552, after the attainder of that nobleman, to John Earl of Bedford, 
who immediately built himself a house at the bottom of the present Southampton 
Street, in the Strand (so called from the illustrious wife of the Lord William 
Russell, who was the daughter of the Earl of Southampton), and laid out the 
parterres before mentioned. The house was, it appears, but *' a mean wooden 
building, shut up from the street by an ordinary brick wall ;" it was pulled 
down in 1704. In the early part of the reign of Charles I., Francis, fourth Earl 
of Bedford, looking with the eye of a man of business at the capacities of his 
newly-acquired property, and with that of a statesman at the desirableness and 
certainty of a continual increase of the progression which alarmed so many of his 
brother senators, and of their monarch, began the magnificent improvements 
which were to distinguish his name. How he appeased Charles I., or how he ven- 
tured to act in opposition to him, it is difficult to say, but that the Earl's pro- 
ceedings were in direct violation of the laws which Elizabeth, James, and 
Charles had set down for the repression of fresh buildings in London is certain : 
perhaps, after all, he quietly submitted to be fined, as we shall find was the case 
with his successors, and then let the exaction — like such exactions generally — fall 
on that portion of the public who rented the houses. To the general energy in 
all departments of mental and social life exhibited in the reign of Elizabeth may 
be attributed the increase in the metropolis which so startled the sagacious 

* Stow'a Survey, p. 493. 


virgin queen, that she issued a proclamation in 1580, forbidding the erection of, 
any bat houses of the highest class within three miles of the city. James was 
not even satisfied with this precaution, but added (1617) a proclamation com- 
manding all noblemen, knights, and gentlemen, who had mansions in the country, 
to depart within twenty days, with their wives and families, during the summer 
vacation. As to Charles, he, in the very year that the Earl commenced opera- 
tiona, strained the restrictive virtue of proclamations so far as to forbid the 
entertunment of additional inmates in houses already existing, " which would 
multiply the inhabitants to such an excessive number that they could neither 
be governed nor fed." This, we repeat, was the precise time the Earl of 
Bedford began. His first step was to call to his assistance Inigo Junes, who had 
already commenced at Lincoln's Inn Fields the erection of that class of houses, 
and in that disposition, which gave such novel features to London, and forms to 
this day, in the different squares, one of its principal charms. The old buildings 
of the locality hiving been removed, a large oblong space, 500 feet long by 
400 broad, was laid out in the centre, around which were to be stately build- 
ings, with arcades after the Italian manner, for persons of rank and fashion, then 
fast migrating westward from Aldersgate Street and the difi'crent parts of the 
dty. The north and a part of the east sides only were erected, however, by 
Jones, or after his designs, and the latter was bamt down in the fire that injured 
the church in 1795. The remainder of the space was laid out in streets, which 
■till bear in their names a reference to the period, as King Street, Charles Street, 
and Henrietta Street. The impulse, thus given, spread ; noble mansions shot ap 
with surprising rapidity, in Drory Lane, in Queen Street, and generally through 
the neighbourhood, where we may still trace Jones's handiwork, es in the building 
in the street last mentioned, which is here shown. This fine artist, indeed, it seems 
to us, ought to be looked upon as the true founder of the modem domestic archi- 
tecture of the metropolis. It was not till after he had laid out Lincoln's Inn 
Square and Corent Garden, and built the palatial mansions that adorned both, that 

(Uoon tmllt by tnlga ioatt, b OrMt Q' 

132 LONDON. 

Soho Square and Golden Square arose ; to be followed still later by Hanover 
and Cavendish Squares^ and a host of others* Of the minor streets that sprung 
up subsequent to and in consequence of the erection of the buildings of Covent 
Garden^ in the same century^ we may mention Catherine Street^ so designated 
from the wife of Charles II. ; Duke Street and York Street from his brother ; also 
Bloomsbury, and the streets of Seven Dials ; and, lastly, in the reigns of William 
and Anne^ the remaining unbuilt sides of Covent Garden. As to the fines fot 
such labours^ which we before referred to, it appears that during the Protectorate, 
in the year 1657, William, the fifth Earl, and his brothers John and Edward 
Russell, were abated 7000/. from the amount of their fines for violating the pro- 
clamation, in consideration of the great expense which the family had incurred 
in the erection of the chapel, and the improvement of the neighbourhood. 

As houses accumulated, the parish church of St. Martin became insufficient 
for the accommodation of the parishioners ; so the Earl one day sent for his 
architect, and ''told him/' says Walpole,who had the anecdote from the Speaker 
of the House of Commons, Onslow, " that he wanted a chapel for the parishioners 
of Covent Garden, but added, he would not go to any considerable expense ; ' in 
short,' says he, ' I would not have it much better than a bam.* ' Well, then,' 
replied Jones, * you shall have the handsomest bam in England.' " This story, 
so far from appearing to us as " somewhat questionable," as Mr. Brayley esteems 
it, or to have arisen from a mere '' expression of pleasantry on the part of the 
Earl,*' as suggested by a writer in the ' Gentleman's Magazine,' is so exactly 
illustrated by the building, that were there no truth in it, we should be half 
inclined to agree with the opinion of him who said the most remarkable thing 
about the structure is the reputation it enjoys, so exceedingly naked is it as 
regards all decorative details^ so destitute, in short, of any qualities that can 
command admiration except the air of grandeur thrown over the whole by the 
masterly combinations of form and the powerful lights and shadows which they 
bring into play : the very quality, in short, that the anecdote shows us was 
alone at the architect's disposal. Some time after the erection of the chapel, a 
dispute occurred between the Earl and the vicar of St. Martin's as to the right 
of patronage or appointment of curates to the former# in consequence of which 
the Earl used all his influence to get the district formed into a separate parish, 
and successfully ; in 1645 his wishes were finally accomplished, and the chapel 
became the church of St. Paul — Covent Garden a parish. The cost of the former 
was 4500/., a sum that contrasts very oddly with the charges for repairing the 
structure only about fifty years later, namely, 11,000/.; but the Vandals who 
had the management of the repair appear to have gone out of their way to 
increase the expense by altering the portico — Inigo Jones's portico ; for we learn 
from a newspaper of 1727 that ''the right honourable the Earl of Burlington, 
out of regard to the memory of the celebrated Inigo Jones* and to prevent our 
countrymen being exposed for their ignorance, has very generously been at the 
expense of 300/. or 400/. to restore the portico of Covent Garden Church, now 
one of the finest in the world, to its primitive form : it is said it once cost the 
inhabitants about twice as much to spoil it." * Would it were always so ; it is 
impossible to desire a better argument for the conviction of such persons, and 

• < Weekly Journal/ April %% 1727. 


where tfiiit fails nothing could succeed. In 1795 the fire took place which burnt 
the arcade on the east side of the square, and did terrible damage to the church ; 
Malcolm says, not a particle of woodwork escaped (the wondrous architectural 
roof of timber of course early disappeared) ; and describes the flames at their 
height as making '' a grand scene^ the portico and massy pillars projected before 
a background of liquid fire.*' The church had been insured for 10,000/., but 
the insurance having been allowed to expire about a twelvemonth before^ the 
entire expense of the rebuilding fell on the inhabitants in the shape of an accu- 
mulation of rent to the amount, it is said, of at least 25 per cent. The essential 
parts of Inigo Jones's structure, that is, the portico, with the walls, resisted the 
fire and were preserved. There were some interesting things in the building 
thus destroyed, and which shared the same fate ; such as the monument by Gib- 
bon of Sir P. Lely, who 

** ' on animated canvas Btole 
The sleepy eye that spoke the melting bouI/' 

and who was buried in the church ; the painted-glass portraits of St. Paul, of 
which Bagford speaks; and the picture of Charles I., by Lely, which shows how 
the painter's zealous political views had got the better of his common sense^ 
not to say of his religious perceptions : the king was painted kneeling, with a 
crown of thorns in his hand, his sceptre and coronet lying by. We do not find 
it stated that this picture was burnt, but such was no doubt the case, as it is 
not now in the church. Many of our readers may be aware that St. Paul's, 
Covent Garden, derives some reputation from the eminent men who have been 
buried within its walls or churchyard; but they will hardly be aware how very 
rich it is in such associations. Beneath the vestry«room, where is a fine portrait 
by Vandyke of the first Earl of Bedford, lie Wolcot, the scourge alike of Acade- 
micians, and of the royalty who conferred on them the honours they so delighted 
in, and Johnstone, the best Irish gentleman of our stage. In other parts of the 
church are the remains of Wycherley, the author of the ' Plain Dealer,' and the 
worthy precursor of the Congreves, Vanbrughs, and Farquhars; Macklin, who, 
as his inscription informs us, was 

w the father of the modern stage. 

Renowned alike for talent and for age," 

and Dr. Ame, the great English musician (without stone or memorial). In that 
part of the churchyard which lies on the northern side of the walk, against the 
back of the houses of King Street^ and called King Street Plat, reposes the 
author of ' Hudibras ;' and in another comer of the same plat, appropriately 
designated the Theatrical corner, Michael Kelly, Edwin, King, and Estcourt, 
the founder of the first Beef Steak Club, of which Mrs. Wofiington was president, 
and which is mentioned in the ' Spectator.' Two other names yet occur to the 
memory in connexion with St. Paul's, Carr Earl of Somerset, and Sir Robert 
Strange, the founder of the English school of engraving, and who enjoys the 
peculiar honour of having had his portrait introduced into the picture of the 
' Progress of Engraving,' in the Vatican — the only one of our countrymen so 
Nor are the interesting recollections of the locality confined to the church. In 

134 LONDON. 

Rose Street, now Bose Alley, Covent Garden, was Dryden waylaid and beaten 
by ruffians hired by the Earl of Rochester, in revenge for an attack upon him- 
self in the ' Essay on Satire/ a production attributed to Dryden, but really writ- 
ten by Lord Mulgrave, afterwards Duke of Buckinghamshire. The poet was at 
the time returning from his favourite haunt at the western comer of Bow Street, 
the far-famed Will's Coffee House. Dryden was also concerned in another act 
of violence in Covent Garden, and which ended fatally, but in which he was less 
personally interested : we allude to the duel, so dramatically described by Pepys, 
between " Sir H. Bell asses and Tom Porter," and which, he justly observes, is 
worth remembering as a " kind of emblem of the general complexion of this 
whole kingdom at present.*' He then continues, '^ They two dined yesterday at 
Sir Robert Carr*s, where, it seems, people do drink high, all that come. It 
happened that these two, the greatest friends in the world, were talking to- 
gether, and Sir H. Bellasses talked a little louder than ordinary to Tom Porter, 
giving of him some advice. Some of the company standing by said, * What, arc 
they quarrelling, that they talk so high V Sir H. Bellasses, hearing it, said, 
' No,' says he, ' I would have you know I never quarrel but I strike ; and take 
that as a rule of mine !' ' How,' says Tom Porter, ' strike ? I would I could see 
the man in England that durst give me a blow.' With that Sir H. Bellasses 
did give him a box of the ear; and so they were going to fight there, but were 
hindered. And by-and-by Tom Porter went out, and, meeting Dryden the poet, 
told him of the business, and that he was resolved to fight Sir H. Bellasses pre- 
sently y for he knew that, if he did not, they should be friends to-morrow, and 
then the blow would rest upon him, which he would prevent; and desired 
Dryden to let him have his boy to bring him notice which way Sir H. Bellasses 
goes. By-and-by he is informed that Sir H. Bellasses' coach was coming : so 
Tom Porter went down out of the coffee-house, where he stayed for the tidings, 
and stopped the coach, and bade Sir H. Bellasses come out. * Why,' says 
H. Bellassc^ ' you will not hurt me coming out, will you ? ' ' No,' says Tom 
Porter. So, out he went, and both drew ; and H. Bellasses having drawn, and 
flung away his scabbard, Tom Porter asked him whether he was ready. The 
other answering him he was, they fell to fight, some of their acquaintance by. 
They wounded one another, and Bellasses so much, that it is feared he will die : 
and, finding himself severely wounded, he called to Tom Porter, and kissed him, 
and bade him shift for himself; for, says he, ' Tom, thou hast hurt me, but I 
will make shifl to stand upon my legs till thou mayst withdraw, and the world 
will not take notice of you, for I would not have thee troubled for what thou 
hast done.' And so, whether he did fly or not I cannot tell ; but Tom Porter 
showed H. Bellasses that he was wounded too : and they are both ill, but H. 
Bellasses to fear of life." * Bellasses died ten days afterwards. 

In Covent Garden, again, was PowelVs Theatre, where Punch, soaring above 
the mere antics that regale the eyes of his street worshippers, marshalled a 
goodly company of puppet actors, and laid under contribution the mightiest sub- 
jects in the history of man for dramas, that might worthily exhibit their powers. 
Here is one of Powell's advertisements : — " At Punch's Theatre, in the Little 
Piazza, this present Friday being the 2nd, and to-morrow, the 3rd of May, will 

* Pepys's Diary. 


be presented an opera, called the ' State of Innocence, or the Fall of Man.* 
With variety of scenes and machines, particularly the scene of Paradise in its 
primitive state, with birds^ beasts, and all its ancient inhabitants^ the subtlety of 
the serpent in betraying Adam and Eve, &c., with variety of diverting inter- 
ludes, too many to be inserted here. No person to be admitted in masks or 
riding- hoods [commonly used at the other theatres for the purposes of licentious 
intrigue], nor any money to be returned after the curtain is up. Boxes 2s. ; 
pit 1#. Beginning exactly at seven o*clock.*' It must not be supposed, how- 
ever, that Punch thought there should be no more cakes and ale because his 
master was virtuous, or that fun was to bo debarred merely because the theme 
might be somewhat serious : so, whether Adam and Eve were wandering hand- 
in-hand about Eden, or Noah and his daughters shut up in the ark. Punch, in 
his onru proper character, was not long missing. Powell had constantly audi- 
ences of the most fashionable description. Lastly, in and around Covent Garden, 
/Ae Beefsteak Club — ^not the oldest one, but by far the greatest — held its sittings, 
from its first formation in the dressing-room of the manager and pantomimist 
Rich, a man of whom Garrick says, — 

•* He gave the power of speech to every limb," 

and who carried the pantomimic art to great perfection in his theatre at Lin- 
coln s Inn, and subsequently at Covent Garden when he became its manager. 
To ensure the effect of his scenes, and the working of his ingenious mechanism 
he painted the one, and put in motion the other, in small pasteboard models, 
with his own hands. Whilst thus engaged, his room was the continual resort of 
men of rank and intellectual eminence, who admired the skill of the artist, and 
still more the conversation of the man. Hogarth, his father-in-law Sir James 
Thornhill, and Lord Peterborough, were among this class. The latter having 
been detained accidentally on one occasion, through the non- arrival of his car- 
riage, was so delighted with the converse that passed as to overlook the lapse of 
time, and the necessity that his entertainer — a man of regular habits — should 
get his dinner. Rich, however, did not forget or postpone it, but at two o*clock 
commenced preparations by clearing his fire, placing a gridiron with a steak on 
it, and spreading his cloth. When ready. Rich invited his lordship to join him, 
who did so, and enjoyed his repast so much that further supplies, with wine, 
were sent for ; and thus was the evening spent. On leaving. Lord Peterborough 
proposed a renewal of the feast on the Saturday following, when three or four 
friends came with him, and the club was finally determined upon, with '' Beef 
and Liberty ** for its motto, and beefsteaks, port wine, and punch for its regular 
fare. This took place in 1735, and from that to the present time there are few 
persons of very high personal, political, or intellectual distinction who have not 
been among its members. In the notices of the proceedings of different periods the 
most prominent names are Bubb Doddington, Aaron Hill, Hoadley, the author 
of the ' Suspicious Husband,' Glover the poet. Lord Sandwich, Wilkes, Bonnel 
Thornton, Arthur Murphy, Churchill, Tickell, the Prince of Wales afterwards 
(George IV., the late Duke of Norfolk, the late Charles Morris, &c. &c. Here, 
indeed, were met the fellows of infinite jest, of most excellent fancy, with their 
gibes, their gambols, their songs, their flashes of merriment that were wont to 

136 LONDON. 

set the table in a roar. Pre-eminent among them was the poet Churchillj whose 
wit in many a dazzling attack or repartee still lives in the memory of the mem- 
bers. The '^ Liberty/* added to the Beef^ had probably attracted a descendant 
of King Charleses stem judge, Bradshaw^ to the society, who was always boasting 
of the connexion. Pursuing one day his usual theme^ Churchill remarked, *' Ah, 
Bradshaw, don't crow ! The Stuarts have been amply avenged for the loss of 
Charles's head, for you have not had a head in your whole family ever since." 
The society, after numerous migrations, as from Covent Garden Theatre to the 
Bedford Hotel in the square^ and from the Bedford to the Lyceum, is now per- 
manently settled in a room attached to the latter, where Bich's original gridiron 
'^now presents itself, encircled with its motto, and suspended from the ceiling to 
every eye which can spare a wandering glance from the beefsteak smoking be- 
fore it."* We conclude these historical notices of Covent Garden with a brief 
reference to its aspect in the beginning of the last century, when the square was 
enclosed with rails, and ornamented by a stone pillar on a pedestal, with a 
curious four-square sun-dial ; when the south side lay open to Bedford Garden 
with " its small grotto of trees most pleasant in the summer season," and in 
which part alone was then kept the market for fruit, roots, and flowers. On 
the erection of Southampton and Tavistock Streets, with Southampton Passage, 
on the site of Bedford House and its parterres, the market was removed farther 
into the square, to the great annoyance, it seems, of the '' persons of distinction" 
who then resided in il, and who gradually left their houses in consequence. Mait- 
land, referring to this point, in describing the '* things remarkable " of Covent 
Garden, calls the latter " a magnificent square," and then adds, " wherein (to iU 
great disgrace) is kept a herb and fruit-market." If the sage topographer could 
see the latter now, we wonder whether its increased magnitude would make it 
seem in his eyes a still more disgraceful affair, or whether that very magnitude, 
as in a thousand analogous instances, would stamp it as respectable. The con- 
trast is certainly curious between the opinions of the market held by a historian 
of London only a century or so ago, and the state and reputation of that 
market now. 

The supremacy of Covent Garden as the great wholesale market for vege- 
tables, fruit, and flowers is now undisputed. So early indeed as 1654 proposals 
were made for establishing a herb-market in Clement's Inn Fields ; but, though 
the population had been fast increasing in that direction of the town during the 
whole of the century, the Stocks Market and the Honey Lane Market, in the 
City, were still flourishing, and the interests connected with them too powerful 
to admit of a rival. With a single bridge over the Thames, leading into the 
very heart of the City, these ancient markets were most convenient to the 
market-people, whether their supplies were brought by land-carriage or by the 
river. A century later the Stocks Market was removed, and Spitalfields and 
Covent Garden had become markets of great importance. The origin of Covent 
Garden Market is said to have been casual — people coming and standing in the 
centre of the square with produce for sale gradually led to the establishment 
of a regular market. This took place before either Westminster or Blackfriars 
bridges were erected. A paper, published about the middle of the century, 

* CluU of London, toI. ii. p. U. 


entitled, ' Reasons for fixing an Herb-Market at Dowgate/ appears to have been 
the last attempt to preserve a great vegetable market in the City.^ It is stated 
in this paper^ that since the removal of Stocks Market the fanners and gar* 
deners had laboured under very great inconvenience^ as they were obliged to 
take their produce to Spitalfields and Covent Garden, which markets, it is 
observed, were daily increasing. The establishment of a market at Dowgate 
would, it was argued, have the effect of bringing back into the City all those 
who went from Stocks Market to Spitalfields ; and, as a large proportion of the 
supply of vegetables and fruit was either landed at the bridge-foot, or brought 
over it from Kent and Surrey, the proposition seemed reasonable enough. 
While Dowgate was only three hundred and sixty-six yards from the bridge, 
Spitalfields was eighteen hundred yards, and Covent Garden three thousand one 
hundrcsd and ten. The building of Westminster Bridge, and the continually 
increasing population, particularly in the western and northern suburbs, settled 
this question. Honey Lane Market, close to Cheapside, and the Fleet Market 
remained the only places within the City which were supplied by the producers. 
The Honey Lane Market is now entirely abolished^ and its site occupied by the 
City of London School. In 1824 an Act was passed authorizing the corporation 
of Uie City to remove the Fleet Market, and to provide a new one in its place, 
now called Farringdon Market, on a site adjoining the western side of the old 
market. In 1830 a company was incorporated for re-establishing Hungerford 
Market, which is partly a vegetable market. In the same year an Act was 
passed for establishing Portman Market, in the parish of Mary-le-bone. Fins- 
bury Market is another of the modern vegetable markets of London. We, how- 
ever, need only notice those markets where the growers and the retail dealers 
meet to transact their business ; and these are Covent Garden ; the Borough 
Market, near the ancient church of St. Saviour's, Southwark ; Spitalfields, chiefly 
a potato-market; Farringdon Market; and perhaps Hungerford Market. 

Few places could be more disgraceful to a great city than the incommodious 
state and mean appearance of Covent Garden Market about thirteen years ago, 
when it was partially covered with open sheds and wooden structures, running 
from east to west. What it was seventy years ago we know from Hogarth's 
print ; and the late Mr. Walker, a metropolitan police magistrate, referred to it 
just previous to its alteration, as an instance of the pernicious effect of neglect 
and filth on public taste and morality in a spot where large numbers of people 
daily congregate. '* The evil here,** he says, '^ lies in the bad contrivance and 
arrangement of their places of public concernment. It is surely a great error to 
spend nearly a million of money on a penitentiary, whilst the hotbeds of vice 
from which it is filled are wholly unattended to. What must necessarily be the 
moral state of the numerous class constantly exposed to the changes of the wea- 
ther, amidst the mud and putridities of Covent Garden ? What ought it to be, 
where the occupation is amongst vegetables, fruits, and flowers, if there were 
well-regulated accommodations 7 *' Fortunately the kind of deteriorating causes 
here spoken of have been now removed. In 1827 the Duke of Bedford obtained 
an Act for rebuilding the market, and the irregular combination of sheds and 
standings began to be removed in 1 828, and in due time the present buildings 
were completed. The new pile consists of a colonnade on the exterior^ running 

1 38 LONDON. 

round the norths cast^ and south sides, under which are the shops^ each with a 
sleeping- room above. Joined to the back of these is another row of shops^ facing 
the inner courts^ and through the centre runs an arched passage, sixteen feet 
wide and open to the top, with shops on each side. This passage is the favourite 
promenade of those who visit the market after the rougher business of the morn- 
ing is over. Forced fruits and culinary vegetables, and rare flowers constitute the 
great attraction. The effect of the seasons is set at nought. In January forced 
rhubarb is exhibited, and French beans at 3s. a hundred, hot-house grapes at 
25s. a lb. ; in February, cucumbers at 2s, 6d. to 49. each ; and strawberries 1^. 
an ounce ; in March, new potatoes at 2«. and 2^. 6d. a lb. ; in April, peaches and 
nectarines at 2^. each, and cherries at 25^. a lb., or perhaps 30^. ; at the end of 
the month peas at 9«. per dozen ; early in May, green gooseberries at 78. or 8^. 
per half-sieve of 3^ gallons ; and all the greatest results of artificial horticulture 
in every month of the year. In January, bouquets of geraniums, chrysan- 
themums, euphorbia, and other flowers, may be had at 2^. 6d. to 5*. each ; bunches 
of violets at 6d. each ; sprigs of sweet-briar, also the Persian lilac^ mignonette, 
&c. Very extensive cellarage for storing bulky articles is excavated under 
nearly the whole area of the market. There are cellars with conveniences for 
washing potatoes. Great attention has been paid to the forming of capacious 
sewers, and every precaution taken to ensure the most perfect cleanliness. Water 
is furnished by an Artesian well, two hundred and eighty feet deep, which sup- 
plies sixteen hundred gallons an hour, and the whole market can be inundated 
and washed in a few minutes. Over the eastern colonnade, the principal 
entrance, there are two light and elegant conservatories, rented by two eminent 
nurserymen, for the sale of the more scarce and delicate species of plants and 
flowers. They are fifteen feet broad and fifteen feet high, and occupy a third of 
the terrace, the remaining part forming a promenade, and being also used for 
the display of the more hardy plants. A handsome fountain throws up a re- 
freshing shower, and adds very much to the beauty of the conservatories. The 
view from the terrace into the principal passage below, and towards the eastern 
side of the market, is animated, if not picturesque. We shall return to Covent 
Garden after a brief description of two other of the metropolitan vegetable 

First in extent, so far as the building is concerned, is Farringdon Market. It 
occupies the sloping surface on which Holborn Hill and Fleet Street stand, and 
is, in fact, the ancient bank of the river Fleet. This inclination of the surface is 
remarkably favourable to the drainage, and the market is not only well supplied 
with water, but is well lighted when the market is open. The area occupies 
about one acre and a half, in the form of a parallelogram, surrounded on two 
sides by buildings 41 feet high and 48 broad, and measuring along the middle 
about 480 feet long. On the above sides are the shops of the butchers and 
poulterers. The third side consists of a spacious covered space, 232 feet long, 
48 feet broad, and 41 feet high, for the fruiterers and dealers in vegetables, and 
it opens on the central area by an arcade at several points. The south side is 
open to the street, but separated from it by a long iron palisading, in which 
there are two entrances for waggons. The number of shops is seventy-nine. 
Altogether the quadrangular area with the buildings covers 3900 square yards, 


being 232 feet by 150 feet. Two of the largest provincial markets are St. John's 
Market, at Liverpool, 183 feet by 45; and one at Birmingham, 120 feet by 
36. The cost of building Farringdon Market was 30,000/., but the purchase of 
the site, the buildings which stood upon it, and the rights of the occupiers, cost 
the city about 200,000/. Hungerford Market was erected by the architect of 
Covent Garden Market^ but it is not confined to the sale of articles of food only. 
The Borough Market is of tolerable size, but altogether destitute of architec- 
tural pretensions ; and, if possible, Spitalfields and the other markets are still 
less distinguished in this way. 

The supply of a population amounting to nearly two millions with articles of 
such general and necessary consumption in every family as culinary vegetables 
and fruity involves of course a very extensive and comprehensive system of co- 
operation, and in this and every other department connected with the provision 
of food to the inhabitants of London there is that perfect working to each other's 
hands amongst the several branches of those immediately or remotely employed 
by which alone the final result is so successfully accomplished. In vegetable food 
and fruit the demand cannot at all times keep pace with the immense supply which 
IB poured in by steam-boats, sailing-boats, and boats conducted by a pair of oars, 
by the railways, and by land-carriage, from the metropolitan counties, from 
every part of England and parts of Scotland, and from the continent. It is 
nearly half a century since Middleton, in his ' Agricultural Survey of Middlesex,' 
estimated the value of the vegetables annually consumed in London at 645,000/.^ 
and of fruit at 400,000/., making together a sum exceeding one million sterling 
(1,045,000/.), and this exclusive of the profits of any other class besides the 
growers. The total amount paid by the consumer would of course very much 
augment the above large sum. Middleton gives an instance in which the market- 
gardener received 45/. per acre for turnips, while the consumer was paying at 
the rate of 150/., the former selling bunches at three halfpence each, which 
were sold in the retailer's shop at fivepence. This of course was not the general 
course of the trade, for though the retail dealer has, generally speaking, to pay 
a heavy rent, and is subject to other great expenses and bad debts, the difference 
of the wholesale and retail price was in this case disproportionate. There are 
perhaps more cases of garden-farmers or market-gardeners making handsome 
fortunes by production than amongst the class who sell the same articles by retail. 
Middleton speaks of a person who grew at Sutton eighty acres of asparagus, and 
the cost of forming the beds was estimated at 100/. per acre. Another grower 
had sixty acres of his own land under this crop. The market-gardeners, he 
says, on five acres of the best land, or nine acres of a secondary quality, or on 
twenty acres of inferior land, at that time provided as well for their families as 
an ordinary farmer on one hundred and fifty or two hundred acres. He 
calculated that, for the supply of London with vegetables, there were • 2000 
acres cultivated by the spade, and 8000 partly by the spade but chiefly by 
the plough: the gross annual produce varied from 200/. to 50/. an acre. 
There were'^besides the fruit gardeners, who, in 1795, had three thousand acres 
under cultivation in Middlesex alone, the " upper crop '' consisting of apples, 
pears, cherries, plums, walnuts, &c., and the " under crop '* of gooseberries, 
raspberries, currants, strawberries, and other bearing trees which would grow 

140 LONDON. 

well under the shade of the larger ones. Peaches, nectarines, and similar fruits 
were trained against the walls. In the height of the season Middieton supposed 
that each acre of these gardens gave employment to thirty-five persons, amongst 
whom were many women, chiefly from Wales^ part of whose time was employed 
in carrying baskets of fruit to town on their heads. The vegetable gardeners 
also gave employment to great numbers of persons in the busiest season. Tho 
gathering of a crop of peas required forty persons for every ten acres, the 
'^ podders'* being paid at the rate of fourpence a bushel in 1795. After pea« 
succeeded turnips, and these as well as carrots arc washed and tied in bunches 
before being sent to market. The cutting and packing of waggon loads of cab- 
bages or whatever other vegetables may be in season cannot be done without the 
services of a number of persons besides the labourers actually engaged in their 
cultivation. Since Middleton*s work was published the population of the metro- 
polis has just doubled, and it probably will not be far wrong to double his 
estimates : the mode of cultivation and of preparing the produce for market 
remains much in the same state as it was fifty years ago. Two centuries ago, 
Samuel Hartlib, author of several works on agriculture, writing in 1650, states 
that some old men recollected '^ the first gardener who came into Surrey to plant 
cabbages, cauliflowers, and to sow turnips, carrots, and parsnips, to sow early- 
ripe peas, all which at that time were great wonders, we having few or none in 
England but what came from Holland and Flanders." Twenty years before, 
he tells us, that so near London as Gravesend, ''there was not so much as a mess 
of peas but what came from London.** In our day we have pea salesmen in 
London, and in a single day one grower will send to one firm about four hun- 
dred sacks of twelve and sixteen pecks each, besides from three to five hundred 
sieves (of seven gallons each) of those of a superior kind ; and the same grower 
will in the same way send seven or eight waggon loads of cabbages, each load 
averaging one hundred and fifty dozen cabbages ; at another season, from the 
same farm, fourteen or fifteen hundred baskets of " sprouts '* will be sent in 
one day, and in the course of the year from five to six thousand tons of potatoes. 
If we look at the immense quantity and variety of vegetables and fruits which 
are sent to London in the present day, it is easier to perceive the great change 
which has taken place in the diet of the people than to imagine how they 
could do without that varied supply of vegetable food which is now considered 

The market-days at Covent Garden arc Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, 
the last being by far the most important. There is no particular hour for com- 
mencing business, but it varies at difierent seasons, and by daybreak there are 
always a few retail dealers present. Waggons and carts have been arriving for 
some time before, and porters are busied in transferring their contents to the 
different stations of the salesmen while the dawn is yet grey. The houses of 
refreshment around the market are open at half-past one in summer ; and little 
tables are set out against the pillars of the piazzas by the venders of tea and 
coffee. Here the porters and carters can obtain refreshment without needing to 
resort to exciting liquors ; and few greater benefits have been conferred on the 
laborious classes whose occupation is in the public markets than that of sub- 
stituting tea and coffee for ardent spirits. There is somo separation of the 


different clasBCs of articles, and potatoes end coarser produce are Bssigned a 
distinct quarter. Vegetables and fruit are tolerably well separated, and floirers 
and plants are found together. The west side of the square is covered with 
I>otted flowers and plants in bloom, and a gay, beautiful^ and fVagrant display 
they make. The supply of " cut'' fiowcra for bouquets, or, to use the old- 
fashioned word, nosegays, is very large, including " walls," daffodils, roses, pinks, 
carnations, &c., according to the season. The carts and waggons with vegetables 
are drawn up close together on three sides of the market. A waggon-load of 
fine fresh cabbages, of clean^washed turnips, carrots, or cauliflowers, or an area 
of twenty square yards covered with the latter beautiful vegetable, or either of 
the others piled in neat stacks, is a pleasing sight. Here are onions from the 
Bedfordshire sands or Deptford, cabbages from Battersea, asparagus from Mort- 
lake and Deptford, celery from Chelsea, peas from Charlton, these spots being 
each famous for the production of these particular articles, though the supply 
may be larger from other places. By and by the greengrocers come jogging in ; 
and the five spacious streets leading to the market in time become crowded with 
a double row of their vehicles. The costermongers and venders of water-cresses, 
and itinerant dealers who have taken up the trade as a temporary resource, 
arrive with their donkey-carts, trucks, or baskets. The Irish basket-women, who 

CCoTml Oudin Daikat Woma.] 

ply as porteresses, and will carry your purchase to any part of the town, jabber 
in Erse, and a subdued clamouring sound tells you that the bnsiness of the day 
has really begun. As fast as the retail dealer makes his bargains a porter 
carries the articles to his marbet-cart, pushing through the crowd with the load 
on his head as well as he can. The baskets of "spring onions" and young 
radishes are thronged by the itinerant dealers trying to drive hard bargains. 
It is interesting to watch for a short time the business of the flower-market- 

142 LONDON. 

This is the Londoners* flower-garden^ and is resorted to in the early summer 
morning by many a lover of flowers compelled by his occupation to live in the 
densely-crowded parts of London^ and who steals a few moments from the busy 
day to gratify one of the purest tastes. This out-of-door floral exhibition has 
undergone an extraordinary improvement within the last few years, and it is 
really an attractive show. It keeps alive a taste which in many instances would 
otherwise languish; and it is not a little '^ refreshing** to see the humble me- 
chanic making a purchase of a root of *' hen and chicken daisies/* a *' black** 
wall-flower, or a primrose, to ornament the window of his workshop. Some who 
love flowers better than they understand how to treat them, while making their 
purchase, gather instructions for keeping them fresh and healthy. The *' pot *' 
plants are bought in ones and twos by private persons ; but the itinerant dealer 
fills his basket or donkey-cart, and will be met with in his perambulations 
during the day in most parts of London in spring and summer. The most com- 
mon plants are pelagomiums, fuchsias, verbenas, heliotropes, amaranthus, 
cockscombs, calceolarias, roses, myrtles, and other greenhouse plants. The cut 
flowers are purchased for the decoration of public rooms^ and by persons who 
love the exquisite beauty of flowers, and by itinerant dealers, chiefly females, 
who make them up into small bouquets and vend them in the streets. The 
smart clerk purchases them for a posy, and to stick a fine pelagomium in the 
button hole is not a practice to be despised, albeit a glass phial filled with water 
on a comer of his desk would perhaps be as good a destination. The sweet-briar 
which the flower-girl offers for sale in the crowded street gives out a fra- 
grance which is most delicious, as its odours are momentarily inhaled by the 
hasty passenger proceeding to scenes so different from those which it recalls. 
The costermongers,'^ who may be seen in all the great wholesale markets of 
London, Smithfield excepted, unless they may go there to speculate in horse- 
flesh for the boiler, or to buy a donkey, are a very singular race, and in their 
sharp commercial habits come nearer to the Jews than any other class. From their 
appearance any one would infer that their purchases would be confined to a few 
bunches of water-cresses, but they often buy considerable quantities of the best 
description of articles; and though, still judging from appearances, it would 
seem to display a very reckless degree of confidence in each other, they not un- 
frequently club their money and buy up an advantageous lot on favourable 
terms, though it is not easy to perceive by what arrangement they can divide 
the bargain amongst each other without serious disputes. The narrow and 
dirty streets which they inhabit may often be seen gay with a rich display of 
potted flowers and plants which they arc about to carry through the town for 
sale ; and at other times an unwonted aspect of purity is given to the vicinity by 
a profuse supply of the finest cauliflowers. The costermongers may be divided 
into several ranks, the lowest being scarcely worthy of the name, as he only 
purchases in small quantities which he can carry off in his basket. A con- 
siderable degree above him is he who carries his commodities from street to 
street on a truck with a capacious board on the top, shelved at the edges; but 
it must be stated that the truck is only a hired one, either for the day or the 

* See No. VIII. * Street Noises/ vol. i. p. 131. 


week ; the costermonger who owns a donkey, and a rough cart which seems to 
have been rudely made by his own hands, is indeed worthy of his name and 
character, and he may save money if he is not too fond of low sports ; but a 
prince among the tribe is he who has not only cash for any chance speculation 
which may turn up, but possesses accumulated capital in the shape of trucks 
which he lets out at a fixed rent to his less fortunate or less steady brethren. 
One man of this class, who lives near the ' Elephant and Castle,* has forty of 
these trucks. They cost from 21 to 21, \0s, when new : he is not so extravagant 
as to buy them fresh from the maker, but picks them up when misfortune 
obliges one of the fraternity to descend to a humbler rank in the profession. 
The charge for letting them out is Ad, a-day, or 2s. a-week, but without the 
board at the top 3c{. and l^.Gcf. ; and in winter the price for each sort is only 
If. 6c{. Sometimes one of these wealthy truck-men will buy up on very advan- 
tageous terms large quantities of such articles as are in season, and he can sell 
again to the drawers of his trucks cheaper than they can buy in small quantities 
in the market. He knows better than to employ the buyers as his servants, but 
is content with a small profit and no risk, and as he gets so handsome an income 
from his trucks he ought to be content. A boy of the lowest class commencing 
his career in Coven t Garden Market, if he be prudent, sharp, and intelligent, 
and is fortunately exempt from the vices of his companions, has a better and 
surer prospect of making a fortune, if he pursues a right course, than most of 
the youths of the middle class. 

The Borough Market is well supplied with Vegetable produce, but there is no 
catering here for a wealthy class of consumers : the market is held three times 
a-week. Hungerford can scarcely be regarded a wholesale market, the dealers 
who have shops here being chiefly supplied from Covent Garden. Farringdon 
Market has not realized the expectations which were entertained of its im- 
portance, but produce is brought to it by the growers on two days in the week, 
and it is a good deal resorted to by the itinerant venders, those especially who 
sell hot baked potatoes and the criers of water-cress. Spitalfields is the largest 
potato market in the metropolis, as, besides being convenient to the growers 
in Essex, whence the chief supply by land-carriage is obtained, it is in the 
midst of a dense population of the poorer class. It is difiScult to obtain an esti- 
mate worthy of much confidence relative to the consumption of potatoes in 
London, but it is really enormous, and of late years has increased in a greater 
ratio than the increase of population would warrant. The most extensive 
potato-salesmen arc established in Toolcy Street, where they have warehouses 
adjacent to the river. There are some retail dealers who dispose of thirty 
tons of potatoes per week, in quantities of a few pounds weight at a time, all 
weighed in the scale; but ten tons is considered as a very good amount of 
business in this article, and sales of this extent only occur in particular 
quarters of the town where the means of the population do not rise much above 
poverty. One wholesale dealer in Spitalfields Market can store up a thousand 
tons or 14,0C0 sacks on his premises. The Irish Railway Commissioners esti- 
mated the quantity of food consumed by an adult living wholly upon vegetable 
food at eleven lbs. per day, inclusive of waste, which is very great; the quantity 

144 LONDON. 

consumed by the next clasa^ who enjoy a limited use of other kinds of food^ they 
ascertained to be two lbs. ; and those who were unrestricted as to the nature of 
their food consumed one lb. of vegetable food. Now, taking the population of 
London requiring a supply of potatoes from the market at 1,500,000, and allow- 
ing the consuming powers of a population of 1000 adults and children to be 
equal to that of 655 adults, we hare in the metropolis the full confiuming power 
of 982,250 persons. As so many other vegetables are used besides potatoes, 
would it be very far wrong to estimate the consumption at one lb. for each adult 
per day, that is, 3070 tons per week, or say 3000 tons^ and 156,000 tons per year? 
Even if some reduction were made on this estimate, the quantity would still be 
very great. Not more than one^half of this supply is obtained from the metro- 
politan counties, chiefly Essex and Kent. When prices range high, the inland 
supplies are brought thirty miles or more, a great distance for so bulky an 
article. The quantity conveyed by the railways is very trifling, and steam-boats 
only occasionally bring ten or fifteen tons when other freight is not to be ob- 
tained. There remains, then, probably from seventy to eighty thousand tons for 
the supply by water, the larger proportion of which comes from land on the 
banks of the Humber, Trent, and Ouse, which is fertilized by artificial flooding 
and the deposit of a rich silt. Scotland ranks the next, afterwards Jersey, and 
lastly Devonshire. Scarcely any potatoes reach London from Ireland, as they 
have hitherto been more profitably consumed in the production of bacon and 
pork ; and the small quantity of foreign which have arrived since the alteration 
of the tariff has not proved good\nough for the London market. In the busy 
season of the year there is always a considerable number of vessels laden with 
potatoes lying off the wharfs adjacent to Tooley Street ; those from Yorkshire 
being of 50 to 120 tons ; the Scotch vessels from 80 to 150 tons ; and those from 
Jersey are sometimes as large as 300 tons. At the same time the yards which 
communicate with the wharfs are crowded with the waggons and carts belonging 
to the retail dealers waiting for a supply. For about three months in the 
year this water-side trade is suspended, but it revives again in the month of 


The Admiralty, which foriDB the left flank or the detachment of Government 
offices drawn up in line opposite the Banqueting House at Whitehall, cannot 
stand a very critical examination on ita architectural merits. Well ; it is not the 
only plain and homely body in which a mighty spirit has been lodged. These 
three huge sides of a square, without even an attempt at ornament — excepting 
the posts, which the polite call pillars, at the grand central entry — which resemble 
nothing on earth so much as an overgrown farmstead, which have had that 
architectural screen, almost as tasteless as themselves, drawn before them like a 
Mokanna's veil, Irom a dim sense that not even stone walls could hear with 
patience the remarks that must necessarily be made upon them if fully exposed 
to view — are the unlikely form in which is lodged the mind that wields the naval 
power of Britain. 

There sit the Commissioners of the Admiralty, the Board which, except for two 
years, separated from each other by the lapse of more than a century,* have been 
invested with the gorernment of the navy of England since the Revolution. The 
First Lord of the Admiralty (who is a member of the Cabinet) and his four 
junior Lords hold their deliberations there. They prepare the navy estimates, 

* Prince Oeorge of Dfunuick waa Lord High Admiral in 1707.8 ; (he lale King, wbeii Duke of Clarence, in 
1S27-8 ; wilh thcM exception! the office boi IweQ in comniiBioa since 16SS. 

VOL. V. L 

146 - LONDON. 

and lay them before Parliament ; issue orders for the payment of naval moneys ; 
make or approve all appointments or promotions in the navy ; recommend all 
grants of honours, pensions, or gratuities for services performed in their depart- 
ment ; order ships to be commissioned, employed, and paid off, built, sold, or 
broken up. There is a ceaseless ebb and flow of business surging about that 
homely building. Beports, inquiries, and petitions are flowing in like a spring- 
tide incessantly from the remotest regions of the earth, and orders and instruc- 
tions are flowing out as continuously to regulate operations that fill as wide a 

If we take up our station on the esplanade in St. James*s Park, the eye is 
caught by a huge upright beam erected on the roof of the Admiralty, with 
straight arms extending from it laterally at different angles. At times these may 
be seen altering their positions, remaining a few moments at rest, and then 
changing again. The giant upon whom the stranger gazes with uncomprehend- 
ing curiosity is whispering to his huge brother on Putney Heath, who will 
repeat the intelligence to his neighbour behind Richmond, and he to the next in 
order, so that by their unconscious agency the heads of the navy in London give 
and receive intelligence to and from the great naval stations hundreds of miles 
off as quickly as they can communicate with a storehouse at the other end of the 
metropolis. The semaphore is, as any man may sec, but a block of wood, and, 
heaven knows, no beauty, yet, in the hands of man, it becomes instinct with won- 
drous power. Like all the other mechanical inventions of the age, it indicates 
at once the power of intellect and its limit. By the instrumentality of machinery 
man adds to the puny strength of his body, and ekes out his dwarfish stature. 
By the steam-engine he rows a mighty ship as if it were a Thames scull- boat, 
or hammers at once masses of iron too colossal for a troop of Cyclopses. And 
by the telegraph he renders himself as it were present in the same moment at 
distant places. But he cannot inspire his instruments with intelligence ; only 
while his hand is upon them can they " do his spiriting gently " or otherwise : 
left to themselves they relapse into the inertness of mere matter. Nor can he 
clothe them with the flexible grace of movement, with that ever-varying ele- 
gance of form and harmony of tint which is the contradistinguishing mark of God's 
creations. Wonderful though they be, these inventions of man — these his mute 
senseless drudges — they all of them bear legibly and indelibly stamped upon 
all their lineaments, the name of makeshift. Mere makeshifts they are and 
must remain — something inferior stuck in to supply the want of better that cannot 
be had — confessions of weakness — reminding us even more of human littleness 
and feebleness than of its power. 

There is quite as little to interest the eye in the interior of the structure 
round which we have been loitering and musing as in its exterior. Through the 
great central door you pass into a spacious hall, cool, airy, and pleasant in sum- 
mer, but bare of ornament. There appears to be something imposing in its 
mere size and proportions, but perhaps this is self-deception — attributing to the 
building the impression produced by the presence that lies beyond. A few 
attendants in plain dresses are lounging in the hall ; always civil, but always 
cool — they answer any questions with Spartan brevity, and allow the inquirer to 


patton. The public rooms are, like the vestibule, sufficiently spacious and well 
proportioned, furnished with everything necessary to facilitate the discharge of 
business — decorously simple. Except in the extent of the building there is nothing 
to distinguish it from the private establishment of some great mercantile firm. 
It is nothing of outward show that impresses us as we pass through these suites 
of rooms : it is our consciousness of a spiritual presence which has pervaded 
them ever since they became the residence of the central management of the 
British navy. 

How many an anxious, how many an elated heart, passes daily in and out 
of this building ! Nerves that would remain unshaken, minds that would 
remain self-possessed, while the iron- hail-shower of a broadside was crashing 
through bulwark and bulkhead, or while the thunders of whole fleets beneath the 
smoke-canopy of their own creation were shaking the breezy atmosphere into a 
calm, sulphurous and portentous as that which broods over an earthquake, have 
here become relaxed and confused as those of a bashful girl. The midshipman 
as he passed up these broad stairs has felt that there was something worse on 
this earth than a mast-heading, and even his petulance has been subdued ; nay, 
the equanimity of the most coolly imperious captain has been shaken. Perhaps 
Nelson has laid his hand upon these banisters while his far-distant spirit was 
marshalling the future fights of Trafalgar and the Nile, or giving orders to 
hang out the signal — " England expects every man to do his duty." Poor Dal- 
rymple, the first Admiralty hydrographer, has here been convulsed with the 
wayward querulousness of age, attributing to malevolence and oppression the 
conduct rendered necessary by his own dotage. Cook passed up these stairs to 
report what unknown regions and tribes he had discovered, and how he had 
triumphed over sickness, and brought back a crew scarcely diminished by 
death, from a long, distant, and dangerous voyage. Here many a plan of 
action has been struck out which conducted to victory ; many a one, in defiance 
of the absurdity of which the skill and courage of British sailors have gained 
victories. The succession of gallant spirits endowed with scientific acquirements, 
calmness, and fertility of resource in unexpected emergencies, honourable pride 
in their profession and devotion to their country, which has filled these walls for 
a great part of two hundred years, is unsurpassed in history. 

It is impossible for any citizen of a state which is so essentially maritime as 
Great Britain, not to feel that this centre of our naval organization is among the 
most interesting localities that London contains, and to feel irresistibly tempted 
to linger on the spot conjuring up an outline of the stages through which our 
navy has passed into its present maturity of growth. 

Most of our kings since the Conquest appear to have possessed some vessels of 
war; and an Amiral do la Mcr du roi d*Angleterre appears on the records as 
early as 1297* But the English '^ Amiral" was at this time merely a great 
officer of state, who presided generally over maritime afiairs. Often not a pro- 
fessional person, his duties were, not to command ships in battle, or indeed at 
any other time, but to superintend and direct the naval strength of the kingdom, 
and to administer justice in all causes arising on the seas. In the former capa- 
city he may be considered as " the original Admiralty;*' his judicial functions 


148 LONDON. 

have long been separated from the administrative, and are discharged by the 
'* High Court of Admiralty/' which nestles beside the Ecclesiastical Courts in 
Doctors* Commons. Lord Stowell might have been called in old times " Amiral 
du roi d* Angletcrre f' think of an admiral in a wig and gown ! And fleets 
in these early days were fitted out when the King went to war, by adding to his 
own little squadron, merchant- vessels pressed from all parts in the kingdom ; for 
the prcssgangs of old took the ships along with the sailors. 

The naval affairs of Great Britain continued much on this footing till the close 
of the fifteenth century. It has been usual to assume that Henry VII. was the 
first king who thought of providing a naval force which might be at all times 
ready for the service of the state. It does not appear that Henry did more in 
this way than building the ' Great Harry,' which writers on this subject have 
agreed among themselves to call the first ship of the royal navy. But there 
were royal ships before his time ; and as for general attention to naval afiairs, 
there was quite as much paid by Edward IV. as by Henry VII. The fitting 
place for looking a little more narrowly into this question, however, will be when 
we come to speak of the Trinity House. 

Henry VIII. is said to have "perfected the designs of his father," which being 
interpreted, means that the existence of a real royal or state navy, such as 
England has possessed since his time, cannot be traced back to an earlier period. 
He instituted the Admiralty and the Navy OfiSee ; established the Trinity House 
and the dockyards of Deptford, Woolwich, and Portsmouth; appointed regular 
salaries for the admirals, captains, and sailors, and, in short, made the sea-service 
a distinct profession. He also made laws for the planting and preservation of 
timber ; caused the * Henri Grace de Dieu * to be built, which is said to have 
measured above 1000 tons; and left at his death a navy, the tonnage of which 
amounted to 12,000 tons. The ships of this age, fl|ty the historians, "were high, 
unwieldy, and narrow ; their guns were close to the water ; they had lofty poops 
and prows, like Chinese junks;" and Sir Walter Raleigh informs us, "that the 
' Mary Rose,' a goodly ship of the largest size, by a little swing of the ship in 
casting about, her ports being within sixteen inches of the water, was overcast 
and sunk." This took place at Spithead in the presence of the king, and most 
of her ofiicers and crew were drowned. 

What little we know of the navy of Bluff King Harry's time is almost entirely 
confined to the existence of such lubberly craft as the * Mary Rose* and certain 
government offices. Coming down to the days of Queen Bess we scrape ac- 
quaintance with the gallant fellows who manned her somewhat improved vessels. 
Elizabeth was economical. Though she increased the navy — at her death it con- 
sisted of 42 ships, measuring 17,000 tons — and though she raised the wages of 
seamen to \0s, a-month (under her father they appear to have been only about 
5^. per month), yet she encouraged the merchants to build large ships, which on 
occasion were converted into ships of war and rated at 50 to 100 tons more than 
they measured. Of the 176 ships, manned by 14,996 men, which met the 
Spanish Armada, a considerable number were not "shippcs royal." Raleigh's 
criticism on the faulty build of the ' Mary Rose ' will lead the reader to the in- 
ference that in his time naval architecture had made some progress. This 


improvement^ however, was most marked under Elizabeth s successor^ who had 
the good sense to encourage Phineas Pett. Pett^ who has been called our earliest 
able and scientific ship-builder, made many improvements in the construction of 
vessels, and in particular relieved ships of much of their top- hamper. This the 
more deserves notice as it seems to be the only respect in which naval matters 
advanced under James. Signals, as a means of communication between ships^ 
had been introduced under Elizabeth. 

But we have intimated above that in the age of Elizabeth and James we 
scrape acquaintance with the sailors as men. The great national effort by 
which — with the assistance of the bad choice the intruding invaders made of a 
season of the year for their expedition — the Spanish Armada was discomfited^ 
may be regarded as in part the natural consequence of the growth of the spirit 
of maritime enterprise in England, in part the cause of a great and sudden de- 
velopment which it received at that time. The exaggerated estimate made of 
the gain of the Spaniards by their American conquests had stirred the emulation 
of [England. Merchants of Bristol and merchants of London were fitting out 
voyages of discovery and soliciting the royal countenance to their efforts. 
Oxford was seized by the prevailing epidemic: her mathematicians and her 
historical students were full of the thoughts of new Indies, busily devising how 
their own scientific acquirements could most promote discovery. Dr. John Dee 
was making maps as well as casting nativities, and Hackluyt was lecturing on 
geography at Oxford. The high nobility became associated with adventures 
to unknown lands, as we have seen their descendants with all kinds of joint-stock 
companies and other bubble speculations. An Earl of Warwiclq was at the ex- 
pense of having published at Florence the ' Arcano del Mare,' a treatise on 
navigation. Earls of Bedford, Lords Chamberlain, and other nobles who in 
that half-feudal age still ruffled with troops of retainers, cherished their gallant 
naval dependants more than any others. The Frobishers, Drakes, and the rest 
of these patriarchs of our fleet almost all started in life as followers of some 
nobleman. The young gentry of Devonshire and Cornwall, the Baleighs and 
the Gilberts, partly from natural inclination, partly because they saw '* that 
way promotion lay," sought to swing themselves into notoriety by entering the 
sea-service. The theory as well as th^e practice of navigation was studied — the 
discovery and colonisation of new lands and* the seamanship of the whole nation 
went hand in hand. It was court fashion, but it was quite as much country 
fashion. The queen had the good sense to encourage this spontaneous burst of 
national energy, and to feel that countenance was almost all she needed to give. 
In those days might be seen the bold speculator Michael Lok, who gambled in 
adventures of discovery, seated between the mystical scholar Dee and the stout 
practical mariner Frobisher, devising how, by skirting the polar ice, they might 
discover the direct road to Cathay. Next might be seen each of these stirring 
up their respective patrons to furnish forth the enterprise ; Master Lok nego- 
tiating with the Muscovy Company and other great city merchants. Captain 
Frobisher with the Earl of Bedford and other patrons of " men of action/' and 
Dr. Dee with the subtle and accomplished courtiers who, like Leicester, either 
encouraged learning from taste or from policy ; and when all was prepared, and 

150 LONDON. 

the ships ready to drop down the river, then to give the finishing grace to all 
this stir and bustle did the virgin queen repair in person to Greenwich, and sit 
in open air as the fore-topsail was loosened and the boatswain's shrill call was 
heard, and sail after sail rose and swelled to the wind like white clouds on the 
horizon ; and waved her somewhat skinny but jewelled hand, as amid a rattle of 
patereros and other artillery the ships bent over from the breeze as if doing 
homage to their sovereign, and glided off on their far and perilous errand. Oar 
ships were of small size then, but they carried big spirits and most picturesque 
personages. The reader will but half appreciate the artistical value of Fro- 
bisher's voyage if when he reads of that gallant seaman risking himself at the 
extremities of the booms, amid a squall in the North Seas that laid his 
ship on her beam-ends, he forgets the trunk-hose with which he was encum- 
bered ; or if he fail to note that Best, the historian of the voyage, when he 
narrates the broils between the crew and Esquimaux, dwells with emphasis on 
the "//{Vc^ee/ partisan" that was held to the wild man's throat. And Elizabeth^ 
the great prototype of Black-eyed Susan — 

*• Adieu ! she cried, and waved her lily hand,'' — 

had knighthoods for her captains when they returned, as well as smiles when they 
departed. It was then that Englishmen became a nation of mariners — the " tight 
little island," a great tender moored in the Atlantic. The infectious enthusiasm 
caught all ranks and ages ; and the poet mirrored it in his lines, or even at- 
tempted to produce its bodily presence on the stage. It must have been a right 
willing audience that was good-humoured enough to eke out to this end the 
makeshift machinery of that time with its imagination ; but, seated in our closets, 
the shipwreck scenes of Shakspere, and the naval battles of Beaumont and Flet- 
cher, become living and breathing realities. 

All have heard of John Hampden and his ship-money : that controversy between 
a king and his subject marks an era, not only in constitutional history, but in the 
formation of our navy. The necessity of increasing the strength, and improving 
the organisation of the navy, was equally felt by royalist and republican states- 
men. The opposition to Charles arose not so much out of any objection to the 
creation of a navy, as out of distrust of the policy which sought to raise the money 
for that purpose without the aid of parliament. It was under Charles I. that the 
navy was first divided into rates and classes; but the civil troubles during the 
latter part of his reign diverted attention from maritime affairs. When Crom- 
well seized the reins of government, he found the navy much reduced, but his 
energy restored it, and he left 154 sail^ of which one-third were two-deckers, mea- 
suring nearly 58,000 tons. Cromwell was the first who laid before parliament 
estimates for the support of the navy, a practice which has been continued ever 
since : he obtained 400,OOOZ. per annum for that purpose. The navigation laws, 
an important feature in the naval policy of England, were also originated by 
Cromwell, or some of his councillors. The government of the Restoration, with all 
its faults, had the good sense to appreciate Cromwell's naval policy. The extra- 
vagance of the king, and the jobbing propensities of some of his ministers, starved 
the navy for intervals ; but it was a passion with the Duke of York^ afterwards 


James II., and the labouring oar was taken by the indefatigable Pepys, and be- 
tween them the naval service had on the whole fair-play down to the time of the 
Bevolution. The duke introduced improved signals, and Pepys kept the accounts 
in order. When James II. mounted the throne, he found 179 vessels, measuring 
103,558 tons. He took immediate measures for improving the navy. He sus- 
pended the Navy Board, and appointed a new Commission, with which he joined 
Sir Anthony Deane^ the best naval architect of the time, who materially improved 
the ships of the line by copying from a French model. 400,000/. per annum 
was the sum set apart for naval purposes ; and so diligent were the Commis- 
sioners, that at the Revolution the fleet was in excellent condition, with sea-stores 
complete for eight months for each ship. The force was 154 vessels, of which 
nine were first-rates, carrying 6930 guns, and 42,000 men. 

Scientific navigation continued to be patronised during the whole of this period : 
during the latter half of it under the auspices of the Royal Society. The sailing 
and fighting men of the navy had not^ however, become so thoroughly fused into 
one class as they arc in our day. Blake never was at sea till he had passed forty, 
and it may be questioned whether he was ever much of a navigator. He asked 
his pilot, or master, to lay him alongside of the enemy, and his self-possession, 
fearlessness, and pertinacity did the rest. The Montagues and Albemarles, who 
commanded under the Restoration, were not much of seamen : they trusted the 
navigation of their vessels to the mariners — their business was to fight They 
were followed on board, when they hoisted their flags, by volunteers from the 
court. They were high casie " waisters." The peculiarities of British men-of- 
war were not fully developed so long as this system continued. It is fashionable 
to speak of the fleet as republican during this period : this is one of the meaning- 
less generalisations of historians. The sailors were all for their profession, and 
for the land that owned their ships. They troubled their heads as little about 
politics then as now. Some of Blake^s and Dcane's old roundhead captains retired 
from the service in disgust after the Restoration, as did many of the old round- 
head captains from the army ; and, as the power of conceiving a devoted attach- 
ment to such abstractions as forms of religious and civil policy is generally in- 
dicative of a higher grade of intellect, doubtless some of the best men were thus 
lost to both services ; but these were exceptional cases. The habit of sending 
land generals to fight naval battles, kept the real seaman*s spirit under. It is 
not to the literature of this age that we are to look for illustrations of the sea- 
man's character. In the days of Chaucer they furnished good subjects to the 
artist ; in the days of Shakspere, and since the Revolution, ample use has been 
made of them. But Congreve*s moon-calf Ben is almost the only type of the 
sailor that was smuggled into the regions of art during the period now under 

It was not long after the Revolution that the Admiralty took up its abode 
here in the oflScial residence where we are spinning this yarn. It was in 1688 
that the management was permanently put in Commission. The office of Lord 
High Admiral was held by an individual till 1632. In that year it was in- 
trusted to a Commission, of which all the great officers of State were members. 
During the Commonwealth the afiairs of the navy were managed by a com- 

mittee of parliament, till Cromwell took the direction of them upon hiouelf. 
The Dulce of York was Lord High Admiral during the greater part of the 
reign of Charles II.; when he ascended the throne he took the charge into hit 
own hands. Since the Revolution the office has always been in Commission, with 
two brief exceptions already noticed. The Revolution government, looking about 
in search of a residence for its naval Commisfiioners, placed them for a time in a 
house associated with rather a disagreeable reputation. The son of the infamous 
Jefferies soon wasted his father's ill-got gains by his dissolute and extravagant 
conduct. He was obliged to sell, with other property, the bouse which James II. 
had allowed the judge to build in Duke Street, with a gate and steps into the 
park. The house was bought by government, and converted to the use of the 
Commissioners of the Admiralty. From this they soon removed to Wallingford 
House, opposite Scotland Yard — the building from the roof of which Archbishop 
Usher had witnessed the execution of Charles I., and fainted at the sight. Id 
the reign of George II., the present structure was erected on the site of Wal- 
lingford House, by Ripley; and, in the reign of George III., the architectural 
screen, now in front of it, was drawn by the decent hand of Adam, to veil its 
homeliness. Here has been the head-quarters of the Admiralty ever since it 
left the mansion of Jefferies. 

The improvements made in the naval department of government, since the 
Berolation, have consisted chiefly in those details of management which escape the 
notice of the public. Its more prominent features have remained, on the whole, 
unaltered. The instrument wielded by the Admiralty has grown with the nation's 
growth in stature and in perfection of its organisation. Theoretical improve- 


meats have made their way slowly, but not the less surely. The example of the 
revolutionary government of France was required to spur on the Admiralty to 
establish a telegraph. It was not till 1795 that the important officer, the hydro- 
grapher, was permanently annexed to the Board. Within these few years the 
ateam-ships of the royal navy have been regularly increasing. And during the 
time that Sir James Graham had a seat at the Navy Board, important improve- 
ments were made in the system of general management, that have rendered the 
Admiralty the best organised department of the Imperial government. In 1839 
the British navy consisted of 392 vessels of all kinds, of which 175 were in com- 
mission, 149 in ordinary, and 68 building : 34 were steam-vessels, of which only 
four were in ordinary ; of these, however, no more than seven appear to have 
been adapted for purposes of war. There were, besides, 30 steamera employed in 
the packet-service of Great Britain. The vessels composing the navy are divided 
into three classes — the first of which consists of what are called rated ships ; the 
second of sloops and bomb- vessels, or vessels commanded by a commander ; the 
third of such smaller vessels as are commanded by a lieutenant, or inferior officer. 
The first class comprises ships of six rates : — the first-rate, all three-decked ships ; 
the second, all two-decked ships, whose war complements consist of 700 men and 
npwards ; the third, all ships whose complements are from 600 to 700 ; the fourth, 
diips whose complements are from 400 to 700 ; the fifth, ships whose comple- 
ments are from 250 to 400 ; the sixth, ships under 250. Vessels of the first, 
second, and third-rates are called line-of-battle'^ships. A 92-gun.ship carries six 
eight-inch guns on its lower, and four on its main-deck, each weighing 65 cwt. ; 
uid twenty-six 32-ppunders on its lower deck, and 30 on its main-deck, each 
weighing 56 cwt., besides six, each weighing 42 cwt., on its upper-deck. This 
weight of metal, stored up in one floating fortress, may help to convey, even to 
those who have never seen that majestic object a first-rate man-of-war, some idea 
of its terrible power for destruction ; and the true might and beauty of the ship 
may be faintly imagined when its buoyancy, the apparent ease with which this 
huge heavy mass turns and cuts its swift way through the water is conceived. 
The dark threatening hull alow, the swelling white sails and tapering masts 
aloft, as, like ** the swan on still St. Mary's lake," which " floats double^ swan and 
shadow," the first-rate lies mirroring itself on the glassy ocean — or tearing 
through the Surge beneath a gale in which small craft could not keep the sea, 
its bright copper sheathing flashing like the brazen scales of Spenser's dragon, as 
it leaps from one mountain wave to another, one is tempted to believe that it 
waB an excess of diffidence in the Promethean power of man, that made us deny 
him at the outset of these remarks the power of clothing in beauty the minis- 
tering servants created by his genius. Less imposing, but scarcely less terrible 
to an enemy, is the multitude of smaller vessels, less formidably armed, which, 
on the breaking out of a war, this nation can let loose to swarm in every gulf 
and bay, very wasps and hornets, stinging the foe in the most vital parts. 

To man this navy there were voted in 1839-40, rather more than 20,000 sea- 
men of all ranks, and 9000 marines. That is a peace establishment. It has 
already been remarked that the peculiar character generally attributed to the 
British tar may be said to have been formed since the Bevolution. It partook 

154 LONDON- 

at first of that homeliness and even carelessness which characterised more or less 
the whole English nation when the Hanoverian family ascended the throne. 
When we wonder at the Hawser Trunnions of Smollett^ we must keep in mind 
the manners of the real Walpole — the licence taken in matters of language by 
Lady Mary Wortley Montague — above alU the minuto details of common 
decency and cleanliness which Chesterfield expressed with such solemnity. We 
undervalue that great reformer^ because every child knows and practises what he 
preached^ but it is because he preached it. And amid all that undeniable rude~ 
ness which made the sailor of those days the stock subject of caricaturists and 
burlesque writers, there existed that stock of unostentatious decision in action 
and shrewdness of practical judgment in the sphere with which he was familiar, 
which is the groundwork of the British seaman*s character. There was a quiet 
grandeur about the higher order of spirits in the navy at that time. In homely 
majesty of character no man perhaps ever surpassed Lord Anson. Favoured in 
the outset of life by his good connections, he rose in the service in a manner that 
showed he must be a good steady officer, but necessarily implied nothing more. 
Twelve years of his life he was contented to let his ship " ground on his beef 
bones on a Carolina station ;" entering into the pursuits of a planter with as 
much gusto as his elder brother into those of a country gentleman ; a universal 
favourite in the colony, but alleged by the ladies to be fonder of listening to 
music than of dancing to it> and most happy over a quiet bottle with a pro* 
fessional friend. But he rose with the occasion, and though involved in many 
perilous emergencies, never failed to prove great enough for the most trying. 
In the hour of impending shipwreck, or on the quarter-deck, on the eve of battle, 
he was imperturbable, apparently apathetic till the moment for action came, and 
then his impetuosity first revealed the tremendous power of the iron will which 
must have held such energies in check. His conduct towards his prisoners, 
especially the females, during his cruise in the Pacific, was marked by equal 
courtesy and high moral self-control to what has immortalized one classical hero. 
As a promoter of the sciences which bear upon his profession, and as a civil 
administrator, he proved that his intellect was worthy to be mated with his 
chivalrous hcroiBm and morality. And all this under the cloak of a homely, 
retiring, and even awkward manner. The disregard of show which characterised 
men like Anson became fashionable in the navy : our seamen prided themselves 
on being men who could do much and say little. It was their boast that rol- 
licking tarry jackets could fight better than the gilded or pipe-clayed martinets 
of the land-service. Even in excess this is an honourable ambition, and it is 
to be hoped that the anxiety to prove themselves " no shams" will remain un- 
altered now that the changed tone of general society and the extension of 
scientific education are smoothing oS the rough angles of the seaman's deport- 
ment. Science has never been neglected by him. Halley's observations were 
in due time followed up by the experimental trials of Meyer's lunar tables. 
Anson was not alone in that extensive study he made of Spanish discoveries 
before he sailed on his great voyage, or in his care to eke out what he had 
learned by necessary observation and inquiry while it lasted. Pbipps preceded 
Cook ; and the paternal discipline of that groat navigator, and the conversation 


of the men of science shipped on his voyages, trained a new and more intel- 
lectual class of officers — the Vancouyers^ Kings^ Blighs, Burnets, and Brough- 
tens. Education has done its part. The Naval College trains commissioned 
officers, and the Lower School at Greenwich trains warrant officers and private 
seamen. Christ's Hospital has long sent an annual tribute to the navy. And 
the Hydrographer*s Office finds encouragement and employment for all who 
choose to cultivate the science of their profession. The efficiency of our navy is 
increased ; our naval men occupy a front rank in the national literature and 
science ; and in the senate the sailor feels his full value recognised, and conforms 
to the prevailing tone of society. 

It is neither an unpleasant nor an unprofitable task to note how the British 
naval officer has been polished without being made effeminate. The sailors of 
Marryat and poor Tom Cringle (to give him the name by which he is best 
known) contrast widely with those of Smollett and his contemporaries, but in 
refinement of manners alone ; — the same wild and reckless glee, when for a time 
cast loose from service — the same coolness and relish for mischief or danger, 
indifferent which stimulant offers itself, provided one of them does offer — the 
same carrying of the single-heartedness of the boy into the matured intellect of 
the man. Tom Cringle and Peter Simple are genuine descendants of Tom Pipes 
and Lieutenant Hatchway ; and Master Keenc — Marryat*s bold attempt to lend 
an interest to a sharp self-seeking calculator of how closely a man may tread 
upon dishonesty — would> in ruder times, have grown up into one of Smollett's 
tyrannical captains. And yet it is a curious speculation — what would the old 
rough sea-dogs have thought of their successors ? Tom Pipes thought it was all 
natural enough in Peregrine Pickle to write the letter which honest Tom wore 
to rags in the sole of his shoe, and possibly did not despise the schoolmaster who 
composed a substitute for him ; but what would he have said of officers in the 
navy publishing novels, like Marryat; and books of travels for young masters, 
like one whom we have lost by a more melancholy stroke than death — the 
amiable and accomplished Basil Hall ? 

Enough of the gallant men of whose eyes the Admiralty is the cynosure : we 
return to the house itself. It will at once be seen that here is not room for the 
whole of the managers of the huge instrument of national power just sketched in 
outline. It spreads over the whole of London. Here are the council-rooms and 
the residences of the senior Lords ; and if you pass the broad easy flight of steps 
by which access is attained to the public apartments, and ascend the narrow dark 
stairs beyond it, you will find yourself in the labyrinth of narrow passages, con- 
ducting to small rooms crowded with boxes and drawers full of charts, in which 
the busy hydrographical department is constantly at work. On the west side of 
the great square of Somerset House are the Victualling, Navy-Pay, and Trans- 
port branches of the Navy Office. The west terrace of the same structure con- 
tains the official houses of the Treasurer and the Comptroller of the Navy, of 
three Commissioners of the Navy Board, and the principal officers of the 
Victualling Department. Other branches of the management of the navy must 
be sought at Sheemess, Portsmouth, Plymouth, and even in the colonial dock- 
yards. Greenwich, with its Upper and Lower Schools, and its Hospital, is a 

156 LONDON. 

part of the great system, the training-place of the sailor-boy, and the refuge of 
the worn-out veteran. And, wide though the space be which this administration 
of the navy fills, a communication of inconceivable rapidity and regularity is 
kept up by the cabs and busses of the metropolis, the telegraphs of the Admi- 
ralty, the railroads on shore^ and the steamers at sea. Where is the " Ministry 
of Marine?" a native of the trim governments of the continent, where all de- 
partments of state are organised after the newest drill fashion, asks when he first 
comes to England. It is everywhere in the British dominions. This is the cha- 
racteristic of British government^ that a few heads, by enlisting, when occasion 
calls, the energies of private individuals and associations, make the nation 
govern itself. The Steam Navigation Company, or even the Metropolitan 
Parcels Delivery Company, act occasionally as Admiralty messengers, and do 
their duty as effectively as if they were liveried retainers constantly in waiting, 
and devoid of other occupation. By such simple means is it that in the control 
of a fleet which girdles the globe with a navy of stations, the obstacles of time 
and space are well nigh set at nought. 

But the mechanism of our navy and the great secret of its power will be im- 
perfectly comprehended unless we turn our attention to the inmates of a not 
inelegant structure in the handsome Trinity Square on Tower Hill. 

The Trinity House has already been more than once mentioned in the course 
of these remarks. The architectural pretensions of the building are far superior 
to those of the Admiralty ; and the corporation which transacts its business there 
is the right arm of the British minister of marine. 

Henry VIII. , it is said, established the Trinity House about the same time 
that he constituted the Admiralty and the Navy Office. It is not easy to say 
how the truth stands, for the records of the Trinity House were destroyed by 
fire early in the eighteenth century. But some expressions in the earliest char- 
ters of the corporation that have been preserved, and the general analogy of 
the history of English corporations, lead us to believe that Henry merely gave 
a new charter, and intrusted the discharge of important duties to a guild or 
incorporation of seamen which had existed long before. When there was no perma- 
nent royal navy, and even after one had been created, so long as vessels continued 
to be pressed in war time as well as men, the king of England had to repose 
much more confidence in the wealthier masters of the merchant-service than now. 
They were at sea what his feudal chiefs were on shore. Their guild or brother- 
hood of the Holy Trinity of Deptford Strand were probably tolerated at first 
in the assumption of a power to regulate the entry and training of apprentices, 
the licensing of journeymen, and the promotion to the rank of master in their 
craft, in the same way as learned and mechanical corporations did on shore. 
To a body which counted among its members the best mariners of Britain came 
not unnaturally to be intrusted the ballastage and pilotage of the river. . By 
degrees its jurisdiction came to be extended to such other English ports as 
had not, like the Cinque Ports^ privileges and charters of their own : and in course 
of time the jurisdiction of the Trinity House became permanent in these matters, 
with the exception of the harbours we have named, over the whole coast of 
England, from a little way north of Yarmouth on the east to the frontiers of 


Scotland on the west. Elizabeth^ always ready to avail herself of the costleis 
services of her citizens^ confided to this corporation the charge of English sea- 
marks. When lighthouses were introduced, the judges pronounced them com- 
prehended in the terms of Elizabeth's charter, although a right of chartering 
private lighthouses was reserved to the Crown. When the navigation laws 
were introduced by Cromwell and re-enacted by the government of the Resto- 
ration, the Trinity House presented itself as an already organised machinery 
for enforcing the regulations respecting the number of aliens admissible as 
mariners on board a British vessel. James II., when he ascended the throne, 
was well aware of the use that could be made of the Trinity House, and he 
gave it a new charter, and the constitution it still retains, nominating as the 
first master of the reconstructed corporation his invaluable Pepys. 

The Corporation of the Trinity House consists of Younger and Elder 
Brethren. The number of Younger Brethren is unlimited: they are com- 
manders in the merchant-service who have never served under a foreign flag ; 
they are admitted on the nomination of the Elder Brethren, after taking the 
oaths prescribed by the charter. The Elder Brethren are thirty-one in number : 
eleven are considered noble, or in the honorary line of the brotherhood ; and 
twenty arc taken from the merchant sea-service. Vacancies at the board of 
Elder Brethren are filled up by their electing (by ballot) a successor ; if to an 
honorary member from any admirals of the navy, ministers of state^ and other 
persons of distinction ; if to one of the merchant-line from among the Younger 
Brethren. The business of the board is in reality managed by the twenty 
members from the merchant-service, the honoraries rarely, if ever, interfering. 
The board consists of a master, four wardens, eight assistants, and eighteen 
Elder Brethren, simply so called. The business of the board is transacted by 
committees, six in number; the first and principal is called the Committee of 
Wardens : it consists of the Depute Master and the four wardens ; it exercises 
a general control and takes charge more especially of the treasury and accounts. 
The second committee, consisting also of four members, is for the examination 
of masters in the navy and pilots. To ensure the competency of these exami- 
nations, the Elder Brethren are never appointed upon this committee until they 
have been in the corporation some time, in order that the experience they gain 
by being employed on surveys of the coast may qualify them for the task. 
The third committee, consisting of two members, is for the supervision of 
ballastage in the river Thames ; the fourth is the committee of lighthouses ; 
the fifth for the collection of dues ; and the sixth for attending to the pensioners 
and inmates of the noble almshouses belonging to the corporation. 

This brief recapitulation of the constitution and functions of the corporation 
will suffice to show that it is an institution by means of which the energies of 
the independent seamen which proved so available in the reign of Elizabeth 
have been retained in the service of the state down to the present moment. 
The lighting, beaconing, and buoying of the coasts, the examination and 
licensing of pilots, and we trust ere long to add the examination and licensing 
of masters and mates of merchant- vessels, are branches of maritime police, 
functions of the general government. By devolving them upon the incorporated 

158 LONDON. 

merchant-service it is not merely a trifling economy that is attained ; it keeps 
alive in the merchant-service a consciousness of its own importance that is 
favourable to the general character. If the navy captain look forward to be an 
admiral, the merchant captain can look forward to become an Elder Brother of 
the Trinity House, intrusted with the supervision and control of the lightagc 
and pilotage of a great part of the kingdom, rendering himself of importance to 
the public by his care for the safety of navigation and navigators. At no time 
has the merchant-service shown itself unsusceptible of the due sense of its re- 
sponsibility. Officers who have risen high in the royal service have begun their 
career before the mast, not only in merchantmen of the long voyage, but in 
coasters. Cook was apprentice in a collier. At the time of the mutiny at the 
Nore, the presence of mind of an Elder Brother who proposed and executed the 
removing of the buoys, which marked the seaward channel, paralyzed the motions 
of the mutineers. When invasion from France was apprehended, the task of 
preparing defences, at the mouth of the river, was intrusted to the Board of the 
Trinity House, and skilfully executed. The merchant-service has kept pace with 
the awakening spirit of the age, as well as the navy. The Lower School at Green- 
wich supplies the merchant-service, as well as the Royal navy, with able, edu- 
cated seamen. The East India trade has formed a valuable branch of the 
merchant-service. Many extensive ship-owners manifest a most laudable anxiety 
to promote the education, both professional and moral, of their apprentices, and 
to advance the young men from rank to rank as they prove themselves worthy. 
Many have done well in this respect, but none have evinced more persevering 
interest in their Aleves, more judicious and paternal care for them, than the Glad- 
stones of Liverpool. To show the high character attained by our mercantile 
marine under these auspices^ it is only necessary to name the Scoresbys, the 
Enderbys, the Warhams, the Becrofts, and Lairds, who have competed for the 
palm with the Royal navy in urging onward the progress of discovery. 

To a superficial observer the maritime administration of England appears a 
chaos — much that is of vital consequence seems to be neglected. But observa- 
tions, such as have now been provoked by our visit to the Admiralty and Trinity 
House, show that this is a misconception. The secret of the efficiency of our 
marine is that it governs itself, and that all classes belonging to it can, in some 
way or other, attain to a voice in its management. The bureaux of the Ad- 
miralty contain many practical and experienced seamen ; and it is well known 
that in a government like ours, in which party leaders chase each other in and 
out of office, the permanent secretaries in the offices are, in nine cases out of ten, 
the real ministers. The active members of the Trinity Board are recruited from 
the ranks of the merchant service. The Trinity House consults the Admiralty 
in cases of difficulty ; the Admiralty intrusts to the Trinity Board important 
I>ractical duties. The Hydrographer's Office — the statistical department of the 
Admiralty — forms a connecting link between the two Boards. These practically 
trained officials are watched and checked by unofficial pupils of the same school 
— members of the Royal navy, or wealthy ship-owners — whose ambition has car« 
ried them into parliament. The maritime administration and legislation of Great 
Britain, like all other parts of the British constitution, has rather grown than 


been made what it is, and it has sprung up stately and athletic. As the nation 
grows, so must it be extended ; as the nation improves, so must the details of its 
organisation be amended. But the grand outline must be adhered to, for it is the 
form that nature has given to us, and to tamper with, or mutilate it, is death. 

Here we close our retrospect ; but standing in the new Trinity House when 
we break off, as wc stood in the Admiralty when we began, our eyes resting on 
the old banners, and plans oF almost forgotten fights, evolutions, and the gilded 
names of benefactors of the corporation, our mind wanders back to the habita- 
tions of the naval rulers of England in ancient days. They have vanished: the 
Navy Office, in Crutched Friars, will be sought in vain. The scene of the me- 
morable siege of poor, precise, garrulous Mr. Pepys by a bum-bailiff is no more. 
It was a memorable siege that ; far transcending in interest even that which my 
uncle Toby, with the aid of the jackboots cut up into cannons by Trim, carried 
on in his garden. Valiantly were the outworks defended by the servitors of the 
Admiralty ; ruthlessly persevering was the blockade into which the bum con- 
verted his repulsed assault ; and then^ when Pepys is stolen out at the back win- 
dows, one feels as if one would have felt if in the tale of Troy divine Eneas 
had carried off Helen and the Palladium before the death of Hector, and the 
Greeks, learning that what they sought was no longer there, had quietly beaten a 

The Old Trinity House, in Water Lane, is not even that in which Pepys 
laboured : it was rebuilt in 1718, after a fire which destroyed many important 
records. Yet is there something in the old Trinity House of the engraving 
which forms our tail-piece that might almost persuade us it was the veritable 
scene of Pepys' daily in-goings and out-comings. Between his time and the reign 
of the first George the architecture of London had undergone little change. And 
standing here in the clcan^ narrow, paved court, with tall brick tenements orna- 
mented by protruding architraves of stone over door and window, and the little 
scroll-shaped tablets containing the narrative of the destruction of the building 
by fire, and its re-edification, we feel that the hero of the rent camlet cloak, 
which, '* though it was a trifle, yet it did vex him," would not be here out of 
place. It is strange how this intellectual and moral pigmy has so indissolubly 
associated himself in our imagination with the mighty navy of Great Britain. 
It is as if, in inventing a naval mythology for our country, we were to shape the 
presiding genius after the model of some Nipchecse the purser. Yet the little 
man, though garrulous and vain, was of real service to the navy. He had a 
turn for accurate book-keeping, a love of justice, a power of estimating that 
greatness in others he so entirely wanted in himself, and it became with him a 
passion to see that Justice was done to the navy. In good times and in bad times 
he adhered to his purpose — ^when it was fashionable at court to be honest (that 
was at very brief intervals), and when it was unfashionable. He was a good old 
woman, ever watchful for the interests of this brawny son of his adoption, and 
succeeding in being useful to him. It is the old story of the dwarf befriending 
the giant — of the mouse setting free the lion — of Wamba, the son of Witless, 
bringing rescue to Coeur-de-Lion. If this had been a Popish country, it would 

160 LONDON. 

have been the duty of the marinfln of the royal navy to bum wax tapera before 
the efBgicfl of St. Pepys. 

In this want of antiquity the residenceB of the manajfen of our mercantile and 
our military navy rcsenible everything around them. London was a city in the 
time of Tacitus ; yet the edifices of London are, with few exceptioDs, etsentially 
modem. This is typical of our civil and social organisation, in which everything 
is the creation of the day, and yet retains the impress of an old antiquity. 
We are an ancient people, but we are the flesh and blood sons of our ancestors, 
not animated mummies, presenting caricatures of their lineaments. 

[CilatgT ot Dntcfa Chaidi, AuUn FrianJ 


No. I. — Before the Fire. 

In the church ot St. Peter, Comhill, there has been from time immemorial a 
tablet be^ng a very remarkable inscription, and which, if trustworthy in the 
chief matter to which it refers, not only points out to ue the locality of the oldest 
of metropolitan Christian churches, but the very iirst edifice of the kind raised 
ia Great Britain. The tablet was " fast chained " in the church in Stow's time, 
ud although written by what authority he knew not, was certainly then "of no 
late hand." Thus runs it : " Be it known unto all men that the year of our 
I^rd God C.Ixzix. Lucius, the first Christian king of this land, then called Bri- 
tain, founded the first church in London, that is to say, the church of St. Peter, 
upon Comhill ; and he founded there an archbishop's see, and made that church 
the metropolitan and chief church of this kingdom ; and so [it] endured the space 
of CCCC. years, unto the coming of St Austin [Augustine], the Apostle of 
England, the which was sent into this land by St Gregory, the Doctor of the 

VOL. T. H 

162 LONDON. 

church in the time of King Ethclbert. And then was the archbishop s see and 
pall removed from the aforesaid church of St. Peter, upon Cornhill, unto ' Dcre- 
bernaura/ that now is called Canterbury, and there remaineth to this day. And 
Millet [Mellitus], monk, the which came into the land with St. Austin, was made 
the first bishop of London, and his see was made in Paul's church." The tablet 
then goes on to inform us how many years after Brute Lucius reigned, 
M.C.C.xlv. (the precision of these old chroniclers is admirable), how long his reign 
lasted — no less than seventy-seven years ; and that he was, according to one chroni- 
cle, buried in London, whilst another set him down at Gloucester, " in that place 
where the order of St. Francis standeth now." But this is by no means the entire 
extent of our information as to these very ambitious claims of St. Peter's, Corn- 
hill. Stow also gives us, on the authority of * Joceline of Fumeis,' the names of 
both the first and second archbishops, Thean and Elvanus, as well as of their 
fourteen successors ; and informs us that whilst the first, aided by King Lucius*s 
butler, Ciran, erected the church, the second added a library, and " converted 
many of the Druids, learned men in the Pagan law, to Christianity." He adds, 
evidently with a lingering belief in the story, '* True it is, that a library there 
was pertaining to the parish church of old time builded of stone."* It also ap- 
pears a scl^ol was held there from some very early, but unknown, period. Alto- 
gether, the story forms so delightful a piece of antiquarian gossip, that we wish 
it was in our power to assert its undeniable truth. • 

Turning to a more general view of our subject, and to matter of a less ro- 
mantic, but more trustworthy nature, it may be observed that the first (in time) 
of our metropolitan topographers, Fitz-Stephen, amongst his notices of the tem- 
perateness of the air and the strength of the place, the honour of its citizens, 
and the chastity of its matrons, its schools, its customs, and its sports, does not, 
of course, exclude a view of the provision of the religious demands of his fa- 
vourite city ; and brief and unadorned as is the single sentence with which he 
dismisses the subject, the facts he gives us derive considerable interest as well as 
value from the antiquity of the period referred to. It is something to be able to 
lift off the dark mist that hangs over the London of the middle ages, even though 
it be but to learn that '^ there are in London and in the suburbs 13 churches 
belonging to convents, besides 126 lesser parish churches.'' And a very striking 
illustration the statement forms of the wealth and zeal of the inhabitants of 
London, as well as of their great numbers during the period in question, and 
makes it probable that there is no error, after all, as to the 20,000 armed men 
who, according tp the same writer (himself probably an eye-witness), went out to 
a muster in the neighbourhood '' in the fatal wars under King Stephen." Nay, 
it should seem, if we may judge of the increase of the population by the increase 
of churches, that that population had been stationary for some centuries after 
Fitz-Stephen's time, for when Stow wrote, the entire number of churches in and 
about London within four miles' compass was but 139 : the exact number men- 
tioned by Fitz-Stephen, if we add the conventual to the parish churches, as Stov 
does in his list with regard to all that were still preserved. And thus, no doubt, 
they remained down to 166C, when the great fire destroyed at once 89 of their 

* Stow, ed. 1633, p. 211. 


number^ many of them never again to rise from their ruins. Fitz-Stcphen gives 
us no enumeration of the buildings he mentions^ but this is of little importance, 
for Stow docs; and it is tolerably clear that the buildings he refers to are almost 
identical with the buildings mentioned by Fitz-Stephen. So that however much 
older than the twelfth century may have been the churches of London generally 
that existed before the fire, it is evident that their foundation must be referred 
to at least that early period. Eleven of the thirteen *' belonging to convents " 
may be traced with precision. We find on examination that there were in 
existence in Fitz-Stephen s time. Trinity Priory, Aldgate, founded in 1108 
by good Queen Maud, wife of Henry I., for Regular Canons of the rule of 
St. Augustine, by whose influence ''was the number of those that praised 
God day and night so much increased, that the whole city was much delighted 
with the sight of it;'** St. Bartholomew's, already fully treated of in our 
pages; Bermondsey, the same; St. James Priory, Clerkenwell, founded for 
Black nuns about 1100, near the famous well from which it derived its name ; 
the Priory of St. John the Baptist, near another well of still higher repute — 
Holywell, Shoreditch ; St. Katharine's Hospital, founded by Matilda, Stephen's 
queen, of which the building in Regent's Park is the legitimate descendant ; 
St. Thomas Aeon, founded in honour of Fitz-Stephen's master, Beckett, by the 
ambitious churchman's sister and her husband, within a few years after his 
murder, and on the site of their father's house, in which Beckett himself was 
born ; St. John of Jerusalem, Clerkenwell, the house of the Hospitallers ; and 
the Temple, the house of their rivals ; St. Mary Overies, noticed in our first 
volume ; and, lastly, St. Martin's-le-Grand, which, both from its antiquity and 
its magnificence, was appropriately named : it was founded in 700, by a king of 
Kent, Wy thred ; rebuilt, and a great increase made to its endowments, about 
1056, by two noble Saxon brothers ; confirmed in all its rights, privileges, and 
possessions by the Conqueror, who made it not merely independent of his own 
or the kingly jurisdiction, but of the Papal also, and which, among its other 
noticeable features, included within its precincts a sanctuary, that seems to have 
been the Alsatia of an earlier day. For a certain class of persons, those who had 
occasion to pass to and fro between Newgate and Guildhall on business of a more 
indispensable than agreeable nature, this sanctuary was most conveniently situated, 
and the advantages it offered were fully appreciated. Thus, in 1439, when a 
soldier for some crime was pursuing the route mentioned, five men rushing out 
suddenly from Panyer Alley rescued him, and the whole fled into St. Martin's. 
The Sheriffs in their irritation were incautious enough to follow them into the 
church, seize them, and send them to Newgate ; but the authorities soon compelled 
them to replace the offenders in the sacred building. 

If the great fire of London was calculated to beget in the minds of contempo- 
raries the deepest awe and astonishment at the amount of the mischief consum- 
mated within so small a space, those feelings were not likely to be lessened by 
the peculiar severity of the visitation as it regarded the churches of London. In 
the following list is shown in alphabetical order the churches as they stood in the 
beginning of the seventeenth century^ when the central portion of London must 

* Stow, p. 051. 

M 2 



have appeared one forest of steeples.'*' If the reader^ after glancing over this list, 
will then mark how many of them have an asterisk prefixed^ he will see those 
which remained : surely no other single feature of the conflagration furnishes us 
with so startling a notion of its effects as this : — 


Albani, Wood Street, fF, 
*Allhallow8, Barking 

Allhallows, Bread St. IV. 

Allhallowi the Great, IV. 

Allhallows, Honey Lane 

Allhallows the Less 

Allhallows, Lombard 

Street, fF. 
*Allhallow8, Staining 
*Allhallow8, London Wall 
•Andrew, Holbom, fV. 

Andrew Hubbard 
*Andrew Undenbaft 

Andrew, Wardrobe, fV. 

Anne, Aldersgate, fV. 

Anne, Blackfrian 

Antholin, fV, 

Augustine, fV. - 
•Bartholomew the Great 
•Bartholomew the Less 

Bartholomew, Exchange, 

Bennet Fink, IF. 

Bennet, Gracechuich 
Street, fV. 

Bennet, Paulas VHiarf, fF. 

Bennet Sherehog 
•Botolpb, Aldersgate 
•Botolph, Aldgate 

Botolph, Billingsgate 
•Botolph, Bishopsgate 

Bride, Fleet Street, W. 
•Bridewell Precinct 

Christ Church, fV. 

Christopher, ffl 

•Clement Danes, fV. 

Clement, East Cheap, tV. 

Dionis, Back Church, IV. 

Dunitan, East, fV. 
•Dunstan, West 

Edmund, Lombard 
Street, fV. 


Gabriel, Fenchurch 

George, Southwark 

George, Botolph lAne, 

•Giles, Cripplegate 

Giles in the Fields 

Gregory, by St. Paul 

•Helen, Bishopsgate 

•James, Clerkenwell 
•James, Duke*s Place 

James, Gorlick HiU, fF. 

John, Baptist 

John, Evangelist 

John, Zachary 
•Katherine Coleman 
•Katherine Cree 
•Katheriue, Tower 

Lawrence, Jewry, fV. 

Lawrence, Poultry 

Xjeonard, East Cheap 

Leonard, Foster Lane 
•Leonard, Shoxeditch 

Magnus, fV, 
Margaret, Lothbury, fF. 
Margaret Moses 
Margaret, New Fish St. 
Margaret Pattens, fF. 
•Martin in the Fields 
Martin, Ironmonger 

Martin, Ludgate, fV. 
Martin, Orgar 
•Martin, Outwich 
Martin, Vintry 
Mary, Abchurch, fF, 
Mary, Aldermanbury,fr. 
Mary, Aldermary, fF, 
Mary le Bow, fF. 
Mary Bothaw 
Mary Colechurch 
•Mary Magdalen, Ber- 

Mary Magdalen, Milk 

Street J 
Mary Magdalen, Old 

Fish Street, tF. 
Mary at HiU, fF. 
Mary Mounthaw 
Mary, Somerset, fF. 
Mary Staining 
•Mary, Whitechapel 
Mary Woolchurch 
Mary Woolnoth, W. 
Matthew, Friday St, fF. 
Michael, Basinghall 

Street, fF. 
Michael, ComhiU, fF. 
Michael, Crooked Lane, 

Michael, Queenhithe, fF. 

Michael Queme 

Michael Royal, fF. 

Michael, Wood Street, (T. 

Mildred, Bread Street, ff. 

Mildred, Poultry, ff'. 

Nicholas Aeon 

Nicholas, Cole-Abbey, 

Nicholas, Clave 
•Olave, Hart Street 

Olave, Jewry, fV. 

Olare, Silver Street 
•Olave, Southwark 

Pancras, Soper Lane 

Peter, Cheap 

Peter, Comhill, fF. 

Peter, PauVs Wharf 
•Peter Le Poor 
•Saviour, Southwark 

Sepulchre, fF. 

Stephen, Coleman St. ff. 

Stephen, Walbrook, ff. 
•Stratford Bow & Bromley 

Swithin, fF. 

Thomas Apostle 
•Thomas, &K>uthwark 

Trinity Church 
•Trinity, Minories 

Vedast, Foster Lane, If. 
•Westminster, St. Marga- 
•Westminster, St Peter. 

The W affixed to many of the above names show the churches rebuilt by 
Wren; consequently those without either that mark or the asterisk are the 
buildings that have been entirely lost to us. Among all these it would have been 
difficult to have found one uninteresting structure^ whilst many of them were, no 
doubts exquisite specimens of their respective architectural styles, and they all 
belonged to one long period in the history of Christian architecture, when none 
but beautiful buildings were erected, and the only differences were as to their 
relative degrees of beauty. In their origin, names, customs — in the monuments 
and inscriptions they contained — in their wealth and decorative splendour, one 
might find materials for a pleasant and instructive volume ; thus, to refer to the 
first point only — the name : — there is, to explain how St. Martin, Ironmonger's 
Lane, came to be called also Pomary, '* supposed to" be of apples growing where 
now houses are lately builded ;"f St. Mary Woolchurch, from the beam placed in 
the churchyard for the weighing of wool ; St. Michael at the Quern, corruptly 

• For a picturesque general view of these buildings in old times, see ' Something about London Churchef it 
the Close of tiie Fourteenth Century/ in vol. iv. p. 209, No. LXXXIX. t Stow. 


from Come, on accouot of the neighbouring ancient corn-market by Paternoster 
Row ; Fen Church, from the fenny or moorish ground on which it was built, 
through which ran the once sweet and beautiful waters of Langboum ; St. Bennet 
Sherehog — a ludicrous popular misunderstanding of the right appellation : '' St. 
Syth,*' writes Stow, ** hath also an addition of Bennet Shorne or Shrog, or 
Shorehog (for by all these names have I read it), but the ancientest is Shorne : 
whereof it seemeth to take that name of one Benedict Shorne, some time a citizen 
and stock -fishmonger of London, a new builder, repairer, or benefactor thereof"* 
in the time of Edward II. : and so on. Many of them, ^g&in^ were very rich in 
memorials of the dead, from the most magnificent structures that art and muni- 
ficence could raise to their memory, down to the single stone with its " Pray for 

the soul of ;'* from the gloomy, and pathetic, and elaborate, and, we must 

add, frequently fearfully long-winded, inscriptions, down to the humorous or 
fanciful, or simply gay and cheerful ; in some cases so full of the exhibition of 
animal spirits, that one would almost suppose the writer — not to say it irreve- 
rently — thought death only a capital joke. Here is one, the jingle of which we 
cannot get rid of, inscribed in St. Leonard*s, Foster Lane, a church built by one 
of the deans of St. Martin*8-le-0rand, about 1236, for the use of the inhabitants 
of the sanctuary : — 

" When the bells be merrily rung 
And the mass devoutly ftung 
And the meate merrily eaten. 
Then shall Robert Trap^— his wife — ^and children be forgotten." 

Passing, as our space compels us to do, with this brief mention, the extinct 
churches, and reserving those rebuilt by Wren for our next paper, let us now 
once more glance over the list on the preceding page. Of those marked with 
the asterisk, we need not concern ourselves with the more distant, as Greenwich 
on one side or Kensington on another ; but as to the remainder, an interesting 
question suggests itself— are any of those which fortunately escaped the fire, or 
were altogether beyond its range, still preserved to us in their architectural inte- 
grity 7 in other words, do any of the churches of London before the fire still 
exist essentially as they were ? It is pleasant to find that, though few in number, 
there are such existing ; churches that not only have been spared the fire, but 
the worse fate of architectural degradation that has befallen those which have 
grown too old for any merely-repairing processes. The church of Allhallows, 
Barking, where the headless bodies of the poet Surrey, Bishops Fisher (More's 
friend) and Laud, were deposited after their respective executions on the neigh- 
bouring Hill, is still preserved to us ; so is Allhallows, Staining, where Eli- 
zabeth, on leaving the Tower, by Mary's permission, for a less severe imprison- 
ment in Woodstock, full of thankfulness, hastened to ofiTer up her grateful 
acknowledgments to God ; St. Andrew, Undershaft, that altar, as it might almost 
be called, for the worship of the old " Spring-time in London," and where rest 
the honoured ashes of him whose heart was as open to all the freshness and love- 
liness of the present, as his mind was earnest and sagacious in inquiring into the 
past — (a church we could as ill have spared for Stow*s sake as for its own) ; St. 
Kathcrine Cree, where Laud displayed those superstitious tendencies which sub- 

• Stow, p. 276. 

166 LONDON. 

sequently formed one of the cjiief charges against him ; the curious little church 
of St. Ethelburgh> in Bishopsgate Street^ so diminutive that the pettiest houses 
and shops seem, in very contempt of its insignificance, to have half smothered it 
up, pressing it on each side, and creeping across its front till the door below and 
the tip of its fine window above> with the surmounting turret, are all that can be 
seen ; St. Helen's, close by, in every way the most perfect and interesting of the 
whole ; St. Giles's, Cripplegate, rich in many recollections, were they not almost 
rendered as nothing in contrast with the one — Milton's burial within its walls ; 
St. Olave, Hart Street, with its elegant architecture, and remains of antique deco- 
ration on the roof of its aisles ; Lambeth ; St. Margaret's, Westminster ; and, still 
more distant, Chelsea, where Sir Thomas More, when Chancellor, sang with the 
boys in the choir, and now lies in that last sleep which, with such a spirit, could 
not but be sweet ; Fulham, Putney, &c. If to these are added the structures 
already described in our pages as St. Mary Overies (or St. Saviour's), Bartho- 
lomew the Great (the Less also has remains of the ancient structure), Ely Place, 
and the Savoy — ^the reader will have a tolerably complete general view of the 
old churches that remain. The Dutch church, Austin Friars, may here also be 
mentioned. This priory was founded by Humphrey Bohun, Earl of Hereford 
and Essex ; the date is shown on the exterior, 1253. Strikingly handsome as 
this building still is, with its long range of pointed windows of great size on 
each side, its magnificent western front, and its elegantly-clustered columns in 
the interior, both exterior and interior give but a partial view of the original 
splendour of this house of the bare-footed friars ; the one wanting its spire, which 
formed the *' beautifuUest and rarest spectacle " in London, and the other the 
sumptuous and all but innumerable monuments which formerly adorned it : whilst 
the whole forms but the nave of the perfect structure. For all these deficiencies 
we have to thank my lord Marquis of Winchester, into the hands of whose 
family the place fell after the dissolution : the mayor and many other influential 
persons bestirred themselves greatly, in 1600, to induce his lordship to assist in 
the repair of the steeple, then in a dangerous state, for which they asked only 
502. or 602. from him ; his answer was — first, a refusal, and then the pulling down 
of the steeple and choir, with the sale, for 100/., of all the rich tombs. We may 
judge of the character of those memorials from the individuals to whom they 
related. There were buried in this church — Edmond, half-brother to Richard II. ; 
ths fouBder, Humphrey Bohiin ; Richard, the great Earl of Arundel, Surrey 
and Warren, beheaded 1397 ; Vere, Earl of Oxford, beheaded 1463 ; the lords 
barons slain at Bamet, in 1471, who were interred together in the body of the 
church; ''poor Edward Bohun," Duke of Buckingham, beheaded 1521 ; with 
several other noblemen, many knights and ladies, and a countless number of 
less distinguishable persons. 

Of the churches enumerated in the preceding paragraph, it will be neces- 
sary to notice in detail only the more important. The name of Barking 
church, AUhallows, was evidently a great favourite with our ancestors ; our list 
exhibiting no less than eight metropolitan buildings similarly dedicated ; a cir- 
cumstance no doubt to be attributed to the great popularity of the holiday of 
AU-hallowmas, which having, it is supposed, its origin in pagan times, seems to 
have been first incorporated into the Christian system by Pope Boniface IV. ia 

-^^i/^-^l^^/^/r^A-^v^-j?^^ .^^ U-u^/^L. 


the seventh century. The Pope*s object in so doing is stated in a passage 
from an old manuscript transcribed by Strutt, in his ' Horda Angel Cynnan>' to 
be the correction of *' our omissions for many a Saint's day in the year we have 
unserved^ for there be so many that we may not serve them all;'* but 
Mr. Forstcr, in his ' Perennial Calendar/ says that " the Churchy in this great 
festival^ honours all the Saints rising together in glory :** so when a new 
church was to be dedicated in the earlier ages of Christianity^ and the perfections 
of the different apostles^ saints, and martyrs were canvassed, whenever there was 
much difficulty of choice, we may easily imagine hovr All Saints would carry the 
day. What better watchers and warders, too, either for the living or the dead, 
could be desired ? Some such feeling possibly it was that led Bichard I. to found 
a " fair chapel ** here, on the north side, apparently with the intention of being 
buried in it ; and it is said that his heart was actually interred in the church 
ander the high altar. Legend connects another monarch with AUhallows, Barking, 
ia an interesting point of view. Edward I., when Prince of Wales, is said to 
have been admonished in a vision to erect an image to the Virgin, and told at 
the same time, that if he visited the said image five times a year, he should be 
victorious over all nations, and more particularly over those which he most 
yearned to conquer, Scotland and Wales. He did erect one accordingly, as 
well as further augment the revenues and establishment of the chapel ; and the 
image became so famous, that pilgrimages were regularly performed to it, down 
even to the period of the suppression : forty days' indulgence was the reward for 
all such pilgrimages. The chapel continuing still an object of royal solicitude, we 
find Edward IV. calling it " the King's," and empowering his brother John, Earl 
of Worcester, to found a brotherhood in it; whilst Bichard III. rebuilt it, and 
founded a regular college of priests there. All these notices indicate great 
antiquity, as well as great interest in the structure in early times; and the 
sight of the interior confirms, in some degree, all that the enthusiastic antiquary 
might be apt to imagine from them. The church generally is of the Gothic style 
prevalent in the Tudor era, but there are certain pillars on each side of the nave, 
toward the western extremity, that at once attract the eye by their dissimilarity 
to the remainder : these are low, massive, round — in a word, Norman. The 
antique inscriptions, monuments, and brasses too, all about us, point far back- 
wards over the stream of time. If from among the latter, where all are so interest- 
ing, we select one for mention, the best perhaps is the brass plate of John 
Rulche, 1459, who appears in a close*fitting gown, with long hair, hands clasped 
upon his breast, a pouch at his girdle, and a rosary on his arm. We have already 
mentioned that the Earl of Surrey, and the Bishops Fisher and Laud, were in- 
terred here after their executions, but it was only for a limited period in each 
case. Surrey's remains were removed in 1614 to Framlingham; Fisher's, first 
buried in the churchyard here, were taken to the chapel in the Tower, and 
placed by the side of his murdered friend the great Chancellor More; and 
Laud s, whose temporary resting-place was the chancel, were afterwards taken 
down to St. John's College, Oxford. A terrible and, in one respect, curious acci- 
dent injured the church in 1 649 — the explosion of a quantity of gunpowder, which 
at the same time destroyed fifty or sixty of the neighbouring houses with their 
inhabitants : one of these was an alehouse full of people at the time. The first 

168 LONDON. 

person who ascended the steeple afterwards was not a little surprised at what he 
saw there — a female infant in a cradle^ unhurt. The parents could not be traced, 
and in consequence some good Samaritan stepped forward and brought her up 
as his own. To the repair of the injuries done on this occasion was added the 
erection of a new and ugly hrick steeple. 

That the majority of the earliest churches built in London were of wood seems 
sufficiently probable^ if we consider merely the length of time that structures of 
greater pretension must have required for their erection, and how unwilling the 
enthusiastic builders must frequently have been to wait any longer than was 
absolutely necessary for a temple in which to worship ; and the name of AUhal- 
lows Staining points no doubt to some such state of things. Stane is the Saxon 
word for stone, and was most probably applied to this church to distinguish it 
from the others of the same name of wood ; and if the view be a correct one, the 
choice of the word shows how uncommon was the use of the more durable material 
at the time. Looking at the modern front of this church in Mark Lane, a model 
of plain deformity, one would never suspect there was aught behind it worth a 
single glance ; but if we step through the little court close by, the eye at once 
rests upon a tower of unmistakeable antiquity. Sad reverses that tower has 
known! The body to which it belonged fell in 1671> and was replaced by the 
structure, of which the front already mentioned is a worthy representative ; and, 
as if that was not enough degradation for a venerable steeple which could possibly 
date its birth from the days of the third Henry^ they have actually thrust 
one of those abominable round-headed windows into its walk. But it has had 
its consolations too. If tradition speak truly, it was the merry peal of its bells 
pouring forth their congratulations to the parish on the release of Elizabeth from 
the Tower, that attracted the Princess herself hither^ as the most agreeable place 
in which to perform her devotions. Whether it was that the parish had not pre- 
viously coquetted much with princesses, or that Elizabeth had in truth won their 
entire hearts and souls, who shall say ? but certain it is that in ' The King's 
Head * tavern adjoining, certain dishes of pork and peas appear once a-year in 
commemoration of the visit, Elizabeth having regaled herself on the occasion with 
such delicacies from this very house : witness those dark-looking vessels that hang 
up over the fire-place in the coffee-room, the dish and cover used by her, with 
an inscription between, detailing the circumstances, from Hughson's ' London,* 
and a print above of the Princess from a painting by Holbein^ where the future 
Virgin-Queen appears in all the pride of high shoes, square waist, and out- 
swelling petticoats. But apart from personal considerations, Elizabeth could hardly 
have come to a more beautiful or more interesting, or, therefore, a more suitable 
place. The entries of the churchwardens in their parish books, dry and succinct 
as they are, conjure up many a vision of surpassing ecclesiastical splendour which 
we should else little dream of attributing to the apparently insignificant-looking 
church of Allhallows Staining — this thing of yesterday, as its aspect seems to 
speak it We read of a high altar dedicated to Allhallows, with " carved taber- 
nacle *' work, and drapery of red Bruges satin, bearing a representation of the 
Ascension ; of a silver gilt cross on the high-altar^ with small statues at its base 
of the Virgin Mary and St. John ; and another (very large probably) of wood, 
plated with silver and gilt, having silver figures of our Saviour, the Virgin, and 


St. John, the five wounds of the first marked by as many preciona stones (ru- 
bies perhaps), and having at its base a piece of inserted crystal covering, but not 
concealing, the word JESUS. We read of three other altars similarly decorated ; 
of a statue of St. Katherine, with a lamp constantly burning before it ; of a 
rood-loft, with a great crucifix, and twenty-two tapers of extraordinary size 
burning about it. Then, to people the scene, come the priests in their robes of 
red damask with leaves of gold, red velvet embroidered with golden roses, white, 
green, and crimson satin, with their cioss-banners lifted high, thoir streamers, 
their incense, their choral songs ; and lastly, shutting in the whole picture, the 
kneeling, devout, adoring crowds of worshippers. Then the festivals : where, 
it may be asked with allowable parochial pride, were these observed with greater 
regularity and zeal than at AlUiailowB Staining, though ito reputation in this 
matter be now dwindled away into a line in the register? The simplest statement 
of some facts, however, produces eloquence ; and so it is with this passage, reviving 
all the jovial hilarity of the ecclesiastical Saturnalia, the rule of the boy-bishop : 
"Paid unto Q-oodman Chese, broidcrer, for making a new mitre for the bishop 
ayenst St. Nicholas' night, 2s. Sd. ;" and this, referring to another and scarcely 
less popular festival, " Paid for the hiring of a pair of wings and a crest for an 
angel on Palm Sunday, 8c/.," when the entry of Jesus into Jerusalem was dra- 
matised, though by no irreverent artist, nor before an irreverent auditory ; and 
when Allhallows, like many other churches, would present some such spectacle as 
that here shown. The parish books so frequently referred to show two noticeable 

[Ptoccalan of U» WooAfd Ab on Film Sundiy.] 

170 LONDON. 

signatures — Sir Cloudcslcy Shovel's^ in connexion with his own marriage ; and 
Ircton*8> as the alderman and justice of the peace, who married certain parties in 
pursuance of the Marriage Act of the time, which made the ceremony a civil, in- 
stead of a religious contract, as before, and which, subsequently annulled, has 
been again and in all probability permanently revived of late years. 

The objects of our inquiry now grow thick around us : here we see the low 
but elegant Gothic exterior of St. 01ave*s, in Hart Street, there the more imposing 
range of pointed windows belonging to St. Katherine Cree, in Leadenhall Street, 
and scarcely a stone's- throw distant, the modem and beautiful tower of St An- 
drew Undershaft, looking so light and so lofty that one could almost fancy the 
architect had the idea of the famous May-pole floating in his mind as he designed 
it. The interior of St. Andrew *s forms a very interesting specimen of the Tudor 
architecture of the fifteenth century ; and is rich in large fresco paintings of the 
Apostles, in its stained glass^ with portraits of Edward VI. and succeeding mo- 
narchs down to Charles II., in its monuments, its noble organ, and its painted and 
gilded roof. But one thinks little of these things on the spot, for there in the 
north-east comer is Stow's monument. Poor Stow ! the fate that followed him 
in life deserted not his remains in death; the story of the removal of his bones 
from his own monument to make room for some wealthier new-comer, forms the 
appropriate pendant to that of his begging his bread in his eightieth year^ — is 
equally disgraceful and equally true : it occurred, states Maitland, in 1732. The 
history of St. Katherine Cree's— the latter word being a corruption for Christ's 
— church, like many others of the metropolis, impresses upon the mind the date- 
less antiquity of its foundation; the original edifice was pulled down about 1107, 
with three other churches, to make way for the great convent of Trinity, and the 
church of the latter» under the appellation of Christ's, having been made paro- 
chial^ was devoted to the use of the four united parishes. The body of this 
church having become, it is said, old and crazy, was pulled down and rebuilt in 
1628; if so, there must have been a very praiseworthy determination on the part 
of the architect to follow in some degree the style of the preceding building or of 
some of the neighbouring churches ; but it was probably only an extensive repair 
of the exterior that took place at the times mentioned, for the interior exhibits 
proofs that there was no such self-denial in the artist's thoughts : here Gothic 
and Corinthian jostle in strange, but certainly picturesque confusion. It is said 
that Inigo Jones was the author of the repair or rebuilding in 1628. We hope 
he is not answerable for walling up the magnificent western window, the tracery 
of which is just visible at the top. That it was magnificent any one may easily 
assure himself by stepping up the narrow alley in Leadenhall Street, at the 
eastern extremity of the building, and gazing, as well as the place will permit, 
upon the correspondent work that there lies before him. Within, among other 
noticeable dead, we are reminded of Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, the gallant 
spirit who so baffled the hunters in Guildhall, by the sight of his canopied effigy, 
and we remember without such aid that in all probability somewhere beneath our 
feet, or in the adjoining churchyard, lies all that remains of Hans Holbein. In 
the beautiful monument to Samuel Thorpe, 1791, by Bacon, St. Katherine Cree 
possesses another claim to the attention of the lovers of art. It was after the re- 
pair or rebuilding of 1628, that the consecration took place by Laud^ who having 


caused all necessary preparations to be made for the extraordinary scene he 
meditated, appeared before the church on the 16th of January, 1630-1. At his 
approach persons stationed near the door called out in a loud voice, " Open, open, 
ye everlasting doors, that the King of Glory may enter in.'* The archbishop 
then entered, and, falling upon his knees in the church and extending his arms, 
exclaimed " This place is holy, the ground is holy ; in the name of the Father, 
Son/ and Holy Ghost, I pronounce it holy.*' Rising, he went towards the Chancel, 
throwing dust from the floor into the air on his way, bowed, went in procession 
round the churchy repeated two psalms and a prayer. He then cursed all who 
should profane the place, bowing at the close of every sentence, and blessed all 
who had advanced the erection. What took place after the sermon is best 
described in the words of Prynne, every sentence of whose pungent and humorous 
satire must have cut deep, and given earnest of the coming retribution for the 
bold Puritan 8 cropped ears and slit nose. He says, *' When the bishop ap- 
proached near the communion-table, he bowed with his nose very near the ground 
some six or seven times ; then he came to one of the corners of the table and 
there bowed himself three times ; then to the second, third, and fourth comers, 
bowing at each comer three times ; but when he came to the side of the table 
where the bread and wine was, he bowed himself seven times ; and then, after the 
reading of many prayers by himself and his two fat chaplains (which were with 
him, and all this while were upon their knees by him, in their surplices, hoods, 
and tippets), he himself came near the bread, which was cut and laid in a fine 
napkin, and then he gently lifted up one of the comers of the said napkin, and 
peeping into it till he saw the bread (like a boy that peeped into a bird*8-nest 
in a bush), and presently clapped it down again and flew back a step or two, and 
then bowed very low three times towards it and the table. When he beheld the 
bread, then he came near and opened the napkin again, and bowed as before ; 
then he laid his hand upon the gilt cup, which was full of wine, with a cover 
upon it ; so soon as he had pulled the cup a little nearer to him, he let the cup 
go, flew back, and bowed again three times towards it; then he came near again, 
and, lifting up the cover of the cup, peeped into it ; and seeing the wine, he 
let fall the cover on it again, and flew nimbly back and bowed as before. After 
these and many other apish, antick gestures, he himself received and then gave 
the sacrament to some principal men only, they devoutly kneeling near the 
table ; after which, more prayers being said, this scene and interlude ended.*' 
When Prynne applied the epithet interlude to these ceremonies, he was no 
donbt aware that it derived fresh force from the associations of the place ; the 
churchyard of St. Katherine Cree seems to have been a popular place for 
the exhibition of dramatic interludes properly so called. Among entries of 
a similar nature in the parish books we read, under the date 1565, ''Re- 
ceived of Hugh Grymes, for licence given to certain players to play their 
interludes in the churchyard, from the feast of Easter, An. D*ni. 1565, 
until the feast of Saint Michael the Archangel, next coming, every holy- 
day, to the use of the parish, the sum of 27s. 8c2." Scafiblds, it appears, 
were erected all round the churchyard. Performances took place on Sun- 
days, but iu connection with this point, and the sacred character of the 
place, it is to be observed that the pieces performed would be of a religious 

172 LONDON. 

character, though with a plentiful admixture of the ordinary jests and practical 
fun. Of the three churches pulled down with St. Katherinc's on the erection of 
Trinity Priory, we have probably a remnant of one of tliem — St- Michael's, in 
the beautiful crypt that still exists beneath a house near the pump at Aldgate, a 
most curious and interesting piece of antiquity. 

I^t us now turn into Bishopsgate Street, and from thence into the area at the 
back of Crosby Place, where a path runs between the fine young trees just 
putting forth their delicately green foliage, and through the centre of the bright 
level sward of the churchyard of St. Helen's to the church. The remarkable 
aspect of the exterior must strike every one. The ends of two naves or bodies of 
separate churches placed side by side, with a little turret at the intersection 
above, is the idea at once impressed. The interior shows us that this is no fao- 
ciful notion ; the double church being there stilt more evident, although intimately 
connected together. An irregular, but far from unpleasing or unpicturesque 
effect is thus produced. One set of lofty pointed arches differs from another, 
ranges of windows extend along walls for a certain distance, and then unaccount- 
ably stop ; the long aisle — as the northernmost of the two churehes appears to 
be— on one side, is balanced by a chancel occupying merely the eastern extre- 
mity of the other ; the two great eastern windows extending side by side firom 
the floor to the roof arc not alike, yet is neither subordinate to the other; hut 
every individual form is beautiful, and constructed of the same elements ; and it 



is anrprising the hannony that may be thus produced even where the artistical 
laws of combination are violated. An air of indescribable antiquity^ too, pre- 
vailing over and through all, tends powerfully to the same efTect. In the part 
that now appears as an aisle, a long row of carved seats against the wall catches 
the eye, and the inquiry into their use explains the peculiar architectural exhi- 
bition around us. Helena, the mother of Constantino the Great, and discoverer, 
in her own belief, of the very cross on which Christ was crucified and the very 
sepulchre where he was entombed, and who built on the spot a church, was of 
coarse canonized, and enjoyed all the honours pertaining, all the Christian world 
over, to that state of beatitude. Here there was a church dedicated to her from 
a very remote period, of which the nave of the present building is the descendant. 
About 1212 William Fitzwilliam, a goldsmith, founded on the same locality a 
priory of Benedictine nuns, and probably built a church for them, against that 
of St. Helen's ; when the latter came into the possession of the nuns, which it 
did at no very distant period, it may have been thought desirable to lengthen 
the nuns' church to range with that of St. Helen's (hence the blank wall in 
the north-east comer, on which are the Bonds' and other monuments), and to 
tbrow them open to each other, or divided at least merely by the screen 
between the intercolumniations, which we know to have existed here until the 
Bcformation. The seats we have alluded to were those used by the nuns. 
Among the monuments of St. Helen's which most imperatively demand notice, 
we may first mention the oldest and most valuable — Sir John Crosby and his 
lady's^ an exquisite specimen of the sculpture of the fifteenth century, exhibiting 
their eflSgies side by side, on a table monument ; the costume is remarkable, 
particularly the head-dresses, and in all its details carefully defined. On one 
side near him, beneath an ambitious-looking Elizabethan canopy with double 
arches, lies Sir W.' Pickering, one of the courtiers of the virgin queen, who is 
said to have aspired to a share of her throne, and who could plead as a justifica- 
tion of his hopes the possession of qualifications which make Strype call him 
the finest gentleman of the age in learning, arts, and warfare. Still farther, on 
the same side, directly before the great window of the nuns' church, and with the 
coloured rays from his own arms in the said window falling upon bis tomb, lies 
Sir Thomas Gresham ; that tomb, as becomes the eminent man whose remains 
it guards, is simplicity itself— a very large square slab, raised table high, bearing 
his sculptured arms, but no adornments, no inscription. Of the tablets and 
other memorials on the wall beyond Gresham's monument, the most remarkable 
are those to Sir William Bond, a distinguished merchant adventurer, who died 
in 1576, and his son's, Martin Bond, one of Elizabeth's captains at Tilbury. A 
still more interesting feature of this wall is the beautiful niche, with a row of 
open arches below, through which the nuns, according to Malcolm, heard mass 
on particular occasions (during punishment?) from the crypt below. By the 
way, the nuns of St. Helen's seem to have been somewhat wild and unruly, if we 
may judge from the complaints made by Kentwode, Dean of St. Paul's, who 
visited them in 1439. He makes many suspicious remarks about the employing 
of some ''sad woman and discreet" to shut cloister doors, and keep keys, about 
not using nor haunting " any place within the priory [the precincts of which were 
oxtensive], through the which evil suspicion or slander might arise," about for- 

174 LONDON. 

bearing to dance and revel except at Christmas^ *' and other honest times of recre- 
ation/* and so on.* At the other end oF the nuns* church, an immense square 
mass of masonry, with urns rising at intervals, marks the place of interment of 
one Richard Bancroft, founder of the almshouses at Mile End, and who is 
understood to have exhibited this generosity in his last days as an atonement for 
conduct of a very different nature previously. His monument, we need hardly 
state, was a provision of his own, and from it yearly, for some time, his body was 
taken out (for which conveniences had been made), on the occasion of the preach- 
ing of the commemoration sermon (also founded by himself), and exhibited to 
the almsmen. Returning to the eastern part of the church, we find in the 
chancel, that occupies the south-east comer, the remarkable monument of Sir 
Julius Caesar, Master of the Rolls, who died in 1636. It is a beautiful table- 
tomb, the workmanship of Nicholas Stone, who received for it one hundred 
guineas, and on the top exhibits a piece of black marble in the form of a parch-, 
ment deed, inscribed with writing, and having a dependent seal. On reading the 
inscription we find it is truly in form a legal document, applied to an odd pur- 
pose : Sir Julius Caesar gives his bond to Heaven to resign his life whenever it 
shall please God to ciall him, and the whole is duly signed and sealed. 

Of the three remaining churches, St. Giles Cripplegate, Lambeth, and St. 
Margaret's Westminster, that alone our space will allow us to mention, we can 
speak but briefly. St. Giles was built by Alfune, the man who rendered Rahere 
such efficient assistance in the erection of St. Bartholomew's Priory, Smithfield, 
and derives the concluding part of its designation from the gate in the great wall, 
near which it was Erected (one of the finest remainingpieces of that wall is still 
preserved in the churchyard), and which was called the cripple gate, from the 
number of deformed persons who haunted it to beg. The church was partially 
burnt in the sixteenth century, but a single glance at the tower and exterior 
walls shows how much remains of a date anterior to that event. Here rest, in 
addition to Milton and his father, Fox the martyrologist. Speed the historian, 
and '* Sir Martyn Furbisher, Knt.," who is generally, but incorrectly, said to have 
been buried at Plymouth, where he was brought after receiving his death- wound 
in the assault on Croyzon, near Brest. His name is entered as we have tran- 
scribed it (from Malcolm) under the date 1594 — 5 Jan. 14. Numerous other 
interesting recollections of St Giles might be mentioned ; we must confine our- 
selves to two : here, on the 22nd of August, 1620, were married Oliver Cromwell 
and Elizabeth Bouchier ; and in connexion with Cromwells friend and secretary 
the great poet before mentioned, we cannot but feel interested in observing in 
the parish registers the frequent mention of the names of Brackley, Egerton, 
and Bridgewater, dear to the lovers of Milton and ' Comus ;' the family of Bridge- 
water having had a house in the immediate neighbourhood. 

The present Lambeth Church is of the period of Edward IV. From its 
connexion with the palace adjoining, several of the archbishops have been in- 
terred in it, including Bancroft, Tenison, Hutton, and Seeker. Bishops Thirlby 
and Tunstal also repose within its walls. A military-looking memorial to Robert 
Scot records the services of one of Gustavus Adolphus's English followers, and 

* See Dagdale*f < Monasticon/ and Malcolm, vol. iii. p. 518. 


the inventor of leathern artillery^ which he used with great effect in the service 
of the Swedish monarch. In one of the windows is a painted figure of a man 
(said to be a pedlar) and a dog ; according to tradition, the piece of land known 
as Pedlar's Acre was given to the parish by the individual here commemorated. 
The churchyard has a monument to the Tradescants^ famous antiquaries during 
the reigns of the Charleses, who lived at Lambeth, and formed there the first 
Museum of Curiosities of which we have any record in England. Their garden 
also was very valuable for the amazing number and variety of plants they had 
collected in it, from all parts of the world. 

The erection of St. Margaret*s, Westminster, was owing to the desire of the 
Confessor to relieve the monks of the Abbey that he had so magnificently re- 
built from the inconveniences attending its use as a parish church : hence that 
proximity to the grander structure, which would hardly have been permitted 
under any other circumstances, and which almost makes it seem a part of it, viewed 
but from a short distance. St. Margaret's has been twice rebuilt ; — in the reign 
of Edward I. by the princely-minded merchants of the Staple, and again in that 
of Edward IV. : from which period we may justly date the present structure, 
in spite of the extensive repairs that have taken place in 1735 and in 1S03. 
Here lies the illustrious Printer, of whom wc read in the parish registers : 
" 1478. Item« the day of burying William Caxton, for ii. torches and iiii. tapers 
at a low mass;'* and a similar entry, under the year 1491, shows the fitting 
honours that were paid to his memory: a handsome tablet has been placed 
in the church of late years by the Roxburgh Club. Here also was buried 
Skelton, the satirical poet of Henry VIII. 's reign, who was fain to take and to 
keep the Abbey sanctuary, out of Cardinal Wolsey's way ; Lord Howard of 
Effingham, Elizabeth*s gallant Lord High Admiral, who had the chief defence 
of the kingdom intrusted to his charge, at the period of the Spanish 
Armada, and to whose and to his lady's memory there is here a sumptuous 
monument, with their effigies ; Sir Walter Raleigh, brought hither after 
his execution in the neighbouring Palace Yard ; that ** great man," as 
Malcolm twice calls him. Sir Philip Warwick, who, if our readers remember 
him at all, will most probably recollect him merely as giving an interesting 
description of Cromwell's appearance in the House of Commons, as a young 
member ; and, lastly, Milton's wife, Catherine, buried here, Feb. 10, 1657, the 
" late espoused saint " of his pathetic and beautiful 23rd sonnet. The church, 
as the place of assemblage for the Members of the House of Commons during 
the sittings of Parliament, is kept in excellent order, and exhibits many inte- 
resting features. The architecture, where ancient, is beautiful ; and more par- 
ticularly the altar recess, with its lofty groined roof, its panelled niches, and 
fresco designs. But the painted eastern window is the grand attraction of St. 
Margaret's. This represents the whole history of the Crucifixion in what is 
considered the most masterly style of the art, and the effect is truly gorgeous. 
The history of this window is worthy of commemoration. It was made by the 
orders of the magistrates of Dort, in Holland, as a suitable present to Henry VII., 
for the chapel erected by him in the Abbey ; hence the figure of that monarch at 
his devotions, and the red and white roses introduced into the picture. Henry, 
however, dying before it was completed, the window fell into the hands of the 

Abbot of Waltham, who kept it in his church till the diBBolution. Then began 
a series of hairbreadth escapes, through which it is wonderful the work should 
have reached its present honie. The last Abbot of Waltham saved it from de- 
struction by sending it to New Hall, a seat of the Butlers, in Wiltshire ; from 
whence it was purchased, with the seat, by Thomas Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, 
whose son sold them to General Monk. The war against all such superstitions 
exhibitions of artistical skill was now raging hotly, and Monk knew there was no 
chance of his window escaping, except by its strict concealment ; accordingly he 
buried it At the Restoration, it was restored to the chapel at New Hall. Again 
danger threatened it : the chapel was destroyed by a new possessor, who, how- 
ever, hoping to sell the window to some church, preserved it, cased up, and after 
some time sold it to Mr. Conyers, for his chapel at Epping ; by this gentleman's 
son it was finally sold, in the last century, to the committee for repairing and 
beautifying St. Margaret's. Had ever window before so moving a history ? 

[Eut window ot St. MaiipiM'iCbnnh, WatmluHrJ 


No. II. — Wken's Chdrches. 

Interesting as many of the buildings that fall within the scope of the present 
article individually arc, from their intrinsic merits, and the variety of historical 
and biographical recollections — to say nothing of less important matters — that 
belong to them, it is as a whole that we should first look at them, if we would do 
joBtice either to them, to their architect, or to those whoso conduct deserves more 
admiration than it has received, the architect's employers. Wc must especially 
recall to mind the position of the citizens of lA>ndon, if we would rightly under- 
■tand or appreciate the noble qualities, of which the churches of London are the 
enduring memorials. Every stone marks a difficulty conquered — a sacrifice made 
on the part of those incapacitated in no ordinary degree for the making of sacri- 
fices — an active exhibition of heroic hope, where men might have been not alto- 
gether without excuse, for a long period, of something much more nearly ap- 
proximating in its characteristics to despair. We must remember — to review for 
a moment the successive stages of the great event in question — that " that which 
made ihc ruin the more disnial was, that it was begun on the Ijord'a Day morning : 

VOL. T. N 

178 LONDON. 

never was there the like Sabbath in Loadon ; some churches were ia flames that 
day ; and God seenis to come down, and to preach himself in them, as He did 
in Mount Sinai, when the Mount burned with Jire. Such warm preaching those 
churches never had ; such lightning-dreadful sermons never were before deli- 
vered in London. In other churches ministers were preaching their farewell 
sermons^ and people were hearing with quaking and astonishment.*' * We must 
remember the result : — ^twelve churches only saved out of the ninety-seven 
standing within the walls. We must behold the miserable inhabitants— all 
miserable ! — rich and poor, young and old, weak and strong, reduced for the 
moment to one common level — ^in their bivouacs in the surrounding fields and 
open country, where for months great numbers had to remain. We must above 
all weigh the utter ruin that many must have been plunged into by their losses, 
the difficulties requiring years of exertion and privation to overcome experienced 
by still more, the necessity for the husbanding of every penny of money, every 
thought and energy of the mind^ on the part of all, to re-instate themselves in 
their former position. Houses the houseless could not but build, the commercial 
capital of the world could not from motives of the most evident self-interest remain 
long without its halls and warehouses, both piety and the habits of piety woald 
naturally impel men to obtain some fresh places of worship ; but when we iind 
what an architect they did employ for their churches, what sums of money they 
did expend upon them, and how numerous were the buildings they did crect» 
it is impossible to repress a warm feeling of admiration at the conduct of oar 
civic forefathers, or to resist the whispers of national pride that explain and con- 
centrate the whole in one appropriate word (and never may that word lose its 
magic !) as the conduct of— Englishmen. These things, to our minds, are the best 
parts of the history of our metropolitan churches. 

Of course, impossibilities were not attempted ; and such would have been the 
erection of these buildings immediately after the fire. They were content, no 
doubt, at first, to worship God beneath his own beautiful sky, that temple not 
made with hands, and then, as conveniences and time presented, beneath places 
of temporary shelter ; it is also to be remembered that the few existing churches 
would give accommodation to the greatest possible number of the members of 
those which had been destroyed : and thus we may presume to have passed the 
first two or three years. The general character and direction of the earliest 
movement towards the erection of the present structures are not unhappily illus- 
trated by the case of AUhallows, Lombard Street, as that case is shown to us by 
notices written at the time in the parish register. On the 15th of February, 1669, 
the parishioners resolved they *' should congregate and meet together about the 
worship of God " in their own parish, and accordingly deputed persons to select 
a place, and build thereon a temporary structure. They next directed that the 
steeple should be viewed, to see whether it could be strengthened and supported ; 
on the 21st of the same month they ordered the walls of the body of the building 
to be coped with straw and lime, to preserve them from further damage. A 
lingering hope is here perceptible that the church might be repaired rather than 
rebuilt ; but after the lapse of another year or so, when we may suppose the 

* Rev. T. ViDcent— * God'a Terrible Advice to the City by Plague and Fire.* 


p;eneral buBiness of London to have regained much of its usual regularity, they 
dismissed the idea as impracticable, or as unworthy, and agreed not only that 
the church should be rebuilt, but, in December, 1670, that " young and old " 
would join heart and hand in expediting the work. The means at the disposal 
of the parishioners in this, as well as in the other parishes, were various, but 
chiefly a portion of the duty on coals, set apart by the parliament for the re- 
building of London and the churches, an assessment on the inhabitants, and 
voluntary subscriptions ; the whole, however, in a great number of cases, insuf- 
ficient, as we may well suppose, to admit of any rapid progress ; and hence con- 
tinual difficulties. At AUhallows they were so greatly at a loss at one period, 
that they endeavoured to raise 500/. upon their lands, but Sergeant Pemberton 
advised them that it could not be done without a decree of Chancery. From this 
position they were relieved apparently by the usual process, increased exertions 
on the part of benevolent individuals, for we find John Marsh, in 1693, lending 
them the exact sum stated. The year after 500L was also raised by a parochial 
assessment. These notices are imperfect, but show sufficiently the general history 
of the rebuilding of AUhallows, which is but an epitome of the rebuilding of 
most of the other London churches. 

In the foregoing passages we must also look for no unimportant part of the 
materials from which we are to estimate the architect*B greatness. Without 
dwelling upon the multitude of Wren's avocations at this time — ^the cathedrals, 
palaces, government offices, hospitals, civic halls, colleges, &c. &c., he was erect- 
ing or repairing, and which make it wonderful that he could have contrived to 
give us so many beautiful churches in the City, rather than depreciatory of his 
fame, that he should also have added some that are very insignificant — passing by 
this consideration, which Wren barely needs, there is another, which it would 
be unjust to his memory not to lay some stress upon, the pecuniary difficulties 
above referred to, which must have hampered him at every step of his labours, 
and often have materially affected the design itself, which it was the object of 
those labours to carry into effect. In criticising therefore his works, it is some- 
times more germane to the matter to speak of the design that the parochial 
purse approved of, rather than of his ; to lament the absence of appropriate deco- 
ration there, rather than in his buildings. The church of St. Mary Aldermary 
offers a striking example of the importance of these pecuniary influences. Would 
you learn how it was that this building became erected on the expensive model 
of the former one, with its nave, and aisles, and clustered pillars, and surprisingly 
rich fan-groinings, not merely decorating but covering the ceilings, Malcolm will 
tell us that '^ Henry Bogers, Esq., influenced by sincere motives of piety, and 
affected with the almost irreparable loss of religious buildings, left the sum of 
5000/. to rebuild a church in the city of London. His lady, who was executrix of 
the will, determined that St. Mary's should be that church.'* Then, ag^in, 
churchwardens of that day, as of this, held their opinions with a pertinacity at 
least equal to their information, and, we may be sure, often plagued and oc- 
casionally thwarted the architect To refer, for instance, again to AUhallows, we 
read in their parish books of Wren sending about a /tjrire, but the parish, or its 
officers, seem to have preferred a tower — so a tower it is. Communications of a 
more agreeable nature, be it observed, occasionally passed, such for instance as 


180 LONDON. 

that rePcrrcd to in the books of St. Clement's East Cheap^ under the date of 
1685^ " To one-third of a hogshead of wine, given to Sir Christopher Wren, 
4iL 2s, Od. ; " and that in the books of St. Mary Aldermanbury, 1673, April 10 — 
'' Having considered the kindness of Sir Christopher Wren and Mr. Bobert 
Hooke (chief mason) in expediting the building of the church ; and that they 
may be encouraged to assist in perfecting that work, it is now ordered that the 
parish, by the churchwardens, do present Sir C. Wren with 20 guineas, and 
Mr. R. Hooke with 10." 

It was under the disadvantages referred to that Wren erected the structures 
which, as a whole, form the greatest monuments of his genius ; for in them he 
appears as emphatically the inventor of a style of ecclesiastical architecture 
adapted to the wants of a Protestant community, to whose minds the older and, 
we may own, more beautiful Boman Catholic buildings were distasteful, from 
their connection with the faith from which they had only emancipated themselves 
after a long and bloody struggle. Of the exteriors of Wren's churches we have 
little to say, the principal spires and towers having, been so completely shown by 
the design given in our first volume, in the ' Building of St. Paul's ;' and, beyond 
the spires and towers, there being so little demanding observation. The con- 
fined and frequently obscure position of the buildings rendered it impossible that 
fine architectural exteriors could be adequately enjoyed, so the architect declined 
giving them, but, instead, concentrated his energies and skill in the parts ex- 
posed to observation, by their height, as in the» campanuli, and in the interiors. 
Two external peculiarities, however, must not be overlooked — the original and 
picturesque manner in which he has applied ornamented details from the Italian 
to the forms of the Oothic, and the grace with which he has placed his spires on 
the supporting towers. As to his interiors, perhaps variety of plan is the most 
striking characteristic. Looking over the entire number of churches (fifty-three) 
erected by Wren in the metropolis,* we perceive they may be divided into three 
classes — the Domed ; the Basilical (that is with nave and side-aisles divided by 
pillars from each other) ; and the Miscellaneous, consisting of some with single 
rectangular plans without columns, mere rooms, in short, apart from their deco- 
rations ; — some with a single aisle, formed to conceal the intrusions of the Tower 
part of the tower on that side of the church ; — and some with pillars, disposed 
within the rectangular area, to give it the appearance of a cross. The churches 
of each of these clusses arc generally in the Boman style, but with some notice- 
able exceptions — as St. Mary, Aldermary, and St. Alban's, Wood-street, both 
of which belong to the Gothic — the latter, says Wren, " as the same was before 
the fire." We may here be permitted to pause a moment over one recollection 
of the old church of Mary Aldermary (that is Mary the elder of the churches ' so 
dedicated in London) ; Stow says that " Bichard Chawcer, vintner, gave to that 
church his tenement and tavern, with the appurtenances in the Boyal Street, the 
comer of Kirion Lane, and was there buried, 1348." He adds an explanatory mar- 
ginal note, that this Bichard was " father to Geoffrey Chaucer the poet, as may be 
supposed ;" and we think with great probability, if it be remembered with what 
affection the latter always speaks of the City, and how closely he was connected 

* Tliat IS, includinjr two not burnt in the fire, as St. Andrew's, Holboru, and St. Clement Danes, and ouc new 
dmrcb, St James, Westminster. 


with its various broils in the reign of Richard II. In this very tavern^ then, 
with its heterogeneous assembli^e of people of almost every rank and pursuit^ 
such as a tavern of the middle ages only could draw together^ and attended by a 
thousand interesting circumstances of manner and costume equally peculiar to 
the time^ may the young poet have acquired some of the materials for his great 
poem, perhaps even the first idea of the poem itself. 

Reversing the order of the three classes enumerated we wiU now first refer to 
the miscellaneous ; in one division of which> the churches with simple rectangular 
plans, with more or less regularity of outline, may be enumerated St. Lawrence, 
Jewry, and AUhallows, Lombard Street ; in another, consisting of churches with 
pillars introduced into the area to give the effect of a cross, St. Martin's, 
Ludgate, and St. Anne and Ag^es, Aldersgate Street ; and a third, the churches 
with a tower introduced into one comer, and a continuous aisle to conceal the 
awkwardness that would otherwise be apparent, St. Margaret Patten's, and St. 
Bennet, Paul's Wharf. Greatly do the churches of this class vary in the extent 
and beauty of their decoration, from St. Matthew's, Friday Street, at the lower end 
of the scale up to St. Lawrence, Jewry, at the higher, which, with all its simplicity 
of desigpi, is one of the handsomest of Wren's structures ; the chaste elegance of the 
exterior and the noble style of decoration adopted in the interior are equally 
worthy of admiration. There is a vestry attached to it scarcely less beautiful, 
where the painted compartment of the richly stuccoed ceiling represents the 
apotheosis of St Lawrence. Among the monuments is one to Tillotson, some of 
whose best sermons were delivered here. The affixed name *' Jewry " is, of course, 
derived from the Jews, who resided in the neighbourhood from the period of the 
Conqueror's coming to England, who brought many of their nation with him from 
Normandy ; a locality, which in effect, through the operation of a law which pre* 
vented them from burying their dead anywhere but in the plot of ground known 
as the Jew^s Garden, now Jewin Street, must have been their only place of resi- 
dence in this country till the reign of Henry II. They then, after petitioning 
parliament, obtained permission to purchase ground for a cemetery outside thd 
walls of any place in which they dwelt. They were expelled en masse by Edward 
L, who graciously allowed them to carry away enough to bear their travelling 
charges, but kept their treasure, to an immense amount, in his own hands. It 
may be doubted whether this was so politic a mode of treatment in the long run 
as his father's ; at all events it must have been very convenient to a sovereign 
to have always at command such a mode of paying his debts as that referred to 
in the following regal proclamation — one of the richest things of the kind in his-* 
tory : '* To all persons the King sendeth greeting : Know all men that we have 
borrowed 5000 marks sterling of our trusty and well beloved brother, Richard, 
Earl of Cornwall ; for the payment whereof we have made over and delivered to 
him all our Jews of England !*' In the old Jewry is the church of St. Olave, 
with a tablet to Alderman Boydell, bearing a long inscription that does but jus- 
tice to this enlightened and generous patron of art. Of the other churches of 
this class we may mention a few for the sake of the incidental matters of interest 
connected with them. In St. Edward the King, a church also beautiful, in spite of 
the extremest simplicity of plan, from the picturesque effect of the dark oak pews, 
pulpit, and ^alleries^ $q admirably contrived and so richly carved, and which -is 

182 LONDON. 

remarkable for having its altar on the north, are some handsome modem stained 
glass, and two pictures, Moses and Aaron, by Etty. In the old church of St. 
Stephen, Coleman Street, was the monument of Anthony Munday, the great 
literary and mechanical architect of civic pageants for a long period of years, a 
dramatic writer, and an antiquary, who published the third edition of Stow's 

* Survey,' with additions professedly received from Stow himself; and in another 
old church, that of St. Mildred, Poultry, one whose inscription told us, — 

^ Here Thomas Tusser clad in earth doth lie. 
That sometime made the * Points of Husbandry,' " &c. 

Tusser's disposition must have been somewhat changeable. Fuller describes 
him as '' successively a musician, schoolmaster, serving-man, husbandman, grazier, 
poet, more skilful in all than thriving in any vocation/' Inigo Jones was buried, 
at the age of eighty (as estimated), in St. Bennet, Paul's Wharf; it seems 
strange, therefore, to read of his death being hastened by any cause, yet it is said 
that he did die prematurely through the vexations and anxiety brought on him 
by his loyal tendencies in politics and his Boman Catholic in religion : on the 
latter ground he was subjected to a heavy fine in 1646. He died in 1651. 
The church of AUhallows the Great may be mentioned for its beautiful carved 
oak screen, with very slender twisted pillars, supporting a rich entablature, in 
the centre of which is an eagle with outspread wings ; the whole most exquisitely 
carved. The feeling that brought this picturesque piece of decoration here, ia 
one that it is pleasant to have to record. The Merchants of the Steel-yard, it is 
well kno¥m, occupied the adjoining precincts, and in early times probably used 
the church ; their descendants, the Hanse Merchants of the last century, as sup- 
posed (for the time is uncertain), sent over this screen as a token of their remem- 
brance of the old connection. With the church of St. MichaeVs, Paternoster 
Boyal, the name of Whittingtonis inseparably associated; there it was he founded 
his magnificent college, with its Master, four Fellows, Masters of Arts, clerks, 

* conducts,' and choristers, and bestowed on it the rights and profits of the church 
which belonged to him. Malcolm mentions a portrait of him as being in the 
possession of the Mercer's Company, which goes some way towards confirming 
the truth of one feature of the popular biography of him : it bears date 1536, 
the inscription, B. Whittington, and exhibits clearly enough a cat by his 
side. The history of his monument is disgraceful. An incumbent of the 
parish, one Mountain, in the reign of Edward YI., dared to open it with the view 
of finding buried treasure, and being disappointed contented himself, we suppose, 
with the leaden enclosures, which were at all events taken away at the time : in 
the ensuing reign the parishioners re-wrapped the body in lead. The whole, in- 
cluding the monument, unfortunately disappeared in the fire. The modern church 
possesses a work of art of high value — Hilton's admirable picture of Mary Magda- 
lene anointing the feet of Jesus, who is reproving Judas for his envious complaint 
that the ointment was not sold and the money given to the poor, in the beautiful 
passage '' The poor always have ye with you, but me ye have not always.** 
liastly, in St Michael's, Wood Street, after a strange scries of vidasitudes re- 
garding its preservation, was buried the head of the Scottish monarch who fell 
on Flodden field. The battle was fought on the 9th of September, 1513, and 


the body of James was found on the same day by Lord Dacre among the slain^ 
and recognised not only by him but by the deceased king's own chancellor and 
others ; it is difficult to understand, therefore, how there could ever havo been 
any real doubt on the matter. Stow, in his account of the church, gives the 
subsequent history. The body was ** closed in lead, and conveyed from thence 
to London, and so to the monastery of Sheen (Richmond), in Surrey, where it 
remained for a time, in what order I am not certain. But since the dissolution 
of that house, in the reign of Edward VI., Henry Gray, Duke of Suffolk, 
being lodged and keeping house there, I have been showed the same body, so 
lapped in lead close to the head and body, thrown into a waste 'room amongst 
the old timber, lead, and other rubble. Since the which time workmen there, for 
their foolish pleasure, hewed off his head ; and Lancelot Young, Master Glazier 
to Queen Elizabeth, feeling a sweet savour to come from thence, and seeing the 
same dried from all moisture, and yet the form remaining, with the hair of the 
head, and beard, red, brought it to London, to his house in Wood Street, where 
for a time he kept it for the sweetness, but in the end caused the sexton of that 
church to bury it amongst other bones taken out of their charnel.*' 

In the churches on the ancient plan, the Basilical, with their nave and side 
aisles, and central recess for the altar, and occasionally with their clerestory above, 
we have to deal with a much more important class of architectural productions. 
The churches of St. Magnus, Bartholomew by the Exchange (now lost). Bride, 
Bow, Andrew, Holbom, Dunstan^s in the East, and Michaers, Gomhill, all belong 
to this division, of which they are the most distinguished ornaments. St. Magnus, 
it appears from Malcolm, has been rebuilt, but, we presume, mthout material 
alterations of Wren's design. It now presents a noble interior, in spite of the 
appearance of want of solidity produced by the slender columns, and exceedingly 
broad intervals between. The church is further distinguished by one of the 
handsomest altar-pieces of its kind in London, and by the circumstance that 
Miles Coverdale was rector of the church till 1566, when he resigned it. The 
parishioners, within the last few years, have erected a handsome memorial of his 
presence among them. St. Bartholomew's, with remains of its ancient tower, and 
a body remarkable for its simple harmony of proportion, claimed a nearer con- 
nection with this translator of the first entire edition of the Bible published in 
the English language, for he was buried beneath its communion-table. Bride 
Church, with its most beautiful of steeples, and its sumptuous though not very 
accurate copy, in stained glass, of Rubens's great picture, the Descent from the 
Cross, has a fine but not in any way remarkable interior ; we may therefore pass it 
with a brief notice of the eminent men who have been interred in the old or in 
the existing structure ; such as — Wynken de Worde, the assistant and successor 
of the great printer whom Pope, in his Dunciad, when describing the altar raised 
by Bays for the immolation of his unsuccessful writings, thus mentions — 

**" There Caxton slept, with Wynken by his side. 
One claspM in wood, and one in strong cowhide:" 

Sir Richard Baker, author of the ' Chronicles of the Kings of England,' who died in 
distress in the neighbouring Fleet prison ; NichoUs, the author of the ' History of 
Leicestershire ;' and above all, Samuel Bichardson, with his wife and family, 
the illustrious rival of the Fieldings and Groldsmiths. Bow Church is perhaps. 

184 LONDON. 

of all the buildings we have mentioned, the most distinguished for breadth and 
grandeur of effect It is an adaptation from Wren's favourite classical authority, 
the Temple of Peace, at Borne. Among other peculiarities^ the happy mode of 
introducing the galleries may be noticed. The memorials of the dead are nume- 
rous here, and include a large marble monument by Banks, to Bishop Newton, 
with an inscription, in which is the passage — '' Beader, if you would be further 
informed of his character, acquaint yourself with his writings." As to the tower 
of Bow Church, that object of universal admiration for its beauty may challeDgc 
equally universal attention to its history, which is so full of matter that we almost 
hesitate in our limited space to refer to any of the details, lest we should be 
tempted too far. From its foundation below — a Boman causeway, discovered by 
Wren during the erection — to the belfry above where hang the bells, which 
have become a bye-word ; from the exterior balcony over the door^ with its 
recollections of Queen Philippa's awkward accident, to the interior with its asso- 
ciations of murder and siege, the pile, either in itself or in its ancestors, has 
scarcely one separate portion that has not also its own separate story. There 
was formerly a stone building near the site of the present tower, erected for the 
use of the royal family to witness the great public processions that so often in 
old times passed through Cheapside, and in consequence of Edward's queen, 
whilst standing, with the ladies of her court, on a temporary wooden scaffold to 
witness a magnificent tournament, having fallen " with some shame '* upon the 
knights and others beneath. The King would have punished the artisans who 
had raised so insecure a structure; but the Queen interceding, he contented 
himself with the erection of a proper building, of which the balcony over the door 
facing Cheapside is a kind of memento. The murder committed in the interior of 
the old tower was that of Lawrence Ducket, a goldsmith, who had danger- 
ously wounded one Balph Crepin, and taken shelter here, but being suddenly 
seized in the night was strangled, and hung up so as to give the idea of his 
having committed suicide. Some time after a boy, who had been an unnoticed 
spectator of the whole, revealed the truth, and the assassins and their accom- 
plices, sixteen in number, were hung, a woman ' Alice ' burnt, many rich persons 
'' hanged by the purse" (Stow's expression), the church interdicted, and the 
doors and windows filled with thorns, till the whole was properly purified. This 
was in 1284. Bather less than a century before. Bow Church became the scene 
of an event of infinitely greater, indeed of national importance. When Richard I. 
was engaged in the Holy Land, his officers at home, in collecting funds for his 
supply, levied an extraordinary taillage upon the City of London. A corrupt 
practice, it seems, had crept into the local government, of apportioning the 
respective shares of each citizen unfairly, the managers of course sparing them- 
selves, who were the best able to bear the exaction, at the expense of their poorer 
fellow-citizens. A citizen of Saxon descent, called from his long beard, William 
a la bar be by the Normans, but properly, William Fitz-Osbert, who had already 
favourably distinguished himself by his devotion to the cause of ^the people, 
chiefly of the same descent as himself, now stood forth, and denounced, in most 
eloquent language, the wrong attempted to be perpetrated. Failing to convince 
the Norman rulers, he crossed the seas to Bichard, from whom he returned with 
a promise of redress. This was too much for the patience of his adversaries; it 


was bad enough that he should fill the people^ as he had dbne^ with ^' an inordi* 
nate desire of liberty and happiness ;" but that he, a Saxon, should dare to 
interfere between them and the monarch, was monstrous ; so Hubert Walter, 
Grand Justiciary of England, adopted a mode of prevention almost ludicrous, 
for the contrast between the smallness of the object, and the sweeping and reck- 
less nature of the means, that of forbidding any man of the commonalty of 
London from quitting the City. Some traders, going, according to custom, to the 
great fair then held at Stamford, were the first victims of this exquisite specimen 
of an executive government; they were thrown into prison, and it became 
evident that the prohibition was to be really carried into effect, at whatever 
cost Then began the poorer citizens to combine themselves into an association 
for their common defence, and their numbers swelled so fast that when their 
leader, William Longbeard, was cited to appear before a parliament convoked by 
the chief functionaries of the realm^ they accompanied him in such immense mul- 
titudes^ that no one dared to proceed with the charges against him. Other 
modes were now resorted to ; skilful emissaries introduced themselves into the 
councils of the disaffected, and worked upon their minds by every method that 
could be devised ; the members of the government alternately conciliated and 
threatened^ with similar views, until the conspirators began to hesitate — to doubt 
each other's fidelity, and at last to allow the government quietly to obtain as 
hostages the children of a great number of families. Of course the power of the 
conspiracy was then broken, and the government, relieved of its fears, exerted itself 
to get possession of the ringleader, that it might be utterly annihilated. Two per- 
sons undertook the dangerous task ; for some days they watched all his motions, 
having at hand a concealed band of armed men, to seize him when they should 
give the signal. An opportunity at last offered ; he was walking along with 
only nine followers ; they approached carelessly till he was within reach, then 
suddenly threw themselves upon him, and endeavoured to hold him whilst the 
armed men rushed from their place of concealment to their assistance. But 
Longbeard's hand was as ready as his tongue, and in one instant the foremost of 
the assailants was pierced to the heart ; in the next Longbeard was fighting his 
way with his little band towards Bow Church, or> as it was then called, St. Mary at 
Arches. He succeeded in getting safely into the tower, which he barricaded, and 
then maintained so stoutly, that after three days spent in ineffectual attempts to 
force it by ordinary means, they were compelled on the fourth to resort to fire. 
Driven forth by the flames, Longbeard and his fellow unfortunates were speedily 
overpowered and bound. In this state he was stabbed by a son of the man he 
had slain four days before, and thus wounded, tied to the tail of a horse and 
dragged to the Tower, where the Archbishop sentenced him to the gallows. In 
the same terrible plight he was drawn to Smithfield, and hung with the others. 
The terrible Saxon Longbeard seemed destined to be an eternal plague to the 
ruling Normans. Not long after his death a system of Smithfield pilgrimages 
began, that promised to rival in popularity those of the Canterbury martyr. 
People from all parts came to the spot where the " King of the Poor " had 
breathed his last, and where miracles attested the horror of Heaven at the deed 
that had bee^ committed. The Archbishop could not even drive away by force 

these credulous worshippers, tilt ho had established a permanent guard on the 
spot, and scourged and imprisoned numbers of both men and women. The pre- 
sent tower has been rebuilt, though on the model of the orig^al, as seen in the 
following view. 

The tower of St Andrew's, Holborn, of the date of Henr^ VI., displays Wren's 
restoring hand in so unfavourable a light that we willingly pass to the interior, 
the architect's own composition, that we may admire the air of magnificence he 
has given to it. All the acceasories tend to enhance this effect — the gildings, the 
paintings, the stained glass, which in the chancei reach to a high point of splen- 
dour. St. Andrew's may almost be called the poets' church, from the number of 
that glorious but unhappy fraternity that have been in one way or another con- 
nected with it, from the time of Webster, the author of the ' White Devil' and 
the ' Duchess of Malfy,' who was parish clerk, down to the late Henry Ncelc, ia- 
terrcd here, after his suicide in a state of temporary insanity. Under the date of 
1698, as Malcolm was informed, the parish register records the christening of the 
poet Savage, by direction of Earl Rivers, who, according to the mother — Lady 
Macclesfield's — own confession of unfaithfulness to her husband, was the father. 
Disowned as he grew up by both his unnatural parents, unaware even who they 
were, till accident discovered them to him, suffering generally from poverty, and 
almost unceasingly from his own ill-regulated passions ; there are few literary 
lives more truly melancholy than that of Savage. We need not wonder that 
(in Johnson's words),'he was " very seldom provoked to laughter." One terrible 
event with him seemed ever to be the precursor of another, each increasing in 
intensity. The killing a man in a tavern broil leads to sentencfl of death, sod 
that to a mother striving to intercept the pardon bestowed upon him, and the 
whole to the pablication of '' the Bastard," in which poetry was prostituted to the 
most awful purpose, perhaps, on record — that of holding a mother up to the 
reprobation and contempt of the world. Yet, if ever there waa a man deserrii^ 
pity, it was Savage ; and he obtained more than that from one who was httle 


inclined, by habit or principle, to confound right and wrong. The friendship of 
Johnson and Savi^e is one of the most touching and beautiful things in literary 
history. If greater sufferings were needed than he experienced generally 
through life to expiate his faults, the circumstances of his death, in a jail at 
Bristol for debt, in 1743, may surely be deemed sufficient. As in one poet*s his- 
tory we have wandered by a melancholy path from St. Andrew*s to Bristol, by 
that of another still more saddening, on account of the loftier naturp concerned, 
we may return. Nine years after Savage*B death in Bristol there was born in 
the same place one who, coming to London with the romantic notion that talents 
of a generally high order as a writer, and powers unsurpassed at the same age 
as a poet, should be sufficient to supply his moderate demands of food, clothing, 
and raiment ; possessing at the same time too much pride to turn his muse into 
a lackey to dangle after patrons, found himself, after the most indefatigable ex- 
ertions, literally starving. Suicide and the workhouse burying-ground of St. 
Andrew's complete his history, at the age of seventeen. The parish register of 
August 28, 1770, shows the following entry — ^^WiUiam Chatterton," the mistake, 
of course, regarding the name of a pauper being very excusable. The only thing 
that surprises us is the addition by a later hand, of the words ^' The Poet." 
Had not that fact better be forgotten at St. Andrew's ? 

With respect to the churches of St. Michael, Cornhill, and St Dunstan, East, one 
of the most curious results of Wren's studies in combining the Italian and Gothic 
styles is exhibited in the history of the former, which had first a body erected in 
the Italian style to the fine old Gothic tower spared by the fire, and then, fifty years 
later, when the tower was pulled down, a reversal of the former process in the 
erection of a Gothic tower to the Italian body. Fabian was buried here. The 
tower of St. Dunstan's is an imitation of that of St. Nicholas at Newcastle, built 
in the fifteenth century, a circumstance that of course lessens the architect's merit 
in giving us so elegant and fairy-like a thing. Wren's biographer, Elwcs, gives 
the following anecdote on the authority of an anonymous friend : — ** When Sir 
Christopher Wren made the first attempt of building a steeple upon quadran- 
galar columns in this country (St. Dunstan's in the East), he was convinced of 
the truth of his architectural principle; but as he had never before acted upon 
it, and as a failure would have been fatal to his reputation, and awful in its con- 
sequences to the neighbourhood of the edifice, he naturally felt intense anxiety 
when the superstructure was completed, in the removal of the supporters. The 
surrounding people shared largely in the solicitude. Sir Christopher himself 
went to London Bridge, and watched the proceedings through a lens. The 
ascent of a rocket proclaimed the stability of the steeple ; and Sir Christopher 
himself would afterwards smilo that he ever could, even for a moment, 
have doubted the truth of his mathematics." — J. J. Mr. Elwes says the first 
part of the story is evidently incorrect, and that Wren would hardly have 
attempted what he doubted; he then relates as evidence ''on the contrary," that 
the architect being informed one night that a dreadful hurricane had damaged 
all the steeples in London, at once replied, '' Not St. Dunstan's, I am quite sure." 
The last story, however, rather supports than contradicts the first ; the speech of 
the one is but the smile of the other put into words ; and both may be referred to 

188 LONDON. 

a similar origin, some — misunderstood — peculiarities in the mode of erection; it is 
to be observed also, that doubts during experiments and after, are very different 
things. The body of the church built by Wren has now gone, it having been re- 
built in harmony with the steeple, by Mr. Laing, in the years 1817 to 1821. At 
the east end, a large and beautiful window has been preserved, which is under- 
stood to have been an exact copy of one Wren discovered in the re-building. 
Among the events which have been recorded as preserving the features of old 
times and customs, better than any regular descriptions could do, is one of some 
interest connected with St. Dunstans, thus given in ' Stow's Chronicle:*— 
'' In the year 1417, and on the afternoon of Easter Sunday, a violent quarrel 
took place in this church between the ladies of the Lord Strange and Sir John 
Trussel, Knt, which involved the husbands and at length terminated in a general 
contest. Several persons were seriously wounded ; and an unlucky fishmonger, 
named Thomas Petwarden, killed. The two great men, who chose a church for 
their field of battle, were seized, and committed to the Poultry Compter ; and 
the Archbishop of Canterbury excommunicated them. On the 21st of April that 
prelate heard the particulars at St. Magnus Church, and^ finding Ijord Strange 
and his lady the aggressors, he cited them to appear before him, the Ijord Mayor, 
and others, on the 1st of May, at St. Paul's, and there submit to penance, which 
was inflicted by compelling all their servants to march before the rector of St. 
Dunstan's in their shirts, followed by the Lord, bareheaded, and the Lady bare- 
footed, and Kentwode, archdeacon of London, to the church of St. Dunstan, wherei 
at the hallowing of it. Lady Strange was compelled to fill all the sacred vessels 
with water, and offer an ornament, value 10/., and her husband a piece of silver 
worth 5L* What a contrast to this state of things is the bill now before parlia- 
ment, where the Church steps forward to renounce the last few vestiges that 
remain to it of the power which caused such scenes to be exhibited in our streets 
and churches ! Among the remaining buildings of the Basilical style may be 
mentioned St. Andrew Wardrobe, with its striking monument by Bacon to Bo- 
maino ; St. Augustine, where the fraternity of the same name were accustomed, 
as Strype tells us, to meet on the eve of St. Austin, and in the morning at high 
mass, when every brother offered a penny, and afterwards was ready either to eat 
or to revel, as the master and wardens directed ; St. Sepulchred with its exceed- 
ingly beautiful antique porch and its dreadful associations with the neighbouring 
prison; and> lastly, St. James, Westminster^ where Wren has exhibited the niost 
consummate union of beauty and fitness in the interior, and, as a kind of practical 
antithesis, left the exterior destitute of these or any other valuable qualities. 
The church was founded, chiefly through the agency of the Earl of St. Albans, 
as a chapel of ease to St. Martin's during the latter part of Charleses reign, but 
made parochial in the reign of Charles's successor, James. There are maof 
features of the interior that will repay the visitor's attention, but more particu- 
larly the marble font, carved by Gibbons, an exquisite specimen of art ^^ 
support of the basin consists of the trunk of the tree of knowledge, with the 
branches and foliage of which it is partially covered, and by the side of the tree 

« < 

Londinum Redivivum,* v. iii. p. 444. 


are two of the most gracefully scalptured figures that can be well conceived^ repre- 
senting Eve offering to Adam the apple. In this church was buried the footman, 
bookseller, and poet, Dodsley. 

In the last class of Wren's churches that we have to notice, the Domed, the 
genius of the architect shines out more clearly than in either of the others, as 
being works of greater pretension than the one class, and not, like the other (the 
Basilical), apt to suggest by its form thoughts of the still more beautiful, ancient 
style that they superseded. At the head of this division stands the far*famed St. 
Stephen's, Walbrook, into the interior of which no one can have ever entered for 
the first time without obtaining a higher opinion even of the architect of St. 
PauVs. Proportion, harmony, and repose are its pervading characteristics ; and, 
with one exception — the walls left almost in their primitive nakedness — ^he seems 
to have felt the influence of his own beautiful work lead him into a greater 
degree of delicacy in all the subordinate features of decoration to harmonise 
therewith, than is usual with him. Hence the perfect effect produced. Hence 
the opinions of one of our most accomplished architectural critics, that all 
things considered its equal in its style is not to be found in Europe : hence 
the observation, " Had the materials and volume been so durable and exten- 
sive as those of St. Paul's Cathedral, Sir Christopher Wren had consum- 
mated a much more efficient monument to his wcll-camed fame, than that 
fabric affords."* The dimensions of St. Stephen*s are only 82 feet 6 inches from 
cast to west, within the walls, and 59 feet 6 inches from north to south, the 
ground plan forming therefore nearly a parallelogram. Of the incidental features 
of the church, the most remarkable is West's picture of the death of St. Stephen, 
which is placed against (thereby concealing) the central eastern window. The 
exterior, as usual. Wren has treated as though scarcely condescending to notice 
its existence ; till the aspiring steeple attracts his regard, when he puts forth his 
strength, and makes it his own. St. Benet Fink, with its external walls in the 
form of a decagon, and worthy of notice if it be only for the ingenuity exhibited 
in the conquest over the difficulties attending a confined and irregular position, 
is another church of this class ; as are also St. Swithin's, Cannon Street, with the 
oldest piece of metropolitan antiquity, the well-known London stone, let into its 
exterior walls, and St. Antholin*s, or Anthony's ; neither of which, however, require 
any more particular architectural notice. Near to the last-mentioned building, 
the Scottish commissioners were located during their residence in London just 
before the outbreak of the Civil War, and there was a passage from the house 
into the gallery of the church ; the minister of which was a Puritan. " This 
benefit," says Clarendon, " was well foreseen on all sides in the accommodation, 
and this church assigned to them for their own devotions, where one of their own 
chaplains still preached, amongst which Alexander Henderson was the chief. 

To hear these sermons there was so great a conflux and resort by the 

citizens, out of humour and faction, by others of all qualities out of curiosity, by 
some that they might the better justify the contempt they had of them, that from 
the first appearance of day in the morning of every Sunday to the shutting in of 

* Bilttim aud Pugint Illuttrations of tiia Public Builtii»gs of Loiidoti. 

190 LONDOW. 

the light the church was never empty ; they (especially the women) who had the 
happiness to get into the church in the morning (they who could not hung upon 
or about the windows without, to be auditors or spectators) keeping the places 
till the aflemoon exercises were finished.'* The noble historian, whilst covertly 
satirising the folly or credulity or ** faction/' that could alone in his opinion bring 
such assemblages together, tells us something that requires still greater faith or 
absurdity to believe, namely, that the service was flat and insipid : a cause un- 
likely to produce such effects ; incredible, if we consider the fiery fanaticism 
which every where characterised the parties in question. But taste is often made 
the scapegoat of opinion. The Cavaliers, whose opinion Clarendon has here most 
probably perpetuated, would of course like the men as men very little, their busi- 
ness in London less (to negotiate a treaty with their monarch, backed by an irresist- 
ible army in the northern counties), their increasing intimacy with the English 
reformers, religious and political, least of all ; for it was tolerably evident by this 
time that in the forthcoming struggle the Scotch would play an important part, 
and very possibly have the power in their hands to turn the scale decidedly in 
favour of king or people. Apart from the novelty (a most refreshing one to 
many) of seeing and sharing in a more simple mode of worship than had been 
permitted since Laud's ascendancy (of whose proceedings the consecration of 
Katharine Cree in our last number offers a striking example), this no doubt was 
the origin of such assemblages. To the English reformers it was all but a matter 
of life and death the part these men at St. Antholin's would take. Strafford*s 
trial was pending. Laud had been just arrested, the tide of the revolution was 
rolling on, but as yet with a force which the King might possibly be able to con- 
tend with successfully ; we may imagine, then, the importance of that array on 
the frontiers, of that declaration made by one of the commissioners, Baillie, 
respecting the negotiations, which, said he. '* we will make long or short accord- 
ing as the necessities of our good friends in England require, for they are still in 
that fray, that if we and our army were gone they were yet undone." In the 
church of St. Mildred, Bread Street, which is small^ without columns, but beau- 
tiful from the elegance of the arches which support the dome, and of the cornice 
of the latter, we meet with a later reminiscence of the Civil War in connexion 
with the memorial of Sir T. Crisp, which refers to the exertions of his father. 
Sir Nicholas Crisp, in the royal cause, involving, it is stated, losses exceeding in 
amount 100,000{. ; ''but this was repaired in some measure by King Charles XL :** 
a fact that should never be forgotten, since there are so very few of the kind in 
the history of the " merry monarch." The Sir Nicholas Crisp referred to was a 
wealthy merchant of London, who had been driven from thence by a parlia- 
mentary prosecution, and joined the King at Oxford. He is said to have been 
Charles' chief agent for the receipt of foreign succours, as well as the manager 
of no inconsiderable part of a similar business at home. Whilst the King was in 
the lines at Oxford, Crisp was most indefatigable in his vocation, a perfect 
Proteus in the shapes he assumed to elude the inquiries or interference of the 
parliamentarians : one day he was to be seen as a porter, with a basket offish on 
his head, watching the arrival of vessels ; the next, as a mounted butter-woman 
between her panniers, on the road to head-quarters. In 1643 he set on foot a 


plot to secure a large body of secret adherents in the metropolis, ready at any 
time to start into sudden activity^ by obtaining from the King a commission of 
array^ which Crisp was to fill up with the proper names. The plan was, however, 
discovered by Parliament, about the same time that it discovered the poet Wal- 
ler s, and the two not unnaturally became intimately blended together in the 
minds of the people. The only remaining churches that we shall notice are those 
of Mary Abchurch, and Mary at UilL The former exhibits in the interior a 
large and handsome dome supported on a medallion cornice, and is adorned with 
paintings by Sir James Thornhill, according to Mr. Britton, whilst, in the Pic- 
torial England, Isaac Fuller, one of the indigenous scholars of the Vcrrio school, 
is mentioned as the painter. The Corinthian altar-piece is decorated by some of the 
finest carvings of the finest of masters in the art. Gibbons, whose name we have 
had occasion to mention so frequently in connexion with the churches of London, 
that one cannot help wondering where he found time to execute his manifold com- 
missions. The delicacy of the carvings of St. Mary Abchurch reminds one of the 
story of the pot of flowers carved by the same artist whilst living in Belle Sauvagc 
court, " which shook surprisingly with the motion of the coaches that passed by.** 
St. Mary at Hill we mention not so much for the sake of the architecture of the 
present structure, as for the opportunity of giving another illustration from the 
history of the former of the magnificence of the old churches of the metropolis. 
St. Mary's had no less than seven altars, each with its chantry priest regularly 
and permanently attached, and three brotherhoods, comprising of course a still 
larger number of religious, lliis gives us a pretty fair glimpse of the magni- 
tude of the former establishment of St. Mary ; the inventory of the apparel for 
the high altar, only, with the date 1485-6, gives us more than a glimpse of its 
splendour. It occupies great part of three quarto pages in Malcolm, and includes 
such items as altar cloths of russet cloth of gold ; curtains of russet sarsenet, 
fringed with silk ; a eomplcte priest*s '' suit of red satin, fringed with gold,** 
which comprised, it appears, three copes, two chasubles, two albs, two stoles, 
two '' amytts," three fanons, and two girdles ;* another suit, of white cloth of 
gold ; a third, of red cloth of Lncchese gold ; vestments of red satin, em- 
broidered with lions of gold, and of black velvet, powdered with lambs, moons, 
and stars ; canopies of blue cloth of bawdekin, with " birds of flour in gold,*' and 
of red silk with green branches and white flowers, powdered with swans of gold 
between the branches ; copes, streamers, and mitres, for the boy-bishop and his 
followers " at Saint Nicholas tide.'* How inadequate, after all, are the most 
glowing descriptions of our romancists to convey to us a sufficient idea of the 
scenes that must have been presented in our ecclesiastical buildings four or 
five centuries ago I 

The costs of erection of Wren*s churches of course varied greatly in accordance 
with their great differences in plan and amount of decoration. Some were 
built for less than 2500Z., as those of St. Anne Aldersgate Street, St. Matthew 
Friday Street, and St. Nicholas Cole Abbey ; many for about 5000/. or 6000/., 

* The amice was an under gaiment, over which wai worn first the alb like a robe or surplice, then the girdle 
tttd stole ; the fanon or maniple was a towel held by the priest during mass ; the chasuble was a kind of smaller 

192 LONDON. 

among which may be enumerated St. Bartholomew, St. Peter Comhill, and Si 
£dmund the King ; whilst three, St. Bride, Christ Church, and St. Lawrence 
Jewry, cost nearly 12,000/., and one. Bow, above 16,400^ In contrast with these 
last four stands the most beautifnl of all Wren's ecclesiastical structures, St 
Stephen's Walbrook, which was erected for 7652/. 13j. ; a significant proof hov 
little the true architect's fame need depend upon the mere amount of funds st 
his disposal — upon the extent of space he has to cover — the quantity of brick or 
stone to pile. 

. [Si. UuT'i. BoDtbwuk,] 


No. III. — Modern Chdrches. 

If it were Wren's ambition to found a school of ecclesiastical architeettire in 
England, as well as to distinguish himself practically as an architect, be was not 
only successful, but lived long enough to enjoy that success personally in wit- 
nessing the two most eminent of his successors follow in the path he had marked 
out. Despising the Gothic ' crinkle cranklc' as much as Wren himself, and having 
u little feeling for the simple elegance of the Greek, Gibbs and Hawksmoor (the 
latter Wren's pupil), went to the same sources of inspiration as the architect of 
St. Paul's, namely, the works of the Italian artists, who revived the Roman 
school of architecture ; butvho in so doing, whilst aS'ecting the severest strict- 
ness in following its rules, sadly overlooked its spirit. The desire for the 
magnificent which formed an essential part of the character of the Roman people, 
and which had led them to alter, to adapt, and to extend the architectural prin- 
ciples they had derived from Greece, and, in many points at least, with the most 
signal success, became, too frequently, an almost insane passion with their Italian 
descendants, to which all higher qualities were sacrificed, through nhich all per- 
ception was dimmed of the elements that had combined to the construction of the 
great works of antiquity, making them, at once and for ever, consummately grand 
and beautiful. With what zeal were the ancient writers studied whilst the 
VOL. v. o 

194 LONDON, 

buildings from which they had drawn their precepts were left to moulder in 
unregarded oblivion, or examined only to support pre-conceived theories ! With 
what precision was every feature of every order systematized, whilst the uses of 
the orders were left to individual taste or caprice ! With what eloquence was the 
purity of the Doric and Tuscan, and Ionic and Corinthian, expatiated upon, 
whilst building after building was being erected, apparently but to show how far 
and farther still corruption could be carried ! Great differences prevailed, of 
course, between the architects of this class ; some of them, whilst avoiding the 
worst features of debasement, were enabled through the originality of their minds 
to shed a glory over their productions, that made the eye at once less capable of, 
and less inclined to measure accurately the latent defects of the style : pre-emi- 
nent among these was Palladio in Italy; to their numbers also belong Inigo 
Jones and Wren in England, and perhaps, though in a much more limited 
degree, Wren^s immediate successors, the architects before mentioned. The 
splendour of Palladio*s reputation shows how popular the Italian-Roman style 
became among his countrymen, and its introduction into England by Jones, 
and more extensive diffusion as well as higher developement by Wren, was 
marked by an equally brilliant reception : as well it might be, when it gave us 
such works as the Banqueting House, St. Paul's^ and St. Stephen's, Walbrook, 
the majestic grandeur of the two first, and the strikingly harmonious combina- 
tions of the last, enhanced by their being seen through the most delusive and 
enchanting of all atmospheres — that of novelty. Well, two centuries have 
passed since the erection of the first of these buildings, and — the style has passed 
too. Of all the churches (to refer only to such works) built in London, during 
its prevalence^ how few are there that now possess any higher claims to notice 
than those derived from their pointing the moral and adorning the tale of this 
somewhat remarkable phase in the history of English architecture ! 

Never was time more propitious for an artistical revolution than that which 
witnessed the growth of the style in question among us. With one stroke, as it 
were, of the parliamentary pen, fifty new churches were ordered to be built in 
consequence of the destruction caused by the fire ; and when these were erected, 
and Wren had developed his views, fifty more were determined upon by the 
same authority, thereby presenting a similar opportunity for the development of 
the views of his successors. We refer to the Act passed in the 10th year of the 
reign of Queen Anne, having for one |of its objects, to remedy the insuffi- 
ciency of accommodation afforded by the churches of London and the vicinity ; 
and for another, as we learn from the commission subsequently issued to 
regulate the necessary proceedings, the '' redressing the inconvenience and 
growing mischiefs which resulted from the increase of Dissenters and Popery.** 
The expense was to be defrayed by a small duty on coals brought into the 
port of London, for a certain period. We may here observe in passing, that 
the intentions of this Act, as regards the number of structures to be built, 
were but very imperfectly carried out. And now, as to the men who were 
to avail themselves of the magnificent field opened to their exertions. James 
Gibbs was bom about 1674, and educated at Aberdeen, where he took the 
degree of Master of Arts. In his twentieth year he visited Holland, and 
entered into the service of an architect. In 1700, through the advice and 


by the assistance of (ko Earl of Mar, his couDtrymaa and patron, he went to 
Italy, and studied for ten years. He then returned to England, to (lad the 
Earl of Mar in the ministry, at once able and willing to obtain employment 
for him from the Church Commissioners. The first stone of St. Mary's in the 
Strand was laid in 1714, the steeple finished in 1717, and the whole conse- 
crated in 1723. As this — the first of Gibbs's ecclesiastical structures, has 
already been noticed in our pages,* and as he greatly improved upon it in 
his second, it will be su£Scient here to describe the latter — St. Martin's in the 
Fields, the building on which Gibbs's fame chiefly rests — that fane, according 
to the poet Savage, who expressed only the general opinion of his time — ' 
" Where God delights to dwell, and man to pruse." 

St. Martin's was finished in 1726 at an expense of 37,000/. The chief feature 
of the exterior, the portico, needs neither description nor eulogy, it is so uni- 
versally known and admired. How much of that admiration has been owing to our 
want of familiarity with the Roman originals (the Corinthian order, the one here 
used, we need hardly observe, was one of the results of the adaptation by Bome 

"The Straml,' No. XXXV. p. 146. 

196 LONDON. 

of the architecture of Greece), and how much to its intrinsic merits, is not how- 
ever now so easy a question to decide as it once seemed. We have already learnt 
to feel the entire unfitness of its arched windows and doors, for the position they 
occupy ; and still more^ the discordance between the portico and the building to 
which it is attached. Could it be possible to devise windows either less beauti- 
ful in themselves, or more preposterously unfit for the exquisitely elegant 
columns and pilasters, so lavishly bestowed over the whole edifice, than those we 
see here, stretching along each side their double lines of ugliness? The steeple 
again, though exceedingly stately and elegant in its form, harmonises little 
better with the classical portico ; and in the opinion of architects has another 
serious fault — instead of rising directly from the ground, it appears elevated 
above the roof. The interior presents an arched roof, supported by Corinthian 
columns, and in its general eifcct may deserve the commendation bestowed upon 
it, as '' a perfect picture of architectural beauty/'^ but if you examine the details 
with a more critical eye, you are reminded in every direction of Walpole^s severer 
judgment, '* In all is wanting that harmonious simplicity that speaks a genius.'* 
Columns are cut by galleries which appear to have helped the artist out of a 
difiiculty by consenting to stand without support, the entablature is broken into 
bits, and the very profusion of decoration on the ceiling becomes an error^ if yon 
contrast it with the neighbouring parts that seem, in their comparative naked- 
ness, to have been sacrificed in consequence. Although a very ancient foundation, 
and the parent of three or four others^ St. Martin's has no particular features 
of interest in its earlier history ; of the later, the most noticeable is the list of 
notorious or eminent persons buried within its precincts. The frail, but warm- 
hearted Nell Gwynn^ is among the number, who left the ringers a sum of money 
for their weekly entertainment. In the vaults under the church lies Mrs. Cent- 
livre, the dramatic writer, and in the churchyard Soubiliac, the great sculptor, 
who died in 1762, and whose funeral was attended by Hogarth and Reynolds. 
C. Dibdin was interred in the burial ground belonging to this church, at Camden 
Town ; a man who, had he rendered a tithe of the services actually performed 
by him to the naval strength of his country, under the name of a captain instead 
of that of a writer, would have died a wealthy peer, but, as it was, drew his last 
breath in poverty. 

Hawksmoor commenced operations about the same time as Gibbs, and with 
his best work, St. Mary Woolnoth, which was finished in 1719. The exterior 
exhibits both his faults and excellences : it has something of the heaviness which 
characterised him and his great associate in various structures (Yanbrugh), bat 
has also the air of magnificence that belongs to both, with something like har- 
monious simplicity of decoration. The interior is sumptuously beautiful, though 
injured, as may be seen in our view, by the pews ; the galleries also interfere 
with the classical simplicity and harmony of the plan. If the Italian-Bomsn 
school in England had advanced from works like this, instead of steadily retreat- 
ing as if alarmed at its own success, wo should have had possibly a very different 
fate to record in connection with it in these pages. But when Hawksmoor him- 
self set the example, what else was to be expected of the herd who were to follow? 

* Allan Canninghiixi* 


[tBlnicr cr SL Uu? WodIbikIi, LomtaM Btnri.] 

His next church, St. Aone's, Limehouie, finiBhed in 1824, presents all his worst 
qualities with scarcely any of his best; tslce away the indescribable circular 
porch, and the massive tower, with the equally indescribable collection of small 
obelisks placed by him upon the top, and the whole might be aptly designated 
by the word prison. The interior, on the contrary, is very splendid as regards 
the amount of decoration, but still worse in style from the confusion of the 
orders there used. If the architect had intended the minister occasionally to 
give his congregation a lesson on architecture, we could understand, the pro* 
priety of the examples of composite columns, Ionic and Corinthian pillars, and 
Tuscan arches scattered about ; as it is, we can but wonder that St. Anne's, 
Limehouse, and St. Mary Woolnoth, are by the same man. His next work, 
St. George's Ciiurch, was in the same neighbourhood, and, we suppose, sulTered 
from the same influences, whether of locality or otherwise ; of this we can only 
say that the most effective idea about it is the octagonal lantern on the top 
of the tower, which is surrounded by a series of square pillars, with round tops, 
presenting the exact appearance of so many cannons levelled against the 
sky. We must not forget to add one or two of the richest points about 
the erection of these buildings ; so far from treating the commissions with 
neglect, as might be supposed from the unsatisfactory result, it appears that 
Hawkimoor was studiously imitating Vanbrugh in his designs for them ; and 
better still, that according to Malcolm, St. George's is the product of the 
united genius of the firo great men, Gibbs and Hawksmoor : the estimate, he 
says, was given in their names to the Commissioners. And what may it be sup- 

198 LONDON. 

posed was the amount actually expended (which considerably exceeded the 
estimate) ? Why, 18,557/. 3^. 3d,, or in rough terms, three thousand pounds 
more than the most expensive of Wren's churches. In St. George's, Blooms- 
bury, Hawksmoor made a material addition to his plans. Influenced pro- 
bably by the admiration excited by Gibbs' portico to St. Martin's, he de- 
termined to have one for St. George's, and, as might have reasonably been 
expected, improved upon it in some points ; it displays itself, for instance, 
better, from the height to which it is raised above the level of the street; 
though it is considered inferior in point of execution. But what shall be 
said of the heavy-looking body behind, or of the steeple, which one writer 
(Walpole) calls a masterpiece of absurdity, whilst others prefer it to any 
other in the metropolis, on the ground of its originality, picturesque form, and 
expressiveness 7 Neither the first quality nor the second can be denied ; but if 
by expression is meant the expression of something finely appropriate, a brief 
uncoloured description seems to us the best answer to the assertion. Upon the 
tower, which has an expression of majestic simplicity, rises a range of unattached 
Corinthian pillars and pediments, extending round the four sides of the steeple, 
with a kind of double base, ornamented in the lower division with a round hole 
on each side, and a curious little projecting arch at each angle : above this stage 
commences a series of steps, gradually narrowing, so as to assume a pyramidal 
appearance, the lowest of which are ornamented at the corners by lions and 
unicorns guarding the royal arms (the former with his tail and heels frisking in 
the air), and which support at the apex, on a short column, a statue, in Roman 
costume, of George I. Now the only expression apparent here to our eye, is, 
that the steps do certainly answer in one way the not unnatural query of how the 
King got to 80 uncommon and unaccountable a position. 

The other architects of the period in question, who rose into reputation or 
notice by their churches, are James, Archer, and Flitcroft. To the first we owe 
the aristocratic church of the most aristocratical of parishes, St. George's, Hanover 
Square, completed in 1724, or two years before St. Martin's ; a circumstance of some 
importance, when we consider that its portico is considered to be only surpassed 
by that of the church referred to. As to the interior, not only are all the 
orders there, but more we fear than either an antique Roman or Greek would be 
willing to recognise. It is, indeed, but too evident, that, with all the architects 
we have mentioned, in all their works, St. Mary Woolnoth alone excepted, they 
have been excellent in the exact proportion in which they have been least ori- 
ginal: their porticoes have chiefly made the fame of Gibbs, Hawksmoor, and 
James, which, at the best, we now learn from the highest authorities, are, in all 
their beauty, but imperfect imitations of their respective originals.* St. Luke's, 
Old Street, with its fluted obelisk for a spire, is another of James' works, erected 
in 1732. Archer's well-known production is St. John's church, Westminster, 
finished in 1728; and which, if it were possible to designate by any single phrase, 
it must be some such as — Architecture run mad. If one could imagine a collection 
of all the ordinary materials of a church in the last century, with an extraordinary 
profusion of decoration, of porticoes, and of towers, to have suddenly dropt down 

* Mr, Gwilt^ for instance, exprenly taya thtt3 of St Martin'f, whilst acknowledging it to be the beet we hate. 


from the skies^ and^ by some freak of Nature, to have fallen into a kind of order 
and harmony and fantastic grandeur^ — the four towers at the angles^ the porticoes 
at the ends and in the front, — it would give no very exaggerated idea of St John's. 
Vanbrugh, says Pennant, had the discredit of the pile. There is something 
refreshing in turning from such a specimen of originality to the soberer form and 
unpretending style of St. Giles in the Fields, with its tall and graceful spire. It 
is cnrioTis that this edifice, which has given to Flitcroft his reputation, should be 
attributed^ in the Report of the Church Commissioners to the House of Com- 
mons, to Hawksmoor, who, they say, expended 8605Z. Is. 2d, upon it ; but there 
is no doubt but Walpole, and the View, published in 1 753, are correct in ascrib- 
ing it to Flitcroft, who was probably employed by Gibbs, and not by the Com- 
missioners. The interior has an arched ceiling, supported by Ionic pillars, and is 
more than usually chaste and beautiful. The ' Resurrection Gate,' as the entrance 
at one comer of the churchyard is called, from the representation of that event 
seen on its upper portion, is of older date than the church, having been executed 
about 1687. The old church, to which it was then an adjunct, had in former times 
many rich monuments ; one, to Sir Roger L'Estrange, the well-known loyalist 
and writer, still remains. During the civil war Sir Roger had some narrow 
escapes : once he was condemned to be shot as a spy, but managed to get away 
from his place of confinement. Inconsistency in political writers is a spectacle 
we are not altogether unfamiliar with in our own times, but this worthy Knight 
has given us one of the oddest instances of the kind perhaps on record. After 
the Restoration he published a newspaper, called the 'Public Intelligencer,* 
in the very first number of which he thus explains his views of the nature of the 
agency he was setting on foot: — "I think," says he ''it makes the multitude too 
familiar with the actions and counsels of their superiors, too pragmatical and 
censorious, and gives them not only an itch but a kind of colourable right and 
license to be meddling with their government;'* therefore our acute logician 
hastens to give the multitude a fresh opportunity. A more distinguished sharer 
in the turbulent but sublime war of principles that has made the seventeenth 
century for ever memorable, Andrew Marvel, was also interred here — a man, in 
whose reputation the glory of the patriot has eclipsed the fine powers of the poet. 
St Giles also preserves the ashes of a truly great poet. Chapman, the trans- 
lator of Homer, as well as the author of an immense amount of original writings. 
One of the most curious things, perhaps, in the unwritten history of poets' 
opinions of each other, is Cowper's of Chapman. He had never seen the older 
poet's version till his own was far advanced, and, when he did see it, spoke of it 
with supreme contempt ! This is entertaining enough now, when Chapman's 
version has become almost universally recognised as that which alone gives 
us the true spirit and flavour of the blind old bard. But what a world of 
masterly epithets (Pope took care to borrow or imitate some of the best), of ex- 
quisite lines and passages, are there in Chapman in addition ! In that point, 
as well as in the other, Cowper's translation will not bear the comparison. Here 
is one line of the numberless lines that, once heard, there is no forgetting after- 
wards — 


And when the Lady of the light, the rosy-fingered Morn 
Awoke," &c. 

200 LONDON. 

in which poetry and music are truly and indissolubly * married.' Another of the 
illustrious has yet to be mentioned in connection with St. Giles, an artist whose 
works have raised him to the very highest pinnacle of European fame as a 
sculptor — a man whose life was but a counterpart of his works : each illustrating 
each. Flaxman was buried here on the 15th of December, 1826, his body ac- 
companied to the grave by the President and Council of the Royal Academy. 
For once, an inscription speaks simple truth : we read here, " Johp Flaxman, 
RA., P.S., whose mortal life was a constant preparation for • blessed immor* 
tality : his angelic spirit returned to the Divine Giver on the 7th of December, 
1826, in the seventy-second year of his age." There is a peculiarly interesting 
circumstance connected with his death, told by Allan Cunningham* in his ' Lives 
of the British Sculptors,** which we cannot resist the. temptation of transcribing. 
He says, " The winter had set in, and, as he was never a very early mover, a 
stranger found him rising one morning when he called about nine o'clock. ' Sir/ 
said the visitant, presenting a book as he spoke, ' this work was sent to me by 
the author, an Italian artist, to present to you, and at the same time to apologise 
for its extraordinary dedication. In truth, sir, it was so generally believed 
throughout Italy that you were dead, that my friend determined to show the 
world how much he esteemed your genius, and having this book ready for pub- 
lication, he has inscribed it ' Al Ombra di Flaxman.' No sooner was the book 
published than the story of your death was contradicted, and the author, affected 
by his mistake, which nevertheless he rejoices at, begs you will receive his work 
and his apology.' Flaxman smiled, and accepted the volume with unaffected 
modesty, and mentioned the circumstance, as curious, to his own family and some 
of his friends." This occurred on Saturday, the 2nd of December, when he was 
well and cheerful ; the next day he was taken suddenly ill with cold, and on the 
7th was dead. The ground on which St. Giles's stands was formerly occupied 
by a hospital, founded by Matilda, wife of Henry I., for lepers ; and it was in 
front of this hospital that Sir John Oldcastle, Lord Cobham, was so savagely 
burnt, during the reign of Henry V., his early friend. The phrase ' St. Giles's 
Bowl ' will remind many of the custom that formerly prevailed here of giving 
every malefactor on his way to Tyburn a bowl of ale, as his last worldly draught 
As to the host of other churches that arose during the same or a little later 
period, it were useless to enter into any architectural details. Eternal imitations 
apparent through eternal attempts at originality are their chief characteristics 
where the architects had any ambition ; where they had not, their churches sank 
even below contempt, built as they mostly were in a style requiring splendour of 
decoration and harmonious combinations of form as its essentially redeeming 
features : qualities that the masters in the school alone could give. So we shall 
merely notice such of them as present any other features of moment. In St. 
Botolph's, Bishopsgate Street, the architecture of which, and of an extensive 
similar class, seems to us best described as of the puffy cherubim with wings 
order (so favourite a species of decoration is that feature, and so completely does 
it harmonise, in its way, with all around), lies buried, with a monument preserved 
from the old church, Sir Peter Paul Pindar, the inhabitant of the neighbouring 

• Page 359. 


house in Btshop&gat^ Street^ where we have still preserved a most rich and 
unique specimen of the ancient domestic architecture of the metropolis. Sir 
Peter was one of the wealthiest, and, it is pleasant to add, one of the most muni- 
£cent*minded men of his time : his splendid benefactions to Old St. PauVs will^ 
no doubt, be recollected by our readers. Many instances of the same spirit in 
lesser matters may be found in the books of the parish. One of the most amusing 
is the pasty ^a yearly gift; apparently) which he gave to the parishioners in 1634; 
we may judge of its size when we find that 19^. ld> was paid for the mere ''flour, 
butter, pepper, eggs, making, and baking." We may add, from the same books, 
another notice to those already given in our preceding articles, of the pleasant 
way in which parish affairs were formerly managed. In 1578, we find, ''paid for 
frankincense and flowers, when the Chancellor sate with us,'* Ws. In the church- 
yard there is a tomb inscribed with Persian characters, of which Stow gives the 
following account: "August 10, 1626. In Petty France [a part of the cemetery 
unconsecrated], out of Christian burial, was buried Hodges Shaughsware, a 
Persian merchant, who with his son came over with the Persian ambassador, and 
was buried by his own son, who read certain prayers, and used other ceremonies, 
according to the custom of their own country, morning and evening, for a whole 
month after the burial ; for whom is set up, at the charge of his son, a tomb of 
stone with certain Persian characters thereon : the exposition thus — This grave 
is made for Hodges Shaughsware, the chiefest servant to the King of Persia for 
the space of 20 years, who came from the King of Persia and died in his service. 
If any Persian cometh out of that country, let him read this and a prayer for 
him, the Ijord receive his soul, for here lieth Maghmote Shaughsware, who was born 
in the town Novoy, in Persia.'*'*' There is something affecting in the allusion to a 
chance visitor from the far-distant country ; — one of those touches of nature that 
make the wide world kin, — a desire on the part of the bereaved son to find 
some chance — even the remotest — that his father's ashes should be hallowed 
by human sympathy. In the churchyard of St. George, in the Borough, re- 
built 1731, lies Bishop Bonner, who died in the neighbouring prison of the 
Marshalsea in 1569, whither he was committed by Elizabeth for his refusal 
to take the oath of supremacy. An anecdote is told of him, at the period of his 
committal, which shows his temper in a more favourable light than his public 
conduct would lead us to anticipate. On his way to the prison, one called out 
" The Lord confound or else turn thy heart !" Bonner coolly replied, *' The 
Lord send thee to keep thy breath to cool thy porridge." To another, who in- 
sulted him on his deprivation from the episcopal rank, he could even be witty. 
"Good morrow. Bishop jMone/aw," was the attack: "Farewell, knave semper,'' 
was the reply. Shorcditch was rebuilt about 1731 by the elder Dance; St. 
Botolph's, Aldgate, originally given by the descendants of the thirteen knights 
forming the Knighten Guild to the Priory of Trinity, in 1741 ; St. Mary,. White- 
chapel, in 1 764 ; and St. Alphage or Elphege, one of the churches that escaped 
the fire, in 1 777. The porch of St. Alphage, with its sculptured heads and 
. pointed arches, is, however, no production of the eighteenth century, but a rem- 
nant of the old Elsing Priory. Among the registers of this church we find a 

* Stow, « Surrey; ed. 1683, p. 173. 

202 LONDON* 

record of those that have certified they have been touched by his Majesty for the 
evil, an occupation that must have accorded but ill with the other modes adopted 
for the disposal of time by Charles II. But the number of persons thus operated 
upon is not the least extraordinary part of the affair; about forty in this one 
parish in the course of a few years : multiply this by any reasonable number that 
shall be thought sufficient to include all the other parishes of England in pro- 
portion to their size and distance, and the product is startling. No^wonder that 
it became necessary to regulate such proceedings by public proclamation, or 
Charles would have found that, in his willingness to affect the saint, he would be 
leaving himself no time to practise the sinner. The following bears date May 
18| 1664 : ''His sacred Majesty having declared it to be his royal will and pur- 
pose to continue the healing of his people for the evil during the month of May, 
and then g^ve over till Michaelmas next, I am commanded to give notice thereof, 
that the people may not come up to the town in the interim and lose their 
labour.'* The foundation of this church, like that of the old church at Greenwich, 
was probably intended to mark the public feeling as to the memorable event 
that closed the personal history of St. Elphege. At the time Canterbury w^ be- 
sieged by the Danes under Thurkill, in 1011, he was archbishop, and distinguished 
himself by the courage with which he defended that city for twenty days against 
their assaults. Treachery, however, then opened the gates, and Elphege having 
been made prisoner was loaded with chains, and treated with the greatest severity 
in order to make him follow the example of his worthless sovereign Ethelred, 
and purchase an ignominious liberty by gold. Greenwich at that time formed 
the Danish head-quarters, whither the archbishop was conveyed. Here he was 
tempted by the offer of a lower rate of ransom ; again and again was he urged 
to yield by every kind of threat and solicitation: "You press me in vain," was 
the noble Saxon*s reply ; " I am not the man to provide Christian flesh for 
Pagan teeth, by robbing my poor countrymen to enrich their enemies." At last, 
the patience of the Danes was worn out : so one day (the 19th of April, 1012) 
they sent for him to a banquet, when their blood was inflamed by wine, and on 
his appearance saluted him with tumultuous cries of '' Gold ! gold ! Bishop, give 
us gold^ or thou shalt to-day become a public spectacle.*' Calm and unmoved, 
Elphege gazed on the circle of infuriate men, who hemmed him in, and who 
presently began to strike him with the flat sides of their battle-axes, and to fling 
at him the bones and horns of the oxen, that had been slain for the feast. And 
thus he would have been slowly murdered, but for one Thrum, a Danish soldier, 
who had been converted by Elphege, and who now in mercy smote him with the 
edge of his weapon, when he fell dead. A church was subsequently erected to 
his memory over the fatal spot, and another in Xiondon — ^probably at the same 
period — the church which led to this brief account of a very interesting historical 

After the erection of such of the fifty churches as were erected, and the re- 
building, as we have just seen, of some of the older ones, there was a remarkable 
pause : during the long period extending from the commencement of the reign 
of George III. down almost to its close there were not (including St. Alphage 
and St. Mary, Whitechapel) six churches erected in the metropolis. In an 
architectural point of view this was fortunate. The Italian-Roman school had 


been fairly put before tbe public^ and there required time to come to a right 
understanding of its comparative merits with the Gothic, which it superseded 
here, and the purer Grecian and Roman schools, on which it had raised itself 
at home. The general character of the numerous new churches that now meet 
us on every side in the metropolis, the growth of the last twenty-five years, speaks 
emphatically that the decision has been unfavourable. It was again fortunate 
that after sucli a period the more eminent architects who assumed the responsible 
position of erecting buildings that, from their very character as well as from 
their metropolitan position, should always be the best the state of the art can 
furnish, did not attempt originality, till they had purified their own and the public 
tastes, by familiarity with the long misunderstood and misused works of antiquity. 
There can be nothing more certain in art of any kind, than that every permanent 
advance must be based on a thorough appreciation of the excellence that has 
gone before. Invaluable, therefore, were the variety of buildings erected in the 
early part of the present century, in which the Grecian orders, the Doric and 
Ionic, were introduced ; though no doubt there was plenty of room for improve- 
ment in the mode of the introduction. It is in this light that the beautiful 
church of St. Pancras, New Road, appears with even greater interest than its 
exquisite columns and doors alone could give it. This was finished in 1822 ; the 
architects were Messrs. W. and H. Inwood, men who had evidently drunk deep 
at the undefiled well of Athenian architecture. Their building is an avowed 
imitation of the famous temple of Erechtheion at Athens, one of the most florid 
existing specimens of the Ionic order. Here we began to learn, for the first time, 
what absurdities had been committed under the shelter of g^eat names. The doors 
in the portico were now found to be an essential beauty of the latter, instead of 
standing out in barbarous discrepancy with it : but then they were very different 
doors from those of St. Martin's in the Fields, and St. George's, Bloomsbury, being, 
at the time of their introduction, perfectly unique in England for beauty. We 
now found, too^ that the Greeks had been able to erect a body to their fronts, not 
simply harmonising with, but so essentially forming apartofit, thatit is only won- 
derful they should ever have been divided. And how perfectly beautiful that body 
is, with its windows^ and sculptured band, and cornice, and rich antefixse studding 
as with fret-work the line of roof, and so finely relieved against the sky ! Other 
interesting features of the exterior are the two projecting porches at the eastern 
extremity of the north and south sides, also imitated from a building attached to 
one side only of the Athenian temple, and called the Pandrosium. This is sup- 
ported by caryatidal female figures, an exceedingly striking and expressive archi- 
tectural feature. The origin of the use of such figures is attributed, with great 
probability of correctness, to the custom that prevailed among the Athenian 
virgins, of carrying on their heads the sacred vessels used in their religious cere- 
monies. In the Pandrosium there were six figures, at St. Pancras there are but 
four on each range, and they form the chief exception to the general excellence 
of execution visible through all the details of the church. Here is a drawing of 
one of the original figures now forming a part of the invaluable treasures of the 
British Museum. Within each porch a large sarcophagus expresses its purpose 
—it is the entrance to the catacombs, which are very spacious. The steeple is 
imitated from another Grecian work, the Temple of Winds, at Athens, but 

[FfwU CWi-mUd Fi(iin ttm Uh : 

combiaes happily with the other parts of the exterior. Judging by analogy 
from the buildings of the last century, where it is really lurprising to 
observe how seldom it was attempted to have the Within and the Without 
in harmony of richness and decoration, we should be Httle prepared for 
the interior of St. Pancras; but the all - pervading feeling of the truest 
artists (with one noticeable exception in later times, the Gothic) that the 
world ever saw, is so powerfully impressed on their buildings, that beauty 
prepares you for beauty, and you arc never disappointed. The galleries of St. 
Pancras are, of course, the same as usual — however skilfully adapted to the 
building, — excrescences ; but the exquisite form of those columns that support 
them, give the eye plcasanter occupation than to dwell on defects, and when we 
learn their history we are not surprised ; they are taken from casts of the Elgin 
marbles. On the remaining features of interest in St. Pancras, the range of 
verd-anttque columns with bases and capitals of white marble (from the temple 
of Minerva) over the communion-table, the groand-glass windows with their 



richly-stained borders^ the pulpit and reading-desk, constructed, as we are told^ 
out of the celebrated Fairlop Oak, our space will not permit us to dwell. From 
the foregoing description our readers will be prepared to hear that the cost was 
considerable, namely, 76,679/. 7 J. Sd. Of the later works in the same style of 
architecture, the little chapel of St Mark, North Audley Street, finished in 
1828, deserves especial commendation for its departure from the frigid common- 
place imitations which most of these buildings ^exhibit. The chaste elegance of 
the still more recently erected building here shown, needs no eulogy. It is by 
Professor Hosking, of King's College. 


m.i I ^ 

1 I 

[Trinity Chtpoli Poplar.] 

There is one point of view in which these revolutions of taste that mark tho 
present and last two centuries, appear peculiarly striking. A nation, among its 
other priceless bequests to posterity, leaves a perfect system of architecture ; 
that system is taken up by another great nation, men of the highest intellectual 
power adapt it to their national views and habits, and add a second system 
scarcely less essentially original in any practical meaning of the word, to the 
world's artistical wealth. Now, is it not strange that after all the skill, learning, 
enthusiasm and treasure expended in altering, adapting, or improving these two 

306 LONDON. 

systems^ since the revival of arts and learning, that now^ in the nineteenth century, 
we are fain to go back (in that direction of the architectural compass) to those 
systems ; nay^ we seem not content to stop short with the Roman school, but, as 
if the very suspicion of adulteration was enough to repel us, go on to the ulti- 
mate point from which we started. And what but the same kind of movement 
is taking place still more energetically with the Gothic, which lay for the same 
period, under an infinitely deeper cloud? It was not simply misunderstood by 
professing admirers ; on the contrary, there were scarcely any who thought it 
worthy of admiration. The re-action of this sentiment must be remembered, 
when we look at the many, and ambitious works that have been erected in this 
style of late years. But after all allowance on this score, some of these buildings 
present satisfactory evidences of an approach towards a right appreciation on the 
parts of their architects^ of the principles of the wonderful buildings they have taken 
for their model. There has been but one truly dark age in England for architecture, 
and that is the period we have just emerged from : — emerged at least, if the expe- 
rience of that period with regard to the improvements upon the Roman and Grecian 
styles, be not thrown away upon the improvers or adapters of this with regard to 
the pointed. The best security against this danger will be the general diffusion 
among the people as well as among architects, of that appreciation we have referred 
to. We have reason, therefore, to congratulate ourselves upon the circumstance 
that so many new churches in the Gothic style have been recently built, as offering 
increased facilities for the study of the latter, and still more, that in the principal 
of these, purity rather than originality has been the architect's grand aim. Let 
us but thoroughly understand and enjoy that or any other style, and we may 
then safely attempt to advance whenever the right men are prepared to lead the 
way. Foremost among the structures calculated to forward these views, stands 
that which was also earliest in point of time in the present revival of pointed 
architecture in the metropolis — we allude to the New Church at Stepney, erected 
about 1822 by Mr. Walters, in an exceedingly chaste and beautiful style. This 
was followed by the still more magpaificent structure at Chelsea, St. Luke's, by Mr. 
Savage, with a tower at the west end 142 feet in height : this building was finished 
in 1824, or in the same year as that just object of universal ridicule, the church 
of All Souls, with its circular advanced tower, and cone spire, in Langham Place : 
a noticeable contrast. St. Katherine*s, Regent's Park, consists of two portions, 
the buildings for residence, which are in the old English domestic style, and the 
chapel, which is pointed ; the whole however harmonise^ and at the same time 
express very happily the character of the pile bb the home of a once religious 
community. St. Katherine's forms a remarkable exception to the rule for the 
dissolution of religious houses ; a good fortune which it seems to have derived 
from its having been first founded by a Queen, Matilda, wife of Stephen, and 
then refounded by Elinor, widow of Henry III., who made it an especial appa- 
nage to the Queens of England. Philippa, wife of Edward, was also a great 
benefactress, as we are reminded by the excellent carvings of her head and the 
King's, still preserved with the ancient stalls they decorate, and the very curious 
old pulpit, in the chapel. There was formerly a Guild attached to St. Kathe- 
rine's, dedicated to St Barbara, of which great numbers of eminent persons were 
members; from Henry VIII. and his wife downwards. In the Hospital itself. 


VentegaD, the author oF the ' Restitution of Decayed Antiquities,' was bom, aad 
Raymond Lully wrote his Teslamentum Novissimum. Many distinguished persons 
were also buried in the old church or precincts. The only monument that re- 
mains is the Duke of Exeter's, 1447, vith the effigies of that nobleman and his 
two wives ; an interesting specimen of ancient monumental aculpture. In con- 
nexion with this memorial Mr. Braytey mentions a very disgraceful circumstance 
that occurred in the pulling down of the old church of St Katherine (for the 
erection of the docks to which it has given name) ; the tomb was opened and the 
remains dispersed ; the head, it appears, passed into the possession of the dock- 
surveyor. The estahlishment now consists, we believe, of a master, three brothers, 
three sisters, ten bedeswomen, a registrar, high bailiff, &c. Several other modem 
Gothic buildings deserve especial mention, which our space compels us to pass by ; 
of two of these we give engravings, namely, St. Peter's, Bankside, 1840, here 
shown, and St. Mary's, Southwark, 1842, placed at the beginning of our number. 

St. Dunstan's in the West demands a few additional words, if it be only for its 
past fame. Who does not remember its clock, and the clubmen who struck the 
hours and quarters on the bell suspended between them, and the eternal crowd 
of gazers on the opposite side of the street, waiting for the moment of action ? 
Yet not all their popularity saved them from being turned off with contumely 
at last ; fortunately thero was one man of taste to appreciate them, though that 
man were the tate Marquis of Hertford, to whose villa in Regent's Park, w© 
Relieve, they were removed. Old St. Dunstan's had a kind of literary reputation 
^ ; Mr. Brayley in his ' Londiniana,' gives us the title-pages of certain books, 
pablished about the beginning of the seventeenth century, as ' Epigrams by 
"■P.' ' News from Italy of t^ Se^nd Moses,' the 'Blazon of Jeidonsy,' &c.. 

208 LONDON. 

wliicli show that at least four different booksellers had shops in the churchyard, 
one of them " under the dial." The church was rebuilt about 1833, from the 
designs of Mr. Shaw, the architect of Christ's Hospital, who died, as we learn 
from a tablet over the entrance, on the r2th day after its completion. It must 
have been a satisfaction, even in the dying hour, to feci that such a work ittu 
completed. The tower, 130 feet high, is an exceedingly picturesque composi- 
tion, and the interior is no less distinguished for its general elegance of style and 
nchnesB of decoration. That the latest in point of time of the modero Gothic 
structures of London, which is in fact unGnisbed — we allude to Christ Church, 
Westminster — should also promise to be the most beautiful, may be received, 
we hope, as a sign of the progress we arc making in the grandest of the arts 
in its grandest form. 

(PiliidcKl Fml otlhn Hono Giurdf.] 


WiTSOUT flattery, the Horse Guards may be said to be one of the ugliett buildings 
in her Majesty's service. Barracks are rarely considered models of architectural 
beauty ; and it is questionable whether any barracks in the three kingdoms — 
even the monstrosity which disfigures Cdinburgh Castle-r-can equal in ugliness 
the Horse Guards. The National Qallery may bo admitted to hold rivalry in 
this respect with the OfiSces of Secretary at War and Commander-in-Chief; but 
as it was built by a British Academician^ for British Academicians, what else 
could be expected? 

The Horse Guards — that is, the building so called in familiar conversation — 
was built about the middle of last century by Vardy, after a design by Kent. 
That was a time when people in this country appear to have had a vague notion 
that there was a thing called architecture which was admired by those who under- 
stood it ; that Italian architecture, in particular, was highly esteemed ; and that 
in Italian architecture there were pavilions and cupolas, basements, and what not.' 
Such an age of ignorance and imbecility was precisely the one in which a bad 
copier of indifferent prints, like Kent, might pass himself off for an architect, 
and his copies for architectural designs. In justice to Vardy, it ought to be re- 
marked that his mason-work is well enough. But as for the architectural pre- 
tensions of the Horso Guards, the moss-grown buttresses of the Treasury look 
tike a Melrose Abbey beside it ; the Admiralty (bating the tcioen) and the Pay 

vol. T. P 

210 LONDON. 

Office arc mere houses, and pretend to be nothing more, so do not offend ; and 
even the pseudo-Hellenism of the Board of Trade looks respectable beside it. 
How ashamed Whitehall must feel of its neighbours ! 

After all, the Horse Guards is but a shell : it is what is going on within it» 
and the anxious hopes and fears of which it is the centre, and the wonder-working 
orders that have in times past issued from it^ that make us pause to regard it. 

Not but that there are attractions here for the most unreflecting sight-seer. 
Those two seemly troopers on their powerful chargers, who, with burnished 
cuirass and carbine on knee^ sit motionless as statues in the niches of the two 
overgrown sentry boxes for two hours on a stretch (they commence those 
sittings at ten a.m., and are relieved every two hours, until four p.m., when 
their sentry duties terminate for the day)^ are figures that can scarcely be 
passed without attracting a glance of admiration. And there is generally a numer- 
ous collection of blackguard boys> members of parliament, crossings-sweepers and 
out-of-office cabmen, occupants of stools in government offices, and orange* 
women — in short, of all the professional frequenters of this part of the town — 
collected to watch the rather striking ceremony of changing guard. The folding 
doors, in the rear of the stone sentry boxes aforesaid, are thrown open^ two 
cuirassed and helmeted heroes, on sleek snorting steeds that might bear a man 
through a summer-day's tourney or through a red field of battle without flagging, 
ride in, and, upon the philosophical principle that no two bodies can co-exist in 
the same space, push the living statues already there out in front, who, each de- 
scribing a semicircle, meet and ride side by side through the central gate, and so 
back to their stables. 

This Guard is part of the Queen's Guard, more especially so called from being 
mounted within the precincts of the palace. The movements of the Queen's 
Guard of the Household Brigade of Cavalry are regulated nominally by the 
" Gold Stick in Waiting *' (that is to say, by one of the Colonels of the two regi- 
ments of Life Guards and of the " Blues *'), but virtually by their Lieutenant 
Colonel, who is technically termed the " Silver Stick in Waiting," and who, as 
well as the Gold Stick, is relieved every alternate month. The movements of 
the Queen's Guard, belonging to the Household Infantry, are under the super- 
intendence of the " Field Officer in Waiting," who is always on duty at the Horse 
Guards. He also is on duty for a month, and relieved by the next of equal rank 
in order on the roll, which commences with the Grenadiers. 

The barracks in London where the Foot Guards are stationed are : — The Wel- 
lington Barracks, in the Bird-cage Walk; the Portman Street Barracks, in 
Portman Street ; the St. George's Barracks, Trafalgar Square ; St John's Wood 
Barracks ; Kensington Barracks (a small detachment) ; and a battalion in the 
Tower. The cavalry barracks are at Knightsbridge and the Begent*s Park. 
All orders concerning all the Guards in London are given out by the field-officer 
on duty at the Horse Guards. For example, should any of them be wanted on 
an emergency, the Commander-in-Chief communicates with him, and he arranges 
what regiment is to supply the detachment required. Of course, he makes his 
election in the order of the roster. 

The Guard commonly called the Queen's (or King's) Guard are — 1st. One 
Captain, one Lieutenant, and one Ensign at the Palace of St. James's, which 


is considered a sort of head quarters. 2nd. One subaltern at Buckingham 
House. 3rd. One Captain and two Subalterns at the Tilt Yard — for that 
name> associated with the stately tourneys of the ages of Elizabeth and 
Henry YIII.^ still survives^ — attached to the site of the Horse Guards. The 
officers in the Guards, it is well known, have rank in the army above what they 
hold in their regiments ; but when on duty among themselves, the subalterns^ that 
is, the Lieutenants and Ensigns, do all that appertains to those of the same 
nominal rank in regiments of the line. These three Guards supply the sentinels 
stationed at Buckingham and Storey's Gates, at the various Government Offices, 
at the entry from Spring Gardens into St. James's Park, at the Duke of York's 
Column, all round St. James's Palace, and about Buckingham House. 

The guard at St. James's is the only one that mounts always with the Queen's 
colours. At all other guards — even guards of honour, unless it be for a crowned 
head — ^they mount with the colours of the regiment. 

With the most showy and ceremonious mounting of a guard in England at 
St. James's Palace — with the less gorgeous but, perhaps, more imposing relief 
of the guard at the Horse Guards — ^with the close proximity of the Wellington 
and St George's Barracks — ^with the marching and countermarching of the 
guards drawn from the cavalry barracks — with the marching of the infantry 
from the barracks above-named to drill or inspection in Hyde Park, the precincts 
of the Palace afford, of a forenoon, the most stirring military spectacle (apart 
from a regular review), to be seen in the kingdom. Within and around this 
region, the Guards — foot and horse — are the characteristic features of the scene, 
tbe real genii loci — ^and fine-looking fellows they are. As to their accoutrements, 
a uniform must be judged less as it tells upon the individual soldier than as it 
tells en masse upon a large body of men. But even upon individuals, the uni- 
form of the Guards shows well. Somewhat ponderous and stiff they may be, but 
that bespeaks strength and discipline. The Blues too, in their enormous jack- 
boots, when seen sauntering along on foot, remind us in this of swans, or a 
kindred species of bird, that they are fine-looking creatures in their element, but 
belpless out of it. They contrast, however, most favourably with the fantastic 
frippery of hussars and lancer regiments. They are substantial and genuine 
English. One can imagine Marlborough and Ligonier viewing them com- 
placently : they are in keeping with the athletic image of Shaw, who with his 
own arm slaughtered so many Frenchmen at Waterloo. 

A soldier's is not an idle life, even in time of peace, whatever may be said to 
the contrary. His martial duties may appear trifling to those who know not the 
importance of keeping them a habit, but they consume much time and no little 
attention. Still, an officer in the Guards must, to a certain extent, be, while in 
London, a gay lounger. His position in society — the vicinities into which his 
duties carry him — keep him in close juxta-position with the gay world, and it is 
the easiest thing in nature, when he has but one spare moment^ to drop into 
the dissipations of fashion for that brief space. Still, in the dead season, the town 
most seem a desert to him, and banishment to the Tower^ a fate which he must 
he prepared to encounter at regular intervals, is tedium in the extreme. But 
he has his resources— the Guards' Club, and the dinners at St. James's and the 
Bank. - 


212 LONDON. 

Into the former we presume not to penetrate : a gentleman's club-honse is his 
home, where he is entitled to shut the door on all strangers and hint to those 
admitted — "sub rosa.*' The dinners may be said in a manner to be at JohnBulVs 
expense, and John thinks he has a right to know how his money is spent. He 
has no reason to complain on the present occasion. 

The subaltern at Buckingham Palace, the Captain and two Subalterns at the 
Horse Guards, and the Field Officer, Captain, and Subaltern at the head guard, 
dine together at St. Jameses. The Adjutant of the regiment which gives the guard 
dines with them if he feel disposed, and the Lieutenant Colonel has the privilege of 
inviting three friends. Any day on which he does not avail himself of this privi' 
lege, he gives it up to the other officers. Not belonging to the Leg of Mutton, 
or to the Noctes Ambrosianee, or to the Cervantes schools of literature, weconld 
at any time much more easily eat a good dinner than describe it ; the reader, 
therefore, must hold us excused. The Guards' dinners at St. James's are of 
ancient standing, and it is a shame that now-a-days^ when military men hare be- 
taken themselves to writing like their neighbours, none of their traditions hare 
been given to the public. It is a thousand pities Miss Burney was not a guards- 
man : the records of the mess would have furnished forth much more inspiring 
incidents than the Frau Schwellenberg*s dinners to the Equerries, at which " dear 
little '* Fanny presided as vice-bedchamber- woman. To Gilray are we indebted 
for the only peep into the symposia of the Guards at St. James's with which the 
public has been favoured ; and until some member of the corps takes up the pen 
to show that his predecessors could talk. Joke, and sing to the purpose, the corps 
must be contented to be judged by that caricature. 

The dinner at the Bank — but first a word of the Tower, " whither, at certain 
seasons, all the *' guards are conveyed to do penance for a time for their jun- 
kettings at the other end of the town. There is generally, as has already been 
remarked, a battalion on duty here. The officer locally in command is called 
the Governor, but his actual ^rank is that of Tower or Fort Major only. All 
orders applying to the Tower exclusively, or as a garrison, such as parade for 
divine service, &c., are given by the Fort Major ; but all other orders, such as 
the actual mounting of the guard, the Bank piquet, &c., come from the Field 
Officer on duty at the Horse Guards. The guard at the Tower is, as at the 
Palace, an officer's guard, and so is the piquet at the Bank, to which we now 

Dinner is provided by the Bank for the officer on guard there and two friends. 
A snug, plain, excellent dinner it is, brought daily from one of the best taverns 
in the neighbourhood. The store which the Guards set by this dinner- 
excellent though it be — speaks volumes for the ennui which broods over the 
period during which they are stationed at the iTower. Some time ago a regi- 
ment of the line was marched into the Tower, and the battalion of Guards 
withdrawn. All the other duties of the place were gladly and unreluctantly 
given up to the new-comers with the solitary exception of the inlying piquet 
at the Bank. The duty might have been given up, but to relinquish the 
dinner was impossible. And on this account, so long as the Tower remained 
denuded of the presence of the Guards, the Bank piquet, regularly detailed from 
the far West End, duly and daily threaded the crowded Strand, passed under 



Temple Bar^ jostled along Fleet Street^ scrambled up Ludgate Hill^ rounded 
St. Paul's^ and over Cheapside^ erst the scene of tournaments, charged home to 
the Bank of England. The cynosure of attraction to the weary sub on duty — 
the magnet which drew him to encounter this long and toilsome march« and 
worse, the incarceration of four-and*twenty mortal hours within the walls of the 
Bank, was not the ingots piled within these walls — his high spirit disdained 
them ; not the bright eyes of City maid or dame — these must now be sought in 
the suburbs ; it was the substantial savoury fare of the City — the genuine roast 
beef of Old England, and the City's ancient port, far surpassing the French 
cookery and French wines of St. James's. 

But rich and substantial though the feast provided for the red-coated dragon 
(as Mause Headrigg might have termed him), who guarded the golden fruit of 
their Hesperides, by the merchant princes of the Bank of England, its merits 
were heightened in the estimation of the young guardsmen by the circumstances 
under which it was eaten. After a dreary banishment to the Tower for months 
— after the weariest period of that dull service, the dreary day, spent within the 
walls of the Bank— it is easy to conceive the relief felt by a young soldier as 
his moodiness relaxed and opened under the influence of good fare and good wine, 
and the chat of two favourite companions. Engagements that might have 
looked common-place elsewhere, and under other circumstances, were Elysium 
there and then. What a moment was that, when the hour of shutting the gates 
approaching, his visitors must leave him ! The sweetest minute of the evening 
—he tasted it not in the bustle of leave taking, but, like all sweets approached to 
the mouth and withdrawn untasted,it lived for ever unchanged in remembrance. 
Such another moment is the five minutes before twelve at the St. James*s dinner, 
when the butler enters, and with sly unconsciousness announces the hour, and 
the decanters are sent hastily round (no '' black bottles " there), the glasses 
emptied and replenished, and a new supply ordered in — ^the last that can be 
issued from cellarage or butlery that night 

Amid the not unpleasing but somewhat monotonous hours of the life of an officer 
of the Guards on duty in London, these two dinners occupy a large space in his 
imagination. They are Uke the holidays to which a school-boy looks forward and 
backward ; great part of his year is made up of them. He dates from their 
recurrence. Only one other dinner has ever held the same place in the estimation 
of Ouardsmen — and its place was far higher. The Buke of York, when Com* 
mander-in^Chief, was frequently in the habit of dining at the Horse Guards on 
those days — and they were many — when he transacted business there. On such 
occasions it was his unvarying practice to invite the officer on guard to his table ; 
and it has been our lot to hear a veteran who has seen much of life — from the 
gay quarters of London to the plague-stricken sands of Egypt — speakrlong after- 
wards of these dinners as among the most pleasing recollections of his life. The 
Duke of York was not, like his eldest brother, " the first gentleman in Europe ** 
^he did not affect the society of wits, or shine himself in repartee^but he had 
a heart, and that was felt and acknowledged by every one who came into close 
connection with him. Spoiled he might be to some extent by his station — who 
would not ? Gromer he might be in his tastes— it was the family failing;. But 
he was kind to the last^ and had a strong sense of justice. As a leader in the 

214 LONDON. 

field, though personally brave, he did not shine ; but as Commander-in-Chief, 
as the organiser and upholder of an army in the Cabinet, England owes him a 
deep debt of gratitude. He was to the army what another Prince who bore the 
same title was, rather more than a century earlier, to the navy. 

According to Fielding, Mrs. Bennet apologised to Amelia for inviting Serjeant 
Atkinson to take a cup of tea with her, by alleging that a serjeant in the Guards 
was a gentleman. The non-commissioned officers^ and, we may say at the same 
time, the privates of these regiments retain the character to the present day. 
Bating his plundering and torturing propensities, Serjeant Bothwell, could he 
come alive again, would not find himself out of place among them. In former days, 
at Angelo*s Booms, we used to think the demeanour of the Household Cavalry 
quite as gentlemanly as some individuals of higher station, with whom they coiide« 
scended to play at single-stick, and in the Fives Court the fancy Guardsmen were 
decidedly more gentlemanly than* the pugilistic amateurs of rank. The British 
soldier of our days — and this remark is general, applicable to the whole army— is 
not a mere ignoramus. The regimental libraries have worked a wonderful change. 
We remember few more pleasant half*hours than one we spent in Mr. Constable's 
Miscellany warehouse in Edinburgh, listening to the comments of a committee of 
non-commissioned ofiicers, from a regiment stationed at Piershill Barracks, who 
had come to town to choose some additions to their library. A higher and more 
uniform tone pervades the ranks now than used to be the case. It is a gross 
mistake to imagine the British soldier the mere machine some Gallicised writers 
have been pleased to represent him. There lurks a g^eat deal of fallacy in what 
is said about the deterioration of the British soldier under " the cold shade of 
aristocracy.*' There are men by nature formed to take the direction, and others 
equally formed by nature to work out directions given to them. In the rudest 
state of society each class finds in time its proper place. Organised, civilised 
society is merely a condition in which the combination of two such different 
classes has long been recognised, and in which the persons qualified to belong to 
either drop into their places at once. A person bom with capacity for command 
will, in ordinary circumstances, either enter the army as an ofiicer, or, if he can- 
not accomplish this, choose some other profession. There is nothing necessarily 
low or mean in occupying the subordinate station. On the contrary, there are 
qualities required to enable a man to fill a subordinate station with perfect 
efiiciency, which, from the rarity of their occurrence, in a high degree lend an 
extraordinary value to them when they do occur. It is much more easy to fill a 
regiment with passable ensigns, lieutenants, and captains, than with good efficient 
non-commissioned officers. This is felt by the best commanding officers, and 
such men are valued in proportion. Consciousness of their own worth, inspiring 
a just pride in belonging to their class, makes them a kind of natural aristo- 
cracy. The good soldier is not without a legitimate field of ambition, and the 
peculiar chstracter of this field makes better soldiers than the vague dreaming 
prospect of becoming a Junot. Steele, in one of the best of hb Tatlers, illustrates 
the high spirit and honourable ambition of the British serjeant : Farquhar's Kite 
(an irregular man of genius) was even then the exception, not the rule. The 
privates and non-commissioned officers of the Guards share this honest ambition 
with the regiments of the line, and, with all due deference to the latter, their 


position as appendages to royalty gives them what Dr. 0*Toole might call, the 
*' top polish.'* Mrs. Bennet was right : a Serjeant in the Guards is a gentleman, 
and she at least proved the sincerity of her opinion by taking the Serjeant for a 
husband and becoming Mrs. Atkinson. 

But some people will have it that the Guards, one and all, are mere pampered 
loungers. Did they show themselves such at Waterloo? The truth is, that 
soldiers, like race-horses and fighting-cocks, are the better for being high fed and 
well dressed, or curry-combed. There is no greater delusion than that constant 
hard work and privation strengthen men against hardships. There is a certain 
limited time, during which human powers of exertion and endurance can be 
taxed without breaking down ; and the better condition a man is in at starting, 
the longer he will hold out. The morale, too, as Buonaparte used to say, is 
nine-tenths of the soldiers* strength ; and the morale of ill-fed, over-toiled men is 
always bad. There is a buoyancy of spirit about those who rush straightway 
from good, even luxurious, quarters to the field, that effects even more than their 
brawny frames. '' But HannibaFs army at Capua ! " Fudge ! The poor rascals 
were half rotten with toil and famine, and killed or sickened themselves by repletion. 
It was sheer good eating that carried the Guards rough-shod over Napoleon's crack 
Cuirassiers — red cloth and roast-beef, against steel cuirass and soupe-^maigre, car- 
ried the day. All Continental soldiers, who have ever measured bayonet or sabre 
with the British, know -that it is impossible to withstand the charge of our well- 
fed men and horses. It has often made us laugh to hear our German military 
firienda — ^brave, judicious men — arguing that English soldiers were too high-fed : 
it was impossible to keep either brute — ^the man or the beast — ^in hand. German 
troopers, and their steeds, were fed up to the right pitch— could be exercised 
among eggs without breaking one. They knew all the while that this martinet 
dexterity would be shivered in pieces the moment it came in contact with the 
ungovernable strength they affected to undervalue. This is the reason why, from 
the club-houses and saloons of St James's, and from the Fives* Court and other 
places of more equivocal resort, men and officers of |the Guards — ^men who had 
never seen a shot fired in anger— rushed straight to Waterloo and rode resist- 
less over the tough veterans of a hundred fights. " Gallant Frenchmen," the 
heroes of old " NuUi Secundus " might have said, '' not by us, but by our cook- 
shops, have ye been vanquished ! " 

Enough of this. But as the building we have now in hand is one of those of 
which " least said is soonest mended," we have preferred talking about its live 
stock. Its halls are occupied by persons who think themselves of more conse- 
quence, and might take it amiss if they were altogether passed over in silence. 
Here are the offices of the Commander-in-Chief, the Military Secretary, the 
Quarter-Master-General, and Secretary at War; in other words, here is the 
''local habitation " of those who wield the gallant army of Great Britain. 

Some time ago— a propos of the Admiralty — we had occasion to point out the 
admirable systematic arrangements which lurked under its apparent want of 
system. Looking to the Horse Guards^ we fear it must be admitted that the 
want of centralised authority is in the case of the army carried to an extreipe' 
The anny is an engine not yet so well understood and appreciated in England as 
the navy. It is younger by a good many years. The Guards of Charles II. 

216 LONDON. 

and Jaiaes II., that is to sajj the '^ Bluet/' no more desenre the name 
of an army than the " Ironsides *' of Old Noll* We have regiments which 
date from before the Bevolution, but no army* The army is not only of 
modem growth when compared with the navy, but it differs from that sturdy 
indigenous plant in being an acclimi^ised exotic They were foreign mon* 
archs — one Dutch and two Hanoverian kings — ^who made our army^ and they 
made it after foreign models. Raw materials for an army of the best quality 
are, and always have been, abundant in this countryi but these foreign artists 
were the first to work them ]up. And as, unfortunately for the art of war, this 
country has afforded few opportunities of experimental study since we had an 
army> most of our great solders have been obliged to practise on the Continent. 
The theory and practice of modem warfare has been developed by Frenchmen, 
Germans, and Italians. Our army is like our school of painting, — at this moment 
equal, if not superior, to any in Europe, but not of so natural a growth as in the 
continental states. Down to the beginning of the reign of George III., our great 
officers were as foreign as the cut of their uniforms. In short, the real British 
army is scarcely so old as its very modern head-quarters ; for the Ligoniers and 
Marquis of Granbys, who dated their general-orders from Knightsbridge Bar- 
racks,* we look upon as Hanoverian officers. Abercromby, with whom soldiers 
now aUve have shaken hands, was trained in this school ; he studied law and the 
humanities at Leipzig, and tactics (experimentally) in the Seven Years' War. 
This has been the main cause of scattering the fragments of military manage* 
ment through so many different departments of state, and producing such a con- 
fusion and contest of authorities as we shall now attempt to illustrate. The King 
and Parliament were always scrambling for the management *of the army, and 
with every new department added to make it more efficient, there was a toss up 
for which should have the control of it 

The Commander-in-Chief and the Master-General of the Ordnance have im- 
mediate and independent management of their respective portions of the armed 
force of the country. But, in addition to them, no less than six different depart* 
ments of government have various duties committed to them connected with the 
administration of military affairs. These are : — Ist, the Secretaries of State, 
more particularly the Secretaries for the Colonial and Home Departments; 
2nd, the Secretary at War ; 3rd, the Board of Ordnance ; 4th, the Commissariat 
department of the Treasury ; 5th, the Board of Audit ; 6th, the Commisnoners 
of Chelsea Hospital. We shall endeavour to point out as briefly as possible the 
peculiar functions of each of those classes of authorities, and the means by which 
80 many heterogeneous and independent functionaries are brought to work 
together with something like harmony and effect. * 

The point of view from which we must set out> and which, in order to thread 
our way through this labyrinth, we must keep constantly in mind, w, that the 
army belongs to the King. Parliament gives it to him, or rather, it every year 
gives him the means of maintaining it for a year, but here the power and right 
of Parliament to interfere with the management of the army stops. The whole 

* Not the bttmcks now known by tliat name, but the building at the opposite end of Knigbtslvidge^ od the 
oppoeHe ode of tfw mad, noir efleetually Kieened ftom public riew by Mr. Dumi^i Diioeie esMbition on one 
Btd0 and a new cbarch.on ^ other. 


power and control over the army is vetted in the Crown — that is« more espeeially 
Binee the Bevolution settlement of 1688 — ^in the King's governments ^presented 
in the Cafamet by the Secretaries of State. It is scarcely necessary^ except for 
the sake of distinctness^ to remind the reader that there was originally only 
one Secretary of State; and that though convenience first introduced 
the custom of having one Secretary who confined his attention exclusively 
to foreign, and another who confined himself to home affairs— -and although 
in 1758 a third Secretary* for the colcmies* was appointed, to divide the labour 
and responsibiUty* yet still* most of the functions of Secretary of State may be* 
and occasionally are* exercised indifferently by any one of the three. In point of 
fact, however, the* Secretary for Foreign Affairs never meddles with the war 
department — that is left to the Home and Colonial Secretaries. The military 
admmistration of the nation in all its political bearings is, in reality* vested in 
these two ministers. The Secretary of State for the Home Department has 
the control and management of all the militia and yeomanry, as well as the dis- 
posal of the troops of the line at home* and the Guards. According to the 
necessities of the ser?ice, he orders the army to be moved into a disturbed dis- 
trict ; he conveys his orders through the Quarter-Master-Oeneral to the general 
officers who are immediately under his guidance ; he informs them how they are 
to act in conjunction with the m^istracy, not only in cases of disturbances, but 
under any cases that may arise. He directs^ through the instrumentality of the 
Master-General of the Ordnance, forts to be built on the coast in time of war, or 
barracks in disturbed districts. The Secretary of State for the War department 
and Colonies has the command of the army abroad. In these weak piping times 
of peace he not only orders what proportion of troops shall be sent to each colony, 
but he approves of the appointment of the general officer who is to command 
them ; in short, he has the control over the army for all purposes of State policy. 
He may order a fort or battery to be built in any colony in consequence of its 
distorbed or exposed state. The offices of these wielders of the destinies of 
armies must be sought not here* but in Downing Street. 

The administration of the army under the Secretaries of State, or the Crown, 
whose representatives these ministers are, is entrusted to executive officers who 
are appointed to, and receive their orders directly from, the King or his Secre- 
taries. The finance of the army is kept rigidly separated from its discipline and 
promotion : the financial arrangements are the business of the Secretary at War ; 
the discipline and promotion* of the Commander-in-Chief as regards the House- 
hold Brigade, Cavalry and Line, and of the Master-General of the Ordnance. 
Two of these demi-gods of the army exercise their functions here. 

The financial arrangements of the army, as a system, the exclusive control over 
the public money voted for military purposes, rests with the Secretary at War, 
who transacts business at the Horse Guards. The office was established in 1666. 
Mr. Locke* the First Secretary at War, appointed in that year, was an officer de- 
tached from the Secretary of State's office. The Secretary at War has access to 
the Sovereign, and takes his orders from his Majesty direct. He prepares and 
submits the army estimates, and the annual mutiny bill to Parliament* and 
frames the articles of war. The expenditure of sums gpranted by Parliament for 
the exigencies of the army takes place by warrants on the Paymaster General^ 

218 : LONDON. 

signed by the Secretary at War. In every regiment there is a paymaster not 
appointed by, nor under the control of the Commander-in-ChieF, but under the 
control of the Secretary at War. The accounts of the regimental paymasters, 
and of other officers charged with the payment of other branches of the service, 
are examined and audited in the War Office. The insertion of aU military ap- 
pointments and promotions in the ' Gazette' pass through the Secretary at War, 
because they involve a pecuniary outlay, and he is the channel for obtaining the 
authority of the Secretary of State for issues of arms by the Ordnance when 
required by the military authorities. In concert with the Commander-in-Chief, 
and with consent of the Treasury, he may from time to time make alterations in 
the rates of pay, half-pay, allowances and pensions. By ancient usage the 
Secretary at War, aided by the Judge- Advocate-General, is, in the House of 
Commons, the mouth-piece of the Government to sustain any attack that may be 
made on the Commander-in-Chief or his office. 

The Commander-in-Chief has his office at the Horse Guards also. He, too, 
has access to the King, and may either receive orders direct from him or from the 
Secretary of State. He has always been held a simply executive, not a ministerial 
officer; for the officers of the army are extremely anxious to have nothing to do 
with the handling of money. The business of the Commander-in-Chiefs office is 
dispatched by an Adjutant-General and a Quarter-Master-General, with their 
subordinate functionaries. Both of these officers are appointed by the King on 
the recommendation of the Commander-in-Chief. The Adjutant-General has 
under him a Deputy Adjutant General, an Assistant and a Deputy Assistant 
Adjutant-General, appointed also by the King, and a number of clerks, mes- 
sengers, &c. appointed by himself. Everything relating to the effective or 
non-effective state of the troops ; to formation, instruction and discipline ; to the 
direction and inspection of the clothing and accoutrements of the army; to 
recruitments, leaves of absence ; to the employment of officers of the staff; and 
to ordinary or extraordinary returns relative to other matters, falls under his 
department All regulations and instructions to the army are published through 
this officer by direction of the Commander-in-Chief. The Adjutant-General 
prepares monthly, for the King and Commander in Chief, returns of the troops 
stationed in Great Britain or Ireland, and of the home and foreign force. The 
principal duties of the Quarter-Master-Geheral are, to prescribe routes and 
marches, to regulate the embarkation and disembarkation of troops, to provide 
quarters for them, to mark out ground proper for encampments, to execute mili- 
tary surveys, and to prepare plans and arrange dispositions for the defence of a 
territory^ whether such defence is to be effected by the troops alone or by means 
of field-works. Attached to the office of Quarter-Master-General of the Forces 
is a board of topography, with a depdt of maps, plans, and a library con- 
taining the best military works that have been published in different countries. 
Every British army, when in the field, has a special Quarter-Master-Gcneral and 
staff, organised in exact analogy with that of the permanent officer at the Horse 

We must now turn our steps towards Pall Mall, and visit the Ordnance Office, 
in order to prosecute our analysis of the composite organisation of the British 
army. The Master-General of the Ordnance stands in the same relation to the 


King and Secretaries of State, in his department, as the Commander-in*Cluef. 
Like that officer and the Secretary at War, he has access to the Sovereign, and 
takes his orders direct from the King or his Secretaries of State. This is a very 
complicated department : it combines within itself both civil and military func- 
tions, which are not separated as in the army of the line, and has moreover takeh 
on its hands since the peace a great number of other departments. This com- 
plexity is in a great measure unavoidable, for the Ordnance combines scientific 
with mere professional services. The Master-General, however, directs person- 
ally, and without the assistance of the Board, all those matters which, in the case 
of the rest of the army, come within the province of the Commander-in-Chief. 
All military appointments, all questions of discipline and orders relating to the 
employment of the force come under this description ; and likewise the general 
direction and government of the Military Academy at Woolwich. The Master- 
General of the Ordnance has the title and powers of Cplonel of what is called 
the " regiment " of Artillery — absurdly enough, for the body is increased in 
time of war to 24,000 men. An officer with the title of Deputy Adjutant 
General of Artillery, who is in no way dependent on the Adjutant General of the 
British forces, is at the head of the Artillery Staff. The Board of the Deputy 
Adjutant General of Artillery is at Woolwich ; which may be considered as the 
head-quartersof this arm of the service. The Boyal Artillery corps consists of 
the Brigade of Horse Artillery and of the Artillery serving on foot. The Socket 
corps is attached to, and forms part of the Artillery ; as also the Artificers, and 
the Boyal Waggon Train. There was formerly a corps of Drivers : but the men 
are now always enUsted as ** Gunners and Drivers^** and made to do duty in both 
capacities. As the army of the line was developed under the auspices of the 
Dutch and Hanoverian Kings of England— squabbling all the while with a jea- 
lous and niggardly Parliament — from the few regiments of Guards maintained 
by the last Stuarts (or engrafted upon them, if the readers think the metaphor 
more just) ; so the Ordnance department has, in due course of time, been, after 
the same fashion, eked out from the old Artillery Companies of Queen Bess and 
other antique ^Sovereigns. Perhaps, however, the Worshipful Artillery Com- 
pany of the City of London may claim to be the legitimate descendant and repre- 
sentative of the body commanded by the Earl of Essex in 1 596. The first warrant 
fixing the constitution of the Ordnance is that of Charles II. (20th July, 1683), 
only five years previous to the Bevolution. 

The corps subject to the Ordnance are the '^ Regiment,** already described, and 
the Engineers. The books of the Artillery show the number of battalions and com- 
panies in each battalion from the year 1710 to the present time. There are, we 
believe, no authentic documents to show how long the Royal Engineers have existed 
as a separate corps, or what was its original constitution ; but from a warrant 
dated at "^our Court of St. James's, the 3rd day of March, 1759/' the origin of its 
present organisation may be inferred. The document runs thus : — '' His Majesty 
this day took the said representation into his royal consideration, together with 
the establishment of Engineers now subsisting ; and likewise the new establishment, 
proposing to increase the number of Engineers to sixty-one ; and was pleased, 

with advice of his Privy Council, to approve of the said new estabblishment, &c. 


220 LONDON. 

* * * * and instead of all foTmer establishments of Eng^eers^ irhich are to 
cease and be discontinued for the future.'* The Horse Brigade — commonly 
called the Horse Artillery, or Flying Artillery— ronly dates from 1793. The 
Artillery/' Regiment " was composed, in 1710, of one battalion, divided into three 
companies : the officers were a Colonel Commandant^ a Colonel, two Lieutenant 
Colonels* and a Major ; for each company a Captain and a First and Second Lien- 
tenant ; six Lieutenant Fireworkers, an Adjutant, Quartermaster, and Bridge- 
master. The names of all the officers since 1743 have been preserved, and notes 
of what became of most of them. The Engineers consisted, in 1759, of one 
Chief, two Directors, four Sub-Directors, twelve Engineers in Ordinary and 
twelve Extraordinary, fourteen Sub-Engineers, and sixteen Practitioners : the 
names of the Engineer officers since 1783. The privates were called Military 
Engineers till 1813 ; since that time they have been organised into a corps called 
Sappers and Miners. The whole of the Engineer department is under the 
Inspector- General of Fortifications. Both the civil and military engineering of 
the army is entrusted to this corps. The erection and maintenance of forts and 
barracks devolves upon them. There are 29 of the officers engaged in the survey 
of Great Britain and Ireland. Of 201 officers, 156 were, in 1836, employed in 
affairs which were partly of a military, partly of a civil character. The Engineers 
are, properly speaking, a regiment of officers ; but attached to it are the com- 
panies of sappers and miners, with the pontoon train, its forges, waggons, &c.j 
under a major of the Brigade of Engineers. 

The Board of Ordnance, enumerated as the third of those which take part in 
managing the military affairs of this country, takes upon it those duties which are 
more especially termed civil. The Master-General attends its meetings only on 
rare and very particular occasions. All its proceedings, however, are regularly 
submitted in the form of minutes for his approval, and are subject to his control. 
His authority is supreme in all matters, both civil and military ; and he, not the 
Board, is considered responsible for the manner in which the business of the 
department is managed. The three Board officers of the Ordnance are the 
Surveyor-General, the Clerk of the Ordnance (at Pall Mall), and the principal 
Storekeeper. Sometimes the whole of these officers — ^uniformly the Clerk — 
contrive to be in Parliament, and act as the mouth-pieces of this arm of the 
service. Upon the Clerk devolves the duty of preparing and carrying the 
Ordnance Estimates through Parliament. Each of these three officers has 
his own separate and distinct duties; but as all acts are done in the name 
and by the authority of the Board, all important questions are brought before 
it, and every member is expected to have a general knowledge of the business 
transacted in every separate division. The business of the Board compre- 
hends, with regard to the Ordnance corps, the greater part of the business 
which, as relates to the rest of the army, is transacted in the War Office; 
for example, the examination of pay-lists and accounts^ the decision of all 
claims by officers to pensions for wounds, to compensation for the loss of horses 
or baggage, to command-money, and to allowance for passages, or in lieu 
of lodgings and servants. But by far the greater part of the duties of the 
Board have reference to matters not merely concerning their own particular 


branch of the military service^ but the whole army, and even the navy* Arms^ 
ammunition^ and military stores of every description (including guns and car* 
riages for the navy)^ are supplied by them to both services. Besides the clothing 
of the artillery and engineers^ they furnish also that of part of the militia^ of the 
police force in Ireland^ and of some corps belonging to the army^ and the great 
coats for all ; they are likewise charged with the issue of various kinds of sup- 
plies, as of fuel, light, &c., both in Great Britain and abroad, and, with respect 
to the troops in Oreat Britain, of provision and forage. The construction and 
repair of fortifications, military works, and barracks, is another branch of the 
business of the department ; which has also the duty, altogether unconnected 
with any thing of a military character, of furnishing various descriptions of stores 
for the use of the convict establishment in the penal colonies. 

The Commissariat officers on foreign stations correspond directly with the 
Treasury, and receive from it all orders with reference to the mode in which the 
service is to be performed. Till 1834 (when the duty was transferred to the 
Ordnance) the charge of the issue of forage and provisions to the troops in Great 
Britain was retained by the Treasury. Since that time the Agent for Commis- 
sariat supplies has been suppressed, and the number of clerks on the Commis- 
sariat establishment reduced. The Commissariat is a peculiar and important 
service, requiring great ability and much experience. During the whole time 
consumed by the British army in advancing from the frontiers of Portugal to the 
Pyrenees, the Commissariat officers had to feed daily 80,000 men and 20,000 
horses. The money raised by the Commissariat department in specie, in silver 
and gold, in Spain and Portugal during the Peninsular war, by bills on this 
country, amounted to somewhere about 36,000,000/. sterling; and probably 
10,000,000/. more was sent from England, and as much from the Mediterranean 
and other quarters. The justice and wisdom of the paltry economy of throwing 
part of the duties of this department upon the Ordnance, whose functions were 
already sufficiently onerous and complicated, and upon a reduced Board of quill- 
driving Treasury clerks who had no experience outside of their office, may well 
be doubted. But there can be no doubt as to the gross injustice of throwing all 
the able and experienced Commissariat officers, trained in the arduous affairs of 
the Peninsula, upon half-pay, instead of remodelling the Commissariat depart- 
ment by placing some of them at the head of it. A system .'might thus have 
been organised by men who had been taught their business experimentally, in a 
school such as it is to be hoped no individuals may for many generations have a 
chance of entering. An opportunity has been let slip of perfecting this branch 
of the service which will be felt as soon as Britain is again dared to the field, 
for the gift of military financiering does not come by nature. 

Since the abolition of the Comptrollers of Army Accounts, the Commissioners 
of Audit, in addition to their former duty of auditing the accounts of a part of 
the expenditure of the Commissioners for the service of the army on every foreign 
station, have also acted as advisers to the Treasury in military business in 
general, and particularly in all that relates to the Commissariat. Properly 
speaking, the Commissariat and Audit Board are both branches of the Treasury. 
This may be the most proper place to notice that by the Act 5 and 6 of William 
IV. the separate offices of Paymaster of the Forces, Treasurer of Chelsea Hos* 

222 LONDON. 

pital. Treasurer of the Navy, and Treasurer of the Ordnance, are all eonsolidated 
into the one office of Paymaster General. This office is also immediately under 
the control of the Treasury. 

Lastly, the Commissioners of Chelsea Hospital are charged with the manage- 
ment of the internal affairs of the hospital, with the admission of in-pensioners, 
the placing of discharged soldiers on the out-pension, and the issuing of war- 
rants for payment of their pensions. Their proceedings are governed by the 
patent by which they are appointed, the instructions consequent thereon prepared 
by the Secretary at War, by various Acts of Parliament regulating particular 
points, and by occasional instructions conveyed to them by the Treasury and by 
the Secretary at War. 

Amid all this scatteringof military business through a number of departments, 
it is clear that the authorities at the Horse Guards— the Secretary at War and 
the Commander-in-Chief— -remain the nucleus, the heart of the military organisa- 
tion of Great Britain. Independent though the Master of the Ordnance be, his 
arm is regarded but as an auxiliary, an adjunct to the army of the line. This 
manner of viewing it is carried to an extreme which occasions gross injustice to 
the corps of Artillery and Engineers. The best commanders of France — ^Napo- 
leon himself— were bred in the Artillery. An English Artillery or Eng^eer 
officer cannot look forward io command in the field. " I look upon the Artillery/' 
said Sir Augustus Fraser, in 1833, '' to be a neglected service, and I know that 
it is so considered by the officers themselves. I look upon it that no corps that 
is solely advanced by seniorities and death-vacancies can come to perfection. 
When you have men of ability, the ability is locked up ; when they have no ability 
they go on with the stream. The officers are all well educated, but to little pur- 
pose ; and assuredly the state of the Artillery will force itself upon the country 
sooner or later. / have been forty years in the Artillery, and have got to be a 
Colonel, and I could go down a hundred men in the regiment without coming to any 
man much younger than myself'^ What Sir Augustus' thought would be doing 
justice to his corps appeared from his replies to three questions of the Commis' 
sioners on the civil administration of the army in 1833 : *' Officers of Artillery 
and Engineers are very seldom appointed to command garrisons or districts.'* 
** Putting them upon the staff has been discouraged.'* ^' I am sure that a door 
might be opened for Artillery officers to go into the army with great advantage 
to the service and themselves." The best heads and the best educated intellects 
in the service are prevented from rising to command — that is not wise. 

But this is a digression. The Horse Guards is the centre of vitality of an 
army. This army consists of: — Cavalry : The first and second regiments of Life 
Guards, the royal regiment of the Horse Guards (blues), seven regiments of 
Dragoon Guards, three of Dragoons, nine of Light Dragoons, including Lancers 
and Hussars. In this enumeration the cavalry serving in India and the Cape corps 
of mounted riflemen are not included. Infantry : Three regiments of Guards, 
seventy-nine regiments of the line of one battalion each, the ,60th (of the line) 
and the rifle brigade of two battalions each, two West India regiments, two com- 
panies of the royal staff corps, three Newfoundland and three royal veteran 
companies, the African corps, and the Ceylon regiment. To these fall to l>o 
added the Engineers and. the Artillery, with the royal waggon-train, the arti« 


ficerSj the rocket corps^ and the sappers and miners. The infantry and cavalry 
borne on the estimates of 1841 amounted to 80^738 officers and men, of whom 
79,796 were effectives. The engineer corps amounted to 960 officers and men, 
and the artillery to 7051. 

This is, after all, but the skeleton of the army — the dry bones — ^the framework 
which gives it form and cohesion. The . quivering flesh and bounding blood 
which renders it an object beautiful to look upon — the living spirit which lends 
it life and energy — are diffused through thousands of manly bosoms scattered 
over the whole globe. Some are chafing in compulsory idleness among the 
country towns, or manufacturing capitals of the old island ; some are doing duty 
amid the sharp gales of Canada, amid the sweltering tropical heat of the Antilles, 
or in the anomalous land of kangaroos and convicts. Some have just been bear- 
ing the standard of their country in triumph into the very bowels of '' the central 
ilowery land," while others have been sharing in the alternate defeats and 
triumphs of the mountain«land of the Afghans. Rather than remain inactive, 
some of the more ardent spirits have been exploring or taking part in the frays of 
Persia and Turkistan, and of the rather more barbarous Christian republics of 
South America. There is scarcely a region of the earth in our day that has not 
wen a real line captain — that rare animal which excited such a sensation when it 
made its unexpected appearance at Charlie's Hope, in the person of Dandy Din- 
mont's deliverer. And a talisman is placed within these shabby tasteless walls 
—right under that ineffable cupola — of power to arrest at once the wandering 
propensities of the most distant of those fearless spirits, and call him home as 
tame as the sportsman's pointer when ordered to heel, or to send him forth again 
fiercer than sleuth-hound lancing on his prey. 

It is a strange tiling, that military discipline, which fuses so many of a nation's 
fiercest and most wayward spirits as it were into one mind and one will ! The 
armies of modem Europe have no parallel in any other age or region. Individual 
armies were formed by Alexander, by Baber, by Timur, and other conquerors ; 
but they dissolved with the death of the master-spirit which called them together. 
But the armies of France, England, and Germany have an organic life independent 
of any individual : all of them are enduring as the civil institutions upon which 
they are engrafted. The army of France survived the dissolution of these insti- 
tutions, and was all that was left to re-construct civil society after the Revolution. 
It is a fashion with those who have not thoroughly examined the matter, to speak 
lightly of an army's discipline and organisation, and to exalt what they call 
the irresistible enthusiasm of a people. It was not the people who repelled the 
Allied Sovereign, under the Duke of Brunswick firom the French frontier, and 
carried the eagles of France in triumph over great part of Europe ; it was not 
the people who struck down Napoleon in the red field of Leipzig. Popular en- 
thusiasm gave a new stimulus to the army, but it was the traditional discipline 
and organisation inherited from Turenne, Montecuculi, Marlborough, Frederic 
the Great, and other masters of the art of war, which received the unformed ma- 
terials of enthusiastic recruits, and in its hard press stamped them into heroes. 
An organised army upon modern principles can make soldiers of almost any 
materials ; and the mightiest enthusiasm of individuals or nations is at best but 

the heavy wave which must break on the rock-like atmctare of an army, and faU 
back in foam, carrying with it at moat Bome shattered fragments. 

A finer army, whether wa regard its physical or moral qualities, never existed 
than our own at the present iqoment. Its services as a bulwark against aggres- 
sion from without in time of war, or as an effective minister of the civil power in 
internal emergencies in time of peace, aK invaluable. Higher scientific acquire- 
ments than exist among its " corps du genie " are not to be found ; a more in- 
telligent, moral, high-spirited, and lighthearted soldiery never made a monarch's 
heart high as she passed h^r eyes along their ranks. And where shall we look 
for such a wiry, wary master of his art to hold this beautiful but terrible power 
in band as the present occupant of the Horse Guards? 

[Puk Front of th( Bono Gniidi.; 



Thooght — speech — Writings — PrintiDg — these are, aa it were, foiirBuccesBiTcde- 
relopments of mind, each ascendiog in about the aame degree beyond the other. 
Much aa iu Milton's Bimilitude — 

" Thus from the root 
Springs lightly the green stalk [or talk] — Crom thence the havei 
More airy — lut the br^ht consummate flower." 

Not, indeed, that any particular copy of a printed book, bound and lettered, much 
resembles a flower : — we must endeavour to conceive a printed book in the ab- 
stract, as Crambe did a Lord Mayor without horse, gown, and gold chain, or even 
stature, features, colour, hands, feet, or body. In this sense a printed book is 
really " the bright consammate flower" of thought. 

Here, however, our business is not with either books or booksellers in the 
abstract, but with the latter in bumble concrete, or in flesh and blood. Al- 
though books were written, and to a certain extent published too, by copies 
of them being made by transcribers, before the invention of printing, yet it may 
safely be assumed that it was not till after the introduction of that art that the 
sale of them became a regular trade in England. In the height to which even 
literary civilization had grown in the ancient world of Greece and Rome, there 
were shops for books probably in all the conaiderable towns ; and in modem 
Europe, in the middle ages, Biblcsj and also other hooks, were sold at the fain 
in many of the principal cities of the Continent; but these were rather general 
than local marts ; indeed, literature then, when books for the most part were 
written in Latin, the common tongue of the learned in all countries, was Euro- 
pean, rather than national, everywhere ; the manufacture or sale of books on a 
large scale could only be carried on at the great central points of attraction and 
confluence; England, being out of the way of common rcsortj could scarcely 

VOL. T. 4 

226 LONDON. 

maintain anything of the kind. The purchase of a book here seems to have been 
merely an occasional transaction, like the purchase of a house ; and the few books 
that were produced with a view to being sold were mostly prepared in the mo- 
nasteriesj as well as probably purchased only by those establishments. Perhaps 
the first books that got to any extent into the hands of the people in England 
(and even their dispersion must have been but to a very limited extent) were the 
religious treatises of the reformer Wycliffe, and some of his followers, iu the 
fourteenth century. But, still, there is no mention of book-shops in London, wc 
believe, till long after this date. Fitz-Stephen, of course, has no notice of any 
in his Description, written in the latter part of the twelfth century, in which he 
celebrates with so much gusto the wine-shops, the cook-shops, the fish-shops, the 
poultry-shops, the horse-markets, &c.| of '^ the most noble city ;" and Dan John 
Lydgate's ballad of ' London, Lyckpenny/ which belongs to the fifleenth century, 
is equally silent as to the existence of any storehouses of food or furniture for the 
mind, while commemorating the activity and vociferation of the dealers in all 
other kinds of commodities. 

Bookselling, no doubt, came in among us with printing ; and, probably, our 
first printers were also our first booksellers. Memorable old William Caxton, 
who set up his press in the Almonry at Westminster, in the year 1474, not 
only himself sold the books he printed, but even wrote many of them : he was 
author, printer, and publisher, all in one. It was not long, however, before 
the merchandize in books, as in other commodities in extensive demand, came 
to be carried on by a class of persons distinct from both the intellectual and the 
mechanical manufacturers of the article. 

The Stationers' Company was incorporated in 1 557, in the reign of Philip and 
Mary, and comprehends stationers, booksellers, letter-founders, printers^ and 
bookbinders. The booksellers, however, have always been by far the most 
numerous portion of the body, and also the most influential from other causes, as 
well as from their greater number. They are, from the nature of the case, the 
capitalists by whom the production of books is mainly promoted — the employers 
of the printers, and to some extent of the authors also — and, as they run the risks, 
so they enjoy the advantages, of that position. Accordingly, while nobody ever 
heard of any influence on literature being exerted by printers, the influence of 
booksellers on literature has at all times, and in all countries, been very con- 
siderable. We have the high authority of Horace for looking upon them as, in 
the department of poetry at least, one of the three supreme controlling powers : — 

" MediocribuB esse poetis, 
Non diif non homines, uon concessere columnflB'* — 

that is, as the words may be translated. Mediocrity in poetry is a thing not suf- 
fered by gods, by men, or by booksellers. The bookseller, indeed, it is intimated 
by the metonymy here used, judges by a rule or standard of criticism different 
from that referred to by the general public ; he applies what may be called a 
pocfcet'Tule to the matter i but it may be fairly questioned if any surer or better 
for ordinary occasions is to be found in Aristotle. 

We have not much information about bookselling in London that is curi- 
ous or interesting till we come to the middle of the seventeenth century. 
It was probably not till some time after this that book-shops (in the mo- 


dem sense) began to rise in what is now the great centre of the trade — Pater* 
noster Row, or The Row, as it is styled by way of eminence (and also perhaps 
to get rid of an inconveniently polysyllabic designation). They seem to have been 
only beginning to make their appearance when Strype produced his edition of 
Stow, in 1720. "This street," we are told by Strype, in his solemn fashion of 
speech^ " before the Fire of London, was taken up by eminent mercers, silkmen, 
and lacemen ; and their shops wire so resorted unto by the nobility and gentry^ 
in their coaches, that oft times the street was so stopped up that there was no 
passage for foot passengers. But since the said fire^ those eminent tradesmen 
have settled themselves in several other parts, especially in Covent Garden, in 
Bedford Street, Henrietta Street, and King Street. And the inhabitants in this 
street are now a mixture of tradespeople, and chiefly tire-women^ for the sale of 
commodes, top-knots, and the like dressings for the females. There are also 
many shops of mercers and silkmen ; and at the upper end some stationers^ and 
large warehouses for booksellers ; well situated for learned and studious men*8 
access thither ; being more retired and private." 

At the time of the Great Fire, and probably for long before^ the principal 
booksellers' shops were in St. Paul's Churchyard. Hither Pepys was commonly 
wont to resort when he wanted either a new or an old book. Thus^ on the 31st 
of November, 1660, he notes, *' In Paul's Churchyard I bought the play of 
Henry the Fourth, and so went to the new theatre and saw it acted ; but> my 
expectation being too great, it did not please me, as otherwise I believe it 
would ; and my having a book^ I believe, did spoil it a little." Again^ on the 
10th of February, 1662, we find him recording as follows :— " To Paul's Church- 
yard, and there I met with Dr. Fuller's ' England's Worthiesj' the first time 
that I ever saw it; and so I sat down reading in it; being much troubled that 
(though he had some, discourse with me about my family and arms) he says 
nothing at all, nor mentions us either in Cambridgeshire or Norfolk. But I 
believe, indeed, our family were never considerable." Poor Pepys! never was 
inordinate vanity in any man so snubbed and checked at every movement by a 
still more inveterate principle of honesty : it is like the convulsive jerking and 
counter-jerking of a Supple Jack. 

A few years after this, however, the booksellers were for a time driven from 
this quarter by the effects of the great fire. '* By Mr. Dugdale," writes Pepys, 
under date of September 26th, 1666, " I hear the great loss of books in St. 
Paul's Churchyard, and at their Hall also, which they value at about 150,000/. ; 
some booksellers being wholly undone, and^ among others, they say^ my poor 
Kirton." And on the 5th of October he adds, " Mr. Earton's kinsman, my book- 
seller, come in my way ; and so I am told by him that Mr. Kirton is utterly 
undone, and made 2000/. or 3000/. worse than nothing, from being worth 7000/. 
or 8000/. That the goods laid in the Churchyard fired through the windows 
those in St. Faith's church ; and those, coming to the warehouses' doors, fired 
them, and burned all the books and the pillars of the church, which is alike 
pillared (which I knew not before) ; but, being not burned^ they stood still. He 
do believe there is above 150,000/. of books burned ; all the great booksellers 
almost undone ; not only them, but their warehouses at their Hall and under 
Christ-church, and elsewhere, being all burned. A great want thereof there will 

Q 2 

228 LONDON. 

be of booksj specially Latin books and foreign books; and, among others, the 
Polyglott and new Bible, which he believes will be presently worth 40/. a-piecc." 
WfUton'Sf or the London Polyglott, here mentioned, is in six folio volumes, the 
first of which had been published in 1654, and the fourth, fifth, and sixth in 
1657. Xvelyn also records the immense destruction of books by this terrible 
conflagration. In his ' Diary ' he states that the magazines or stores of books 
belonging to the stationers^ which had been dejfosited for safety in the vaulted 
church of St Faith's under St. Paul's, continued to burn for a week. 
• The history of ono of Pepys's purchases affords an instance of the extent to 
which the fire raised the price of certain books. '' It is strange," he observes, on 
Ihe 20th of March, 1667, " how Bycaut's Discourse of Turkey, which before the 
firie I was asked but 8a. for, there being all but twenty-two or thereabouts burned, 
I did aow offer 20^., and he demands 509., and I think I shall give it him, though 
it be only as a monument of the fire.*' Accordingly he bought the book, which 
is DOW in the Pepysian Library at Cambridge. '' Away to the Temple," he writes 
on Ihe 8th of April, '' to my new bookseller's ; and there I did agree for Rycaut's 
late History of the Turkish Policy, which cost me 55^., whereas it was sold plain 
befwre the late fire for 8^., and bound and coloured as this is for 20s. ; for I have 
bought it finely bound and truly coloured all the figures, of which there was but 
six bod(s done so, whereof the King, and Duke of York, and Duke of Mon- 
jB«ath, and Lord Arlington had four. The fifth was sold, and I have bought 

Pepys's new bookseller, as we see, was stationed in or near the Temple. 
Westminster Hall, the other more noisy temple of the laws, was also in those 
days a great place for the sale of books, and as such was frequently visited by 
Pepys. *' To Westminster Hall,'* is one of his memoranda on the 26th of Octo- 
hsty 1660, *' and bought, among other books, one of the Life of our Queen, which 
I read at home to my wife ; but it was so sillily writ that we did nothing but 
laugh at it.*' And if the book kept his wife and him laughing for a whole even- 
tag,, what more or better would he have had for his money? They are rare 
tomes of which anything so commendatory can be said. Some doubt, it is true, 
/]»ay be raised by other entries if Pepys's sense of the ludicrous was the justest 
in the world. Possibly he found matter of laughter where nobody else would 
have seen anything of the kind, as it is certain that he would sometimes find none 
in- what was the richest wit and humour to other people. " To the Wardrobe," 
he writes on the 26th of December, 1662: ''hither come Mr. Battersby; and, 
w« falling into discourse of a new book of drollery in use, called Hudibras, I 
woald needs go find it out, and met with it at the Temple : cost me 2^. 6(i. But, 
when I come to read it, it is so silly an abuse of the Presbyter Knight going to 
the wars that I am ashamed of it; and by and by, meeting at Mr. Townsend's at 
.dinner, I sold it to him for 18(2." But this turned out to be a precipitate pro- 
ceeding. To Pepys's infinite amazement, the *'new book of drollery" con- 
tinued to be the rage. '' And so," he tells us, under date of the 6th of February 
thereafter, *' to a bookseller's in the Strand, and there bought Hudibras again, 
it being certainly some ill humour to be so against that which all the world cries 
up .to be the example of wit; for which I am resolved once more to read him, 
and see whether I can find it or no." With this praiseworthy resolution (much 


resembling that of the ingenious individual who, not knowing how to read, 
songht to cure that defect by procuring a proper pair of spectades-^ne of the 
most touching examples of the Pursuit of Knowledge under I>ifficulties) Pepys 
aet to work ; but we fear his success was not considerable. ^' To Paul's Church- 
yard/' he writes in his account of his doings on the 28th of November in this 
same year, '* and there looked upon the second part of Hudibras, which I buy not, 
but borrow to read, to see if it be as good as the first, which the world eried so 
mightily up, though it hath not a good liking in me, though I had tried but 
[by ?] twice or three times' reading to bring myself to think it witty.'* Ho did 
buy the book, however, a few days after this. " To St. Paul's Churchyard, to 
my bookseller's," is his naive and curious record on the 10th of December, '' and 
could not tell whether to lay out my money for books of pleasure, as plays, whldi 
my nature was most earnest in ; but at last, after seeing Chaucer, Diigdalo*s 
History of Paul's, Stow's London, Gesner, History of Trent, besides Shakspeare, 
Jonson, and Beaumont's plays, I at last chose Dr. Fuller's Worthies, the Cab- 
bala, or Collections of Letters of State, and a little book, Delices do HoUande, 
with another little book or two, all of good use or serious pleasure ; and Hudt- 
bras^ both parts, the book now in greatest fashion for drollery, though I cannot, 
I confess, see enough where the wit lies." So he seems to have laid out his 
money in this last instance in the way of duty, or of penance, rather than for 
either pleasure or use. No doubt, if he found any pleasure in Hudibras, it must 
have been, in his own phraseology, serious enough — entirely of the order of those 
very *' calm pleasures " which the poet has coupled and by implication aloMSt 
identified with ''majestic pains.'* The only other mention we find of Sutler's 
poem in the 'Diary' is in the entry dated 11th October, 1665, where, in a notice 
of an interview with Mr.'Seamour, or Seymour, it is written, " I could not but 
think it odd that a parliament-man, in a serious discourse before such persons as 
we [me?], and my Lord Brouncker, and Sir John Minnes, should quote Hudibras, 
aa being the book I doubt he hath read most." From his thus taking it as a 
sort of insult that a person should quote the book in his presence, we might 
almost suspect that his ineffectual endeavours to comprehend the wit of Hudibras 
had come to be a standing joke against Pepys. 

On the rebuilding of the City after the fire, the booksellers, who had formerly 
carried on business in St. Paul's Churchyard, or such of them as were not 're- 
duced to absolute ruin, seem to have generally returned to their old quarters. 
Pepys's friend Kirton, however, appears never to have recovered from the losses 
he sustained by that catastrophe. In Pepys's latter days, when he was probably 
a larger collector than ever of rare books, the bookseller with whom be chiefly 
dealt appears to have been Mr. Bobert Scott. Scott was the prince of London book- 
sellers in his day. It was with him, too, Boger North tells us, that his brother Dr. 
John North dealt, in laying the foundation of his library. Scott's sister was 
North's grandmother s woman ; " and, upon that acquaintance," says Boger, '' he 
expected, and really had from him, useful information of books and the editions." 
— " This Mr. Scott," the graphic and cordial biographer goes on^ " was, in his 
timoj the greatest librarian in Europe ; for, besides his stock in England, he had 
warehouses at Frankfort, Paris, and other places, and dealt by factors. After he was 
grown old, and much worn by multiplicity of business, he began to think of his 

230 LONDON. 

ease, and to leave off. Whereupon be contracted with one Milla, of St PauPa 
Churchyard^ near 10,000/. deep, and articled not to open his shop any more. But 
Milla, with his auctioneering, atlases, and projects, failed, whereby poor Scott lost 
above half his means. But he held to his contract of not opening his shop, and, 
when he was in London, for he had a country-house, passed most of his time at 
his house amongst the rest of his books ; and his reading (for he was no mean 
scholar) was the chief entertainment of his time. He was not only an expert 
bookseller, but a very conscientious good man ; and, when he threw up his trade, 
Europe had no small loss of him. Our doctor, at one lift, bought of him a whole 
set of Oreek classics, in folio, of the best editions." 

Scott kept shop in Little Britain, probably in the part of that zigzag street 
adjacent to Duck Lane, or, as it is now called, Duke Street, in Smithfield. This 
portion of Little Britain and the whole of Duck Lane, in the latter half 
of the seventeenth and the early part of the eighteenth century, were mainly 
inhabited by booksellers and publishers. It was, Roger North tells us, ^'a 
plentiful and perpetual emporium of learned authors ; and men went thither 
as to a market." ''This,'* he continues, ''drew to the place a mighty trade; 
the rather because the shops were spacious, and the learned gladly resorted to 
them, where they seldom failed to meet with agreeable conversation. And 
the booksellers themselves were knowing and conversible men^ with whom, 
for the sake of bookish knowledge, the greatest wits were pleased to converse.** 
Strype, in his edition of Stow, published in 1720, describes Little Britain as 
"well built, and much inhabited by booksellers, especially from the Pump to 
Duck Lane;'* — "which,** he adds, "is also taken up by booksellers for old 
books.'' Afterwards, he describes the part of Little Britain occupied by the 
booksellers as extending from St. Bartholomew Close southward towards the 
Pump, and so bending eastward to Aldersgate Street. The booksellers here, he 
says, " formerly were much resorted to by learned men for Greek and Latin 
books ; but now the station of such booksellers is removed into Paternoster Bow 
and Paul's Churchyard." Maitland, writing in 1756, tells us that the book- 
sellers' part of Little Britain was then much deserted and had little trade ; and 
Duck Lane he describes as "a place once noted for dealers in old books, but at 
present quite forsaken by all sorts of dealers." 

When Benjamin Franklin and his friend James Ralph (who also became in 
after years a person of some note, making a considerable figure as a political 
writer in the latter part of the reigpi of George II., and having besides got 
himself immortalized in the ' Dunciad *) came over together from Philadelphia to 
London in the end of the year 1724, they took a lodging in Little Britain at 
3f. 6(2. per week; "as much,** says Franklin, "as we could then afford." He 
has commemorated one of the dealers in old books by whom the street was then 
inhabited. "While I lodged in Little Britain," he relates, "I made an ac- 
quaintance with one Wilcox, a bookseller, whose shop was next door. He had 
an immense collection of second-hand books. Circulating libraries were not 
then in use ; but we agreed that, on certain reasonable terms (which I have now 
forgotten), J might take, read, and return any of his books : Jthis I esteemed a 
great advantage, and I made as much use of it as I could." 

But by far the most curious and complete account that we have of the book- 


sellers and bookselling business of London at the beginning of the eighteenth 
€entury is that given by the famous John Dunton in the extraordinary auto- 
biographical performance vrYiich he entitles his ^Life and Errors.' Dunton^ 
born in 1659, was the only son of the Rev. John Dunton^ rector of GraiFham^ in 
Huntingdonshire, and as such the descendant of a line of clergymen, both his 
grandfather and great-grandfather having been ministers of Little Missenden, in 
Bucks. He was himself intended for the church, and with that view he was put 
to school and taught Latin, which he says gave him satisfaction enough, so that 
he attained to such a knowledge of the language as to be able to " speak it 
pretty well extempore ;" " but/' he continues, " the difficulties of the Greek 
quite broke all my resolutions ; and, which was a greater disadvantage to me, I 
was wounded with a silent passion for a virgin in my father's house, that un- 
hinged me all at once, though I never made a discovery of the flame, and for 
that reason it gave me the greater torment. This happened in my thirteenth 
year." The truth is, Dunton, with prodigious intellectual activity^ or rather 
restlessness, never could persevere long enough with anything he undertook, 
study, task, business, or plan of life, to make much of it. So, finding him too 
mercurial for a scholar, his father determined to make a bookseller of him, and 
in his fifteenth year he was sent up to London, and apprenticed to Mr. Thomas 
Parkhurst, whom he describes as " the most eminent Presbyterian bookseller in 
the three kingdoms.'* Having passed through his apprenticeship, Dunton set up 
for himself as a bookseller and publisher about the year 1685. The picture he 
draws of literature and its followers in London at this date is not flattering, but 
it may be held to prove, at any rate, that the profession can hardly have dege- 
nerated. '* Printing," he says (meaning what we should now call publishing), 
'^ was now the uppermost in my thoughts, and hackney authors began to ply me 
with specimens, as earnestly, and with as much passion and concern, as the 
watermen do passengers with oars and scullers. I had some acquaintance with 
this generation in my apprenticeship, and had never any warm affection for 
them ; in regard I always thought their great concern lay more in how much a 
sheet than in any generous respect they bore to the commonwealth of learning ; 
and, indeed, the learning itself of these gentlemen lies very often in as little 
room as their honesty, though they will pretend to have studied for six or seven 
years in the Bodleian Library, to have turned over the Fathers, and to have 
read and digested the whole compass both of human and ecclesiastic history ; — 
when, alas! they have never been able to understand a single page of SU 
Cyprian, and cannot tell you whether the Fathers lived before or after Christ. 
And, as for their honesty, it is very remarkable : they will either persuade you 
to go upon another man's copy, or steal his thought, or to abridge his book, 
which should have got him bread for his lifetime. When you have engaged 
them upon some project or other, they will write you off three or four sheets 
perhaps ; take up three or four pounds upon an urgent occasion ; and you shall 
never hear of them more." Well, there may be some rapacity here, but there 
is considerable simplicity too j^ for surely the three or four pounds, even at the 
then, valu^ of money, could scarcely have been the full price of copy for as many 
9hQets of letter-press. We doubt if a publisher ever now-a-days gets rid of an 
Wtbor upon such easy terms. 

232 LONDON. 

' The m<Mt saleable of all pubikatioiis at thii date werd toM n q— aad other re- 
ligious dtsqimitiona The first copy or manuBcript Duatoii ventuied to print was 
a volume entitled, ' The Sufferings of Christ/ by the Bev. Mr. Doolittle. '' This 
book/' he says^ '* fully answered my end ; (or, exehanging it through the whole 
trade, it furnished my shop with all sorts of books saleable at that tine.'* 
This lets us into a peculiarity in the manner in which the publishing business 
was then carried on : — ^when a publisher^ being also, as was generally or univer- 
sally the case, a retail and miscellaneous bookseller, brought out a work, he dis- 
posed of the copies among the trade mostly in the way of barter or exchange for 
other books. This practice, it is hardly necessary to say, has long gone out. 

X>untan speedily followed this first venture by two or three other publications 
in the same line, all of which did well ; and this extraordinary success in his first 
attempts gave him, he observes, " an ungovernable itch to be always intriguing 
Aat way/' He now began to be plied with projects and proposals of marriage 
from various quarters. Mrs. Mary Sanders, the virgin who first unhinged him 
under the paternal roof, had by this time got entirely out of his head ; the beau- 
tiful Bachel Scaton, the innocent Sarah Day of Batcliffe, the religious Sarah 
Briscow of Uxbridge, had all had their turn ; at last, being smitten at chureh by 
Elizabeth Annesley, daughter of the Bev. Dr. Annesley, a distinguished non- 
eonformist preacher of those times, he married that lady. Another daughter of 
Dr. Annesley's, it may be noticed, married Mr. Samuel Wesley, the poet^ and 
became by him the mother of John Wesley, the famous founder of Methodism. 
Annesley is said to have been a near relative of the Irish Annesleys, Earls of 
Anglesey — and the Wesleys^ as is well known, were connected with another £ng« 
lidi fiimily settled in Ireland, the Wellesleys, which has risen to much greater 
distinction. It is curious what strange diversities of station and character a ge« 
nealogy will sometimes bring together. 

The history of Dunton's various amours, connubial and Platonic, makes up a 
great part of his book ; but of course, although many of his details are abun- 
dantly curious, we cannot enter upon that matter here. His first wife and he 
called one another Iris and Philaret, both before and after their marriage — and 
he would have us believe that they lived together in unequalled affection and 
harmony. But for all that Dunton never could remain long at home : he had 
been but a few years married when he set off for New England, and remained 
away for nearly a year ; when he came back he found his affairs in such a state 
that he thought it prudent to make a tour in Holland and Germany, in order to 
fee safe from his creditors ; — one of his books is an account of a visit he made to 
Ireland ^**he talks there of a projected expedition to Scotland ; and we do not 
know how much farther he extended his rambles. He defends his practice in this 
respect, indeed, upon high grounds. '' Who would have thought/' he say% in his 
account of the Irish tour, ** I could ever have left Eliza 7 for there was an * even 
thread of endearment run through all we said or did.' I may truly say, lor the 
fi^fleen years we lived together, there never passed an angry look ; but, as 
kind as she was, I could not think of growing old in the confines of one city, and» 
therefore, in 1686, I embarked for America, Holland, and other parts* • • • To 
ramble is the best way to endear a wife, and to try her love^ if she has- any. « • 
It is true, for a wife to say, as Eliza did, ' My deav, I rejoice I am able to serve 


tbee^ and, asloag mal hmve il; it is all tfame^ and we had been still iMippjr kad 
veloBt all biKl one another ;' ' this^ kideed» is very obliging, and shove she loves 
noe in earnest But still there is something in rambling beyond this ; for this is 
no more, if her hnsband be sober, than 'richer for poorec* obliges her to; buft foe 
a spouse to say, * Travel as far as you please, and stay as long you will, for ab-* 
senoe shall never divide us,' is a higher flight abundantly, as it shows sho'oam 
part with her very husband, ten times dearer to a good wife than her money; when 
it tends to his satisfaction.*' Acting npon these principles of philoso^iy, Dnnton 
took his swing ; and not only gratified himself with the sight of foreign parts, 
but, being a perfectly virtuous person, struck up Platonic friendships with all the 
agreeable women, — ^maids, wives, and widows, — ^he met with wherever he went. 
Meanwhile, he took care never to forget his wife at home ; when he was in New 
England, he says, he sent Eliza sixty letters by one ship I He kept all he wrote 
during his stay, we suppose, and making them up into a parcel, sent them off at 
once. However, Elisa, or Iris, died in 1697 ; and the same year he married a 
Miss Sarah Nicholas, whom he calls Valeria, and with whom and whose relatives 
he by no means got on so harmoniously as he had done with his first matrimonial 
oonnezion. The truth appears to be that he was by this time a mined man*^ 
and that his new marriage was rather a speculation in trade than anything else^ 
his wife having some expectations which he wished to turn to aooonnt and wae 
thwarted in his object by her friends. He had wasted a world of energy and 
ingenuity in a vast multiplicity of enterprises and projects, very few of which 
probably turned out remunerative. Dnnton's first shop was at the oarnoflr of 
Prince's Street, near the Royal Exchange ; from this, in 1688, on the d»f the 
Prince of Orange entered London, he transferred himself, and his sign of the 
Black Baven, to the Poultry Compter, where he remained for ten years. Whither 
he went after this does not appear. He published his ' Life and Errors^' in a 
little thick duodecimo, in 1705, when he had been twenty years in bnnineso-^in 
the course [of which time, he tells us, he had printed no fewer than 600 works* 
Of many of these he was the author, as well as the publidier^-and he contifiMod 
to write and print for nearly twenty years longer. The last ten yeaots of hisez* 
istence, however, seem to have passed in quiet and obscnrity-^not intprobal>ly in 
poverty and broken health — and all that is further known of him is that, having 
lost his second wife, from whom he had long been separated, in 1721, he gSArei^ 
the battle of life in 1733, at the good old age of seventy-four. 

The principal literary performance by which Dunton's memory is fspeservedi 
besides his ' Life and Errors,' is his ' Athenian Mercury,' originally pttbKshedl 
from 17th March, 1690, to 8th February, 1696, in weekly numbers, the best of 
which were afterwards collected and reprinted in three octavo volumes* It was 
projected by himself, and his principal or only associates in carrying it on wene a 
Mr. Bichard Sault, a Cambridge theologian, one of his hack anthora, for whom 
he soon after published a singular production entitled ' The Second Spira#' ivhich: 
made a great deal of noise— his brother-in«law, Mr. Samnel Wesley-^^nd tfa« 
famous metaphysical divine. Dr. John Norris. The papers consist of casnislioai 
and other disquisitions, in answer to queries upon all sorts of subjects, whkh arc 
supposed to have been submitted to the conductors, and many of whioh probably 
were actually sent to them, although in other cases the pustle as well as Iher 

234 LONDON. 

Bolutum of it may have been the oracle's own. The scheme at least ensured 
unlimited variety of subjectj and the writers had sufficient talent and superficial 
learning to give a temporary interest to their lucubrations, if not to put into 
them much of an enduring value. 

Dunton himself was not without a touch of something that may be almost 
called genius. No doubt he was all along a little, or not a little, mad ; both his 
writings and his history betray this throughout ; and he was also a very imper* 
fectly educated man. But, if we make due allowance for these defects, we shall 
find a merit far above mediocrity in much of what he has done. He may be 
shortly characterised as a sort of wild Defoe — a coarser mind cast in somewhat a 
like mould — a Defoe without the training, and also with but a scanty endowment 
of the natural capability of being so trained, but yet with a. considerable portion 
of the same fertility and vital force, as well as of the same originality of intel- 
lectual character. If Defoe had died before producing any of his works of fic- 
tion — ^which he might very well have done and still left behind him a consider- 
able literary name, seeing that the first of them, ' Robinson Crusoe,' did not 
appear till 1719, when he was in his fifty-eighth year, and had long been distin- 
guished as a political and miscellaneous writer — the comparison between him and 
Dunton would not have at all a fanciful or extravagant air. 

In a tract, which he entitles ' Dunton's Creed, or Beligio BibliopolsB, in imita- 
tion of Dr. Brown's Religio Medici,' first published in 1694, under the name of 
Benjamin Bridgwater, an M. A. of Trinity College^ Cambridge, by whom it was 
in fact partly written, Dunton gives no very favourable account of the estimation 
in which the members of '* the Trade" were held in that day. '' Booksellers, in 
the gross,*' he says, ''are taken for no better than a pack of knaves and 
atheists." He asserts, however, in opposition to this vulgar prejudice, that 
'' among them there is a retail of men who are. no strangers to religion and 
honesty.*' In his Life and Errors he undertakes ^* to draw the characters of the 
most eminent of that profession in the three kingdoms," — and this is one of the 
most curious and interesting portions of his book. His review of his literary 
contemporaries comprehends also the authors for whom he published, the suc- 
cessive licencers of the press with whom he had to do> his printers, the stationers 
from whom he bought his paper, and even the binders he employed; but wc 
must confine ourselves to a few gleanings from his notices of the booksellers. 

A circumstance that is apt at first to excite some surprise is the apparent ex* 
tent and activity of the publishing business in London at this date. The book- 
sellers were very numerous — those of eminence perhaps more numerous than in 
the present day — and nearly all of them seem to have at least occasionally en- 
gaged in publishing, or printing, as it was called. The impressions, too, we 
apprehend, were in general at least as large as in more recent times ; of some 
descriptions of publications certainly many more copies were thrown off than 
would now find a sale. The fact is, that from the middle of the seventeenth to 
the middle of the eighteenth century was the age of pamphlets ; the century 
that has since elapsed has been the age of periodical publications and of news« 
papers. All controversy and discussion upon the events of the day, and upon 
the reigning questions both of politics and religion, was then carried on by 
occasional writers; even news was to a considerable extent communicated to the 


public io pftmphleU. The gradual ttatMformatioQ of tbU nnra^lated coodition 
of ttuDgs into the organized system that hac taken its place wm according to the 
commoo coarse of nature and the development of society ; and it may be re- 
marked that the tame process is still going on. Publication seems to be falling 
more and more into the form of series and periodical issue ; and who knows but ' 
the time may come when nearly all new works shall be brought out in that 

The bookseller with whose name Dunton heads bis list is Mr. Biohard Cfais- 
well, " who," says be, " well deserves the title of metropolitan bookulUr of 
^England, if not of all the world. His name at the bottom of a title-page does 
sufficiently recommend the book. He has not been known to print either a bad 
book, or on bad paper." Chiswell was the printer of the octavo editioo of ' Til- 
lot8on*B Sermons,' which proved a remarkably successful publication. A short 
account of him may be seen in Strype's ' Stow,' where we are told that he was 
bom in 1639, and died in 1711. Strype, who states that he was one of the pro- 
prietors of his book, characterises him as " a man worthy of great praise." His 
shop was in St. Paul's Churchyard. 

A name now better remembered is that of the wealthy Thomas Guy, the 
founder of the hospital. He lived in Iiombard Street. " He is," says Dunton, 

" a man of strong reason, and can talk very much to the purpose upon any sub- 
ject you will propose." Many of these notices of Dnutou's, by the bye, bear out 
vhat is said by Soger North of the superior acquirements of the booksellers of 
that generation. Thus, Mr. John Lawrence, who, we are informed, " when Mr. 
Parkhurst dies will be the first Presbyterian bookseller in England,'' is declared 
to be " very much conversant in the sacred writings." Of Mr. Samuel Smith, 
bookseller to the Royal Society, it is stated that he " speaks French and lAtin 
with a great deal of fluency and ease." Mr. Halsey was already distinguished, 
we are assured, for " his great ingenuity and knowledge of the learned Ian- 

236 LONDON. 

guages/* though still '' in tke bloom and beauty of his youth." Mr. Joseph Collier, 
irho had been Danton's fellow apprentice^ is affirmed to have " a great deal of 
learning." Of Mr. Shrowsbury it is written, ** He merits the name of uniyersal 
bookseller, and is familiarly acquainted with all the books that arc extant in any 
language.*' Others again are celebrated for their natural abilities. Mr. Bobin- 
son is described as " a mfm very ingenious and of quick parts." " Mr. Shermer- 
dine/' says our author, *' is a man of very quick parts ; I have heard him say he 
would forgive any man that could catch him.'* Mr. Tooke, near Temple Bar 
*-^'^ descended from the ingenious Tooke, that was formerly treasurer" (the 
same Tookes, we suppose^ that claim Friar Tuck as of their family) — is set 
down as both '* truly honest/' and " a man of refined sense.'' Mr. Crooks whose 
shop was in the same quarter, the publisher of many of Hobbes's works, was dead 
when Dunton wrote his book, but " was a man of extraordinary sense," which he 
had the happiness of being able to express in words as manly and apposite as the 
«ense included under them." Of Mr. Pero it is asserted that " for sense, wit, and 
good-humour, there are but few can equal, and none can exceed him." Mr. 
Child is commemorated for " abundance of wit, and nice reasoning, above most 
of his brethren." Of Mr. Benjamin Harris, of Gracechurch Street, it is recorded 
that " his conversation is general, but never impertinent, and his wit pliable to 
all inventions." Mr. Knapton, whose uign was the Crown, in Ludgate Street, 
close by St. Paul's Churchyard — the shop from which issued Tindal's tranalation 
of Hapin's * History of England,' and many more of the most successful publica- 
tions of the earlier part of the last century —is spoken of with warm laudation as 
" a very accomplished person .... made up with solid worth, brave and 
generous." Of Mr. Burroughs, in Little Britain, we have also a high character. 
*' He," says Dunton, " is a very beautiful person, and his wit sparkles as well as 
his eyes. He has as much address, and as great a presence of mind as I ever 
met with. He is diverting company, and perhaps as well qualified to make an 
alderman as any bookseller in Little Britain.'' We see the very aldermen in that 
Augustan age were expected to be somewhat lively. The next who is introduced 
is Mr. Walwyn : ** he," proceeds our encomiastic author, *^ is a person of great 
modesty and wit, and, if I may Judge by his Poems, perhaps the most ingenious 
bard, of a bookseller, in London." Mr. Evets, at the Green Dragon, though not 
talkative, ** has a sudden way of repartee, very witty and surprising." . Mr. 
Swall, now out of business, ** was the owner of a great deal of wit and learning." 
Mr. Fox, in Westminster Hall, " is a refined politician." Mr. Sprint, junior, 
*' has a ready wit — is the handsomest man in the Stationers' Company — and may 
without compliment be called a very accomplished bookseller." Mr. John 
Harris, now dead, had a little body, '^ but what nature denied him in bulk and 
straightness, she gave him in wit and vigour." Mr. Herrick, again, who ia '' a 
tall, handsome man," ** is well skilled in the doctrine of the Christian faith, and 
can discourse handsomely upon the most difficult article in religion." Others, 
finally, are prodigies of both genius and scholarship — as Mr. Samuel Buckley, 
who '' is an excellent linguist, understands the Latin, French, Dutch, and Italian 
tongues, and is master of a great deal of wit." — '' He prints," adds Dunton, " the 
'Daily Courant' and ' Monthly Register,' which I hear ho translates ouJt of the 
foreign papers himself." Buckley, who ultimately became the printer of the 


* London Oazette/ seems to have been an object of special admiraifciimj G»r>«avy, 
to our antfaor^ and bis merits and good fortune are expatiated upon at gceat 
length in varions of his publications. He is known in the republic of letters as 
the learned printer^ and, in fact, editor, of the London editicm of De Thott*s 
' Latin History/ published in 1733, in seven rolumes folio. 

The London booksellers of this era would seem, then, to have formed quite a 
brilliant constellation of wits and literati. But we have not yet by any means 
acquired a complete notion of their fascinations. The following are a few more 
of Dunton's graphic touches : — Mr. Thomas Bonnet is '* a man very neat in his 
dress, and very much devoted to the church." Mr. William Hartley is " a very 
comely, personable man.'* Mr. Nicholas Boddington ''has the satisfaction to 
belong to a very beautiful wife.'* Mr. Bosvile, at the Dial in Fleet Street, '' is a 
very genteel person ; and it is in Mr. Bosvile that all qualities meet that are 
essential to a good churchman or an accomplished bookseller/' Mr. Bichard 
Parker; *' his body is in good case; his face red and plump ; his eyes brisk and 
sparkling; of an humble look and behaviour; naturally witty; and fortunate in 
all he prints." Mr. Wellington, among other qualifications, *' has a pretty knack 
at keeping his word.'' Mr. William Miller, deceased, '* had the largest collection 
of stitched books [pamphlets] of any man in the world, and could furnish the 
clergy (at a dead lift) with a printed sermon on any text or occasion ;*' ** his per- 
son was tall and slender ; he had a graceful aspect (neither stem nor effeminate) ; 
bis eyes were smiling and lively ; his complexion was of an honey colour^ and he 
breathed as if he had run a race ; the figure and symmetry of his face exactly 
proportionable ; he had a soft voice, and a very obliging tongue ; he was very 
moderate in his eating, drinking, and sleeping; and was blest with a gpreat 
memory." Mr. Gilliflower '' loved his bottle and his fnend with an equal affec- 
tion." Mr. Philips '* is a grave, modest bachelor, and it is said is married to a 
single life ; which I wonder at, for doubtless nature meant him a conqueror over 
all hearts, when she gave him such sense and such piety : his living so long a 
bachelor shows his refined nature." Mr. Smith, near the Royal Exchange ; " his 
fair soul is tenant to a lovely and well-proportioned body.'' Mr. Harding is " of 
a lovely proportion, extremely well made, as handsome a mien and as good an 
air as perhaps few of his neighbours exceed him.*' Mr. Thomas Simmons, for- 
merly of Ludgate Street ; *' his conjugal virtues have deserved to be set as an 
example to the primitive age." Mr. Harrison, by the Boyal Exchange ; ** his 
person is of the middle size; his hair inclines to a brown, but his care and con- 
cern for his family will soon change it into a white, at once the emblem of his 
innocence and his virtue.'' Mr. Jonathan Greenwood " is a rare example of 
conjugal love and chastity." Mr. Isaac Cleave, in Chancery Xiane, '' is a \Gty 
chaste, modest man." Mr. Place, near Furnival's Inn ; '' his face is of a claret 
complexion, but himself is a very sober, pious man." Never j certainly, before or 
since,, were all the graces, both of mind and body, so generally diffused among 
any class of men as among these old London booksellers. 

The gpreatest bodcseller that had been in England for many years, according 
to Dcmlon, was the late Mr. Oeorge Sawbridge. He left his four daughters 
portions of 1 0,000^. a^^piece, and was succeeded in his business by his son of the 
sMne^ names. The two most famous characters in the list are Jacob Tonson and 

Bernud Lintott, immortalised by the association of their names with the wriUogs 
and wranglingB of Drydcn and Pope, and the other wita and literary celebritiea 
of that age. But there ia nothing in the notice of either that is of much interest. 
Xiiatott Dunton affirms to be a man of very good principles. Tonson, he says, 
" was bookseller to the famous Dryden, and is himself a very good judge of 

persons and authors ; and, as there is nobody more competently qualified to g;iTe 
their opinion of another, so there is none tvho docs it with a more severe exact- 
ness or with less partiality ; for, to do Mr. Tooson justice, he speaks his mind 
upon all occasions, and will flatter nobody." 

One short paragraph is interesting as connecting the present time with the 
past, or at least a recent with a more distant age. Mr. Ballard " is," says 
Dunton, " a young bookseller in Little Britain ; but is grown man in body now, 
but more in mind : — 

" His looks arc In the mother's beButy dreued, 
And sll the father be» informed his breast." 

This Mr. Ballard is said to have been the last survivor of the booluellera of 
Little Britain, and to have died in the same house in which he began trade at 
the age of upwards of a hundred. If he lived, indeed, till about the year 1795, 
as ia asserted in Nightingale's 'London and Middlesex,' he most hare been con- 
siderably more than a centenarian. But it is probable that there is a mistake 
of a few years in this date. It is not in 1729, as Nightingale supposes, but in 
1705, that Dunton speaks of Mr. Ballard as a young man rising in business. 

"Hugo Lintott" and " Left-legged Jacob" are the only two of the four ccm- 
petitors in the immortal contests of the second book of the 'Dunciad' that are 
mentioned by Dunton ; the other two, Osborne and Curll, were as yet unknown 
to fame. Thomas Osborne, whose shop was the same that had been occupied 
by Lintott, under the gateway of Gray's Inn, was, we believe, a respectable 


enough man; he is celebrated as the purchaser of the printed books of the 
library of Harley Earl of Oxford, and the publisher of the Harleian Miscellany, 
and also of two folio volumes of scarce Voyages and Travels, reprinted from 
that collection. Pope charges him With having cut down the folio copies of his 
Iliad to the size of the subscription copies, which were in quarto, and sold them 
as subscription copies ; but he was probably not guilty of any such misrepre- 
sentation ; if he found that the public preferred the quarto to the folio size, he 
had a perfect right to cut down hii books accordingly. The discomfiture, how- 
ever, to which the revengeful poet dooms him for this ingenious manoeuvre is, 
it must be admitted, inimitably happy and appropriate. 

The notorious Edmund Curll kept shop in Bobo Street, Covent Garden, 
having Pope's Head for his sign. As the castigation bestowed on him in the 
glorious satire is more severe and merciless than that dealt out to any of his 
comrades in suffering, so his offence, or offences rather, had been much the 
most atrocious. He appears to have first thrown himself into collision with 
Pope by publishing a duodecimo volume of early Letters written by the poet to 
his friend Henry Cromwell, Esq., which that gentleman had given to Mrs. 
Eliza Thomas, the " Curll's Corinna" of the Dunciad, and which she had sold 
to Curll. This was in 1727. Four more volumes followed, under the title of 
'Mr. Pope's Literary Correspondence,' the last of which appeared in 1736; but 
in these there were only two or three genuine letters of Pope's : the rest of their 
contents consisted partly of forgeries in his name, but mostly of matter, much of 
it grossly indecent, which, notwithstanding the title-page, it was not even pre- 
tended in the body of the book that he had anything to do with. Curll, whose 
name has become a synonyme for every thing most disreputable in the trade of 
defamation and obscenity, richly deserved all he met with at Pope's hands. The 
only pity is that he probably would not feel it — any more than he had felt his 
exposuTC in the pillory a few years before for one of his atrocious publications — 
upon which occasion it is said that, by getting printed papers dispersed among 
the people telling them that he stood there for vindicating the memory of Queen 
Anne, he not only saved himself from being pelted, but, when he was taken down, 
was carried off by the mob, as it were in triumph, to a neighbouring tavern. 

The early part of the eighteenth century, we have said, was still an age of 
pamphleteering. This system was first effectually broken in upon by the inge- 
nious and enterprising Edward Cave^ who, conceiving the notion of substituting a 
single vehicle of information and disctltsion^ to appear at regular intervals, for 
the numerous occasional papers which then Constituted our ephemeral literature, 
brought out the first number of the * Gentleman's Magazine' on the 31st of 
January, 1731. The speculation was immediately and eminently successful; the 
Magazine soon dried up the occasional papers^ as the formation of a deep drain 
or reservoir of water does all the minor springs in its neighbourhood ; and its 
founder^ a man of humble origin, little edttcation^ and nobody to help him for- 
ward in the world but himself, was made rich and fkmous, as he deserved to be, 
by his lucky project. The ' Gentleman's Magazine' — now well entitled to bo 
styled the ' Old Gentleman's Magazine' — still perseveres in coming out every 
month, with a tenacity of life^ and constancy to early habits, above all praise. 

Perhaps the next great revolution in the commercial ^stem of our literature 
was that brought about by James Laclcin^ton, of the Temple of the Mnses, in 
Finsbury Square, who may be called the father of cheap bookselling and cheap 
reprinting. Lackington, also, like Cave, of obscure parentage, and the architect 
of his own fortunes, has himself told us the story of his rise to greatness in a 
very remarkable performance, entitled Memoirs of the First Forty-fire Years 
of his Life. But he belongs to the subject, not of the Old but of the Modem 
booksellers of London; for his book was first published at so late a date as 1791, 
and he lived till 1615. Though we cannot enter upon his doings and character, 
however, his efBgies may fitly enough close our paper. 

CCxetn Hill, tnm Uu Stnnd.] 


Thb flocial principle applied in carrying out the de&igna of charity and benevo- 
lence is a remarkable feature of the present times. There are so many objects 
of this nature vhich it is quite clear no single-handed exertions could compass 
that the union of numbers to effect them must be regarded as an improvement 
of vast importance. It is this spirit of ^gregation which has extended so widely 
the scope of philanthropic efforts, and given them a larger sphere of action. 
The entire world is grasped in the designs of modem philanthropy : the strength 
of individual charity has perhaps been weakened by the effort. In old times how 
splendid were its noble gifts and endowments. Though directed towards few 
objects, the benefit conferred was generally substantial and often of striking 
utility, evincing a liberal and thoughtful public spirit which we cannot think of 
without a deep sense of admiration. Many of the founders of our grammar- 
schools, who perhaps came to London from some remote part of the country in 

VOL. V. R 

242 LONDON. 

early life, and raised themselves from indigence to wealth, marked their sense of 
the blessings they had enjoyed by endowing an institution for education in their 
native place, where boys were to be instructed ''in learning and good manners;" 
or ''in grammar and other good learning;'* or " freely and carefully taught and 
instructed;*' or "piously educated;" or instructed "in religion and good lite- 
rature." The number of these nurseries for youth in every part of England are 
noble monuments of the wisdom and charity of our ancestors. The schools which 
early in June every year pour forth their thousands into St. Pauls belong to 
another era in the history of educational charities, and such of them as are en- 
dowed were mostly established during the last century, though two or three came 
into existence just at the close of the seventeenth century. The assemblage of 
the children took place for the first time in 1704, in St. Andrew*s, Holbom, when 
2000 were present ; and subsequently they met at St. Bride's, Fleet Street. In 
1 782, 5000 of the children assembled for the first time at St. PauVs, where they 
have since annually been collected, and the effect of so large a number uniting 
their voices in the responses and the singing is highly impressive and affecting. 
That eccentric but powerful artist, Blake, was probably present at the anniver- 
sary of 178*2, for in his singular little volume entitled 'Songs of Innocence/ he 
has the following lines on the occasion : — 

•• 'Twas on a Holy Thursday, their innocent faces clean, 
The children walking two and two, in red and blue and green. 
Grey-headed beadles walk'd before with wands as white as snow. 
Till into the high dome of Paurs they like Thames' waters flow. 

** O, what a multitude they seem'd, these flowers of London town« 
Seated in companies they sit, with radiance all their own ; 
The hum of multitudes was there, but multitudes of lambs. 
Thousands of little boys and girls raising their innocent hands. 

*^ Now like a mighty vrind they raise to heaven the voice of song. 
Or like harmonious thunderings the seats of heaven among ; 
Beneath them sit the aged men, wise guardians of the poor ; 
Then cherish pity lest you drive an angel from your door.*' 

Proceed wc, however, to the more complicated schemes of modem charity, or 
at least those of them which naturally suggest themselves in connexion with 
Exeter Hall ; and something must wc say also of the general influence which 
brings the place into importance as an actual and living part of our institutions, 
as, in these days, a sort of " fourth estate'* of the realm. 

St. Stephen's is not better known as the seat of legislation than Exeter Hall as 
the recogpiised temple of modern philanthropy. The associations connected with 
it are peculiarly characteristic of an age which, in many respects, is marked and 
distinct from all other eras in the history of the national manners, and which had 
scarcely exhibited any of its phases half a century ago. He who would rightly esti- 
mate the present power and influence of our various institutions, must be blind 
if he omit all consideration of the moral and religious feelings which are concen- 
trated at Exeter Hall, and there find a voice which is heard from one extremity 
of the kingdom to the other. In order clearly to understand that the spirit which 
animates tho frequenters of this place is distinctly a feature of the present age, 
we must go back to the period when Exeter Hall was not^ before Freemasons* 


Hall or the Crown and Anchor had resounded with the plaudits of the religious 
and benevolent, even before the '* religious world *' itself existed. We must 
retrace briefly the progress and the efflux of improvement in manners and habits, 
for at times the tide has advanced, and then again it has receded. 

The supremacy of the Puritans, and their fervour of spirit, might, tmder more 
genial circumstances, have produced enlarged and comprehensive schemes of 
benevolence such as we now see ; but, as it was, under the influence of political 
and religious fanaticism combined, zeal degenerated into bigotry, and warmth of 
devotion into a narrow ascetism. A more healthy tone would have succeeded 
this fever, no doubt, but the national feeling of merry England revolted against 
the puritanical system, and then succeeded by way of reaction the trifling and 
profligate temper of the Restoration. The thoughtless spirit both of the court 
and the country, at this period, were altogether incompatible with earnest moral 
efibrts of any kind. The Revolution checked the light-heartedness of the nation, 
which had been already over-shadowed by the gloomy character of James II. In 
the reign of Anne a more zealous religious temper again prevailed. In 1692 
societies were instituted for the reformation of manners, which dealt much in 
warrants, and placed too great a reliance on the constable. In 1688 the Society 
for Promoting Christian Knowledge, now the most venerable institution of the 
kind, was established for the education and religious instruction of the poor in 
the principles of the Established Church. In June, 1701, the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, which had been already some time 
in existence, was incorporated, its chief members being the prelates and digni- 
taries of the Established Church, and some of the most eminent persons in the 
State. In the third year, after it had received its Charter, the receipts amounted 
to 864/. ; and the first printed list of subscribers, in 1718, contained 260 names. 
The British Colonies are to be understood as the " Foreign Parts," to which 
the Society confined its operations. The year before it was incorporated, the 
question of counteracting the political influence of the French Missionaries in 
Canada was much agitated, and partly from political motives, as well as from feel* 
ings of interest in their welfare, the Society's first efforts for the conversion of the 
heathen were made among the American Indians ; but at a very early period the 
Society gave its support to the Danish Foreign Mission, which was commenced 
under Frederic IV., about 1705, and sent spiritual labourers to the Danish settle- 
ments in India. The reports of these missionaries were translated from the 
Danish, and for many years published annually in England, under the title of 
" A Brief Account of the Measures taken in Denmark for the Conversion of the 
Heathen." Nearly a century elapsed after the establishment of the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel before any kindred institution arose in England. 
The existence of the two Societies above-mentioned, and of those for the reforma- 
tion of manners, is a proof of a more zealous spirit having partially found its way 
into the Church, and also to some, though not perhaps to any great extent, into 
society generally. But it is unquestionable that the reigns of the First and 
Second Georges were characterised by an extraordinary degree of apathy in the 
Church, and amongst the higher classes, on religious, moral, and social questions. 
At length the zeal and energy of Wesley and Whitefield aroused the Church from 
its slumbers, and it began slowly to awaken to a sense of the duties required from 


244 LONDON. 

it» nod from all who enjoyed wealth and influence ; but not until the religious 
fervour of the poorer classes had been already powerfully excited by the system 
of Methodism, and they were ready to point indignantly at the Church as an 
obstacle rather than a guide. There needed yet a religious regenerator, whose 
▼oiee would be listened to in high places, for there the moral insensibility was as 
dull as ever. At the period which just preceded the French Bevolution, *' the 
gay and busy world were almost ignorant of Christianity, amidst the lukewarm- 
ness and apathy which possessed the very watchmen of the faith."* Amongst the 
most conspicuous of those who endeavoured to regenerate the national spirit were 
Wilberforoe and Hannah More. Wilberforce proposed to form an association, 
like its precursor in 1692, to resist the spread of open immorality. His plan was, 
in the first instance, to obtain a Boyal proclamation against vice, and then to form 
an association for carrying it into effect* Writing to Mr. Hey, of Leeds, in May, 
1787, he announces that in a few days he would hear of *' a proclamation being 
issued for the discouragement of vice, of letters being written by the Secretaries 
of State to the Lords Lieutenant, expressing his Majesty's pleasure that they re- 
commend it throughout their several counties, to be active in the execution of the 
laws against immoralities, and of a Society being formed in London for the pur- 
pose of carry into effect his Majesty's good and generous intentions » . , . The 
objects to which the Committee will direct their attention are the offences spe- 
cified in the proclamation, — profanation of the Sabbath, swearing, drunkenness, 
licentious publications, unlicensed places of public amusement, the regulation of 
licensed places, &c'* He mentions in this letter that he had received a formal 
invitation to cards, for Sunday evening, from a person high in the king's service. 
In June, Wilberforoe was visiting the bishops in their respective dioceses, as he 
wished to communicate with them separately, *' lest the scruples of a few might 
prevent the acquiescence of the rest*'* His sons state, in the biography of their 
father, that ** the Society was soon in active and useful operation. The Duke of 
Montagu opened his house for its reception, and presided over its meetings, — a 
post which was filled after bis death by the late Lord (Chancellor) Bathurst, who 
was followed by Bishop Porteus ; and before its dissolution it had obtained many 
valuable Acts of Parliament, and greatly checked the spread of blasphemous and 
indecent publications." Its existence was, at all events, a proof that the apathy 
of former years was passing away. In 1 788 Hannah More published ' Thoughts 
on the Manners of the Great/ with a view of inducing them to reflect on the 
levity of many of their pursuits. In fact this class began to be seriously annoyed 
at the invasion of their pleasures by the greater strictness which public opinion 
now demanded from them. In 1791 Hannah More again endeavoured to arouse 
attention by her ' Estimate of the Beligion of the Fashionable World.' In 1796 
she had commenced writing the first of the modern religious tracts. Bishop 
Porteus, writing to her in January, 1797, says, " The sublimo and immortal pub- 
lication, of the ' Cheap Repository,' I hear of from every quarter of the globe." 
Two millions of these tracts were disposed of in the first year. In 1 797, Wilber- 
force published his ' Practical Christianity,* a work which had undoubtedly a 
great effect on the higher classes. Within half » year, five editions« of altogether 

♦ ♦ 

Lifd of WUb«rf((»rce,* hy hti Som. 


7500 copiei, were printed. This popularity is to be attributed partly to the 
author's intimate friendship with Mr. Pitt^ and his connexion with the most dis- 
tinguished men of the day> and partly also to the warmer and more earnest moral 
spirit which began to prevaiL In 1798 attempts at legislative interference 
having been dropped, Wilberforce was active in inducing persons of the higher 
ranks to adopt a voluntary engagement to promote the observance of the Sabbath* 
Hannah More^ writing from Bishop Porteus*s^ at Fulham> in 1 797, saysi '* The 
' Morning Chronicle/ and other pious newspapers, have laboured to throw such a 
stigma on the association for the better observance of the Sunday, that the timid 
great are steering o% and very few indeed have signed." The Bishop of Durham 
laid the declaration before George III. ; but Wilberforce states in his ' Diary^' 
that the king " turned the conversation.'* Wilberforce himself waited upon the 
Speaker to induce him to give up his Sunday parliamentary dinners, but the 
first Commoner in the land grew angry, and took his interference as a personal 
insult. In 1799 a bill was brought into Parliament for the suppression of Sunday 
newspapers, which Pitt promised to support, but Dundas induced him to retract 
his pledge, on the plea that three out of the four Sunday newspapers supported 
the ministry ; and after Sheridan*s gibes at the measure it was thrown out on the 
second reading* Hannah More relates a more hopeful incident on the authority 
of Lady Cremorne, who told her that on coming down stairs on Sunday morning 
at eight o'clock, she found " Admiral C, another Admiral, and a General^ with 
their Bibles, each separately, in different parts of the roomi and so at times all 
the day." Then, in 1805, seven years afterwards, she writes from Fulham that 
the Bishop of London was making a stand against Sunday concerts. " He has," 
she says, <' written an admirable letter> very strong and very pious, but tem- 
perate and well-mannered, to all the great ladies concerned in this un- Christian 
practice. They have in general behaved well, and promised amendment." Again 
writing from Fulham, in 1809, she says that the Bishop (Porteus) having heard 
of the institution of a club, under the patronage of the Prince of Wales, which 
was to meet on a Sunday, he asked for an audience to entreat the Prince to fix on 
some other day. '' Supported by two servants, and hardly able to move with 
their assistance, he got to the apartment of the Prince, and with agitated earnest* 
ness conjured him to fix on some other day for this meeting. The Prince re- 
ceived him most graciously, seemed much affected, said it was not a new institu- 
tion, and that it was founded on charity, but that if the day could be changed to 
Saturday it should." A few months before, Perceval, the Prime Minister^ had 
been induced to alter the day for Parliament meeting, which, as it was to have 
been Monday, would have involved the necessity of a g^eat amount of Sunday 
travelling. Wilberforce drew his attention to this circumstance, tod the Minister 
apologized for the inadvertency ; and two days after he Avrote to Wilberforce, 
stating that the meeting was postponed to Thursday, *' to obviate the objections 
which you have suggested." In his ' Diary/ Wilberforce says, '' The House 
put off nobly by Perceval, because of the Sunday travelling it would occasion." 
Sunday card-parties and Sunday concerts amongst the higher classes are now un- 
heard of; as the more thoughtful views which this class entertain^ as well as 
the general state of public opinion, have put an end to such a mode of spending 
any portion of the Sunday* 

246 LONDON. 

There are two subjects involving religious^ moral, and political considerations, 
on which the stricter (and in so many things juster) spirit of the last fifty years 
has exercised a most important influence. The death-blow of slavery may be 
said to have proceeded from Exeter Hall ; and the abolition of capital punish- 
ment, except for atrocious crimes, is the result of the same religious feeling. 
Seventy years ago Granville Sharpe proved slavery to be illegal in England. 
Sixty years ago Bishop Porteus preached against the Slave Trade. A quarter 
of a century elapsed, and in 1 807, after arduous struggles, the trade is abolished. 
Another quarter of a century runs its course, and in 1833 an Act is passed for 
emancipating every slave in the British dominions. The agitation of this ques- 
tion for seventy years, the discussions to which it led of the rights of humanity 
and the principles of justice and Christianity, were singularly favourable to the 
development of the peculiar spirit which has its altars at Exeter Hall. For 
some years the struggle was chiefly confined to Parliament, aided by friends of 
abolition here and there. The public were spectators rather than actors, deeply 
interested ones no doubt, but not assembling in '' conventions" and great '' aboli« 
tion meetings," to concentrate public opinion in its utmost strength, as they have 
done since the formation of the Anti-Slavery Society in 1823. It was in 1792 
that many of the friends of abolition determined to abstain from the consumption 
of West India produce, so long as it was raised by slaves. " We use East 
Indian sugar entirely, '^ writes Mr. Babington to Mr. Wilberforce, " and so do 
full tATo-thirds of the friends of abolition in Leicester.*' Mr. W. Smith says to 
Wilberforce, ''Please to take notice that I have left off sugar completely and 
entirely for some time past, and shall certainly persevere in my resolution, though 
I am not yet at all reconciled to the deprivation of the most favourite gratifica- 
tion of my palate.*' Associations were rapidly formed to stop the consumption 
of West India produce, and Wilberforce, it appears, was at first disposed to re- 
commend this course, but he afterwards decided *' that it should be suspended 
until, if necessary, it might be adopted with effect by general concurrence." 
The struggle excited a bitterness of feeling amongst some of the West Indian 
body which fifty years ago showed itself in ways calculated to astonish those who 
are accustomed to the more tolerant spirit of the present day. ** The box in 
which our petition is enclosed," says a Glasgow correspondent to Mr. Wilber- 
force, ''has been directed to another, that its contents may be unsuspected.'* 
Residents in Liverpool, of the same rank in life as Dr. Currie, asked of Mr. 
Wilberforce, '* If you write, be pleased to direct without franking it." The 
biographers of Wilberforce state that the anti- slavery correspondence was in 
many instances conducted " in unsigned letters, sent under the covers of unsus- 
pected persons." In a letter which did not at all allude to West Indian matters^ 
and was therefore openly transmitted to Mr. Wilberforce, Dr. Currie adds this 
postscript, " Trusting this letter to our post-oflSce with your address, I shall be 
anxious to hear of its safe arrival." Besides the selfishness of traders there 
were other obstacles to be encountered, and the strength of the parliamentary 
opposition may be judged of from the fact that in 1804 four of the royal family 
came down to the House of Lords to vote against the abolition of the Slave 
Trade : . it had, however, been carried in the Commons. 

The amelioration of our sanguinary criminal laws eneountered difiiculties 


almost as great as those which retarded the abolition of the Slave Trade. It is 
but justice to state that in 1750 a committee of the House of Commons on the 
laws relating to felonies reported ''that it was reasonable to exchange the 
punishment of death for some other reasonable punishment;*' and a Bill founded 
on this resolution passed the House of Commons, but was rejected by the Lords. 
The question rested here for above half a century, until, in 1808, Sir Samuel 
fiomilly brought forward his first motion for the reform of the criminal laws, and 
an Act was passed for abolishing the punishment of death for pocket-picking 
(stealing privately from the person to the value of five shillings). In 1810 Sir 
Samuel RomilIy*s Bill to abolish capital punishment for the crime of stealing 
privately in a shop to the amount of five shillings was rejected in the House of 
Lords by a majority of -31 to 11. In the majority w^re not fewer than seven 
prelates, namely, the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishops of London and 
Salisbury, Dampicr, Bishop of Ely, Luxmore, Bishop of Hereford, Sparke, the 
new Bishop of Chester, and Porter, an Irish bishop. It was alleged as a reason 
for not going further that the crime of pocket-picking had alarmingly increased 
since the capital punishment for it had been abolished ; but it was forgotten that 
the increased number of convictions was rather a proof of the success of the 
former measure, for the previous inordinate severity of the law prevented those 
who bad been robbed from prosecuting, and crime was encouraged by impunity. 
In 1813 the Bill to repeal the Shoplifting Act was again thrown out in the 
Lords, and two royal dukes and five bishops were in the majority, with the Lord 
Chancellor and the ministers. In 1816, althongh the measure had several times 
passed the Commons, it was still pending ; and on Romilly bringing it forward 
this year, he stated that a boy of only ten years of age had been convicted at 
the Old Bailey under the Act, and was then lying under sentence of death in 
Newgate ; and he drew attention to the fact, because, some time before, the Be- 
corder of London had declared from the bench that it was the determination of 
the Prince Begent, in consequence of the number of boys who had been lately 
detected in committing felonies, to make an example of the next offender of this 
description. A few months afterwards a boy of sixteen was actually hung at 
Newgate for highway robbery. The Bill was again rejected. In February, 
1818, it was again brought in by its author, who alluded to the ill success of 
excessive severity in repressing forgery ; for though the Crown seldom pardoned, 
the offence was rapidly increasing. Sir Samuel Bomilly died in the autumn of 
the same year, and the progress of enlightened opinion has enabled others to 
carry out his benevolent views, while time has proved that they were not less 
benevolent than practically successful in securing the object at which he aimed. 
In 1819, 20, 21, 22, there were 426 persons executed in England and Wales, 
and in the four years ending with 1841, only 36. Persons being less reluctant to 
prosecute, the number of convictions has increased from 58 to 72 out of every 
100 oiSenders. The proportion of atrocious offences has been gradually 
diminishing, and those against property committed without violtace have in- 
creased from 73 per cent, in 1834 to 79 per cent, in 1841. These facts show 
that, on some important questions, there is not only the enthusiasm of warm and 
generous tempers in the Exeter Hall spirit, but at times excellent sense and 
sound philosophy. The State Iiotteries fell before the same power. Lastly, the 

248 LONDON. 

cruel practices connected with the employment of climbing boys in sweeping 
chimneys have been abolished. 

It must be confessed that a dilettanti spirit of enthusiasm and benevolence, 
which disregards the attainment of practical objects by plain means, is sometimes 
rather too prominent at Exeter Hall, though it is true that the influential leaders 
here are generally at the same time conspicuous for their activity in promoting 
good works generally ; but this is scarcely sufficient to redeem the mass from the 
charge of an insensibility to evils less remote than those which, in many instances, 
exclusively bring their sympathies into full play. Carried away by the grandeur 
of the object they propose to accomplish, they are led to applaud ill-considered 
and impracticable modes of attaining it. This is very creditable perhaps to their 
feelings, warmed into excitement by declamatory appeals under which the imagi* 
nation becomes too powerful for the reason and intelligence of the listeners. Thus 
the famous Niger expedition, with its model farms and apparatus and schemes 
for civilizing Africa, finds favour at Exeter Hall, while the safe and practical 
plan set on foot by the government for promoting the emigration of the natives 
of Africa to the British Colonies in the West, and who, after acquiring a higher 
civilization, and valuable knowledge of the arts of life, would return to Africa to 
disseminate in that barbaric land the seeds of improvement ; — ^this is a measure^ 
though protected by every necessary check which can be thought of, which is 
loudly denounced. From Exeter Hall the view of remote evils is more distinct than 
of those which lie everywhere around us. The eye pierces, as well as it can, into 
the obscure horizon, but does not behold the objects at hand which stand broadly 
in the full daylight, because its gaze, though embracing the furthest limits of the 
globe, is not directed downward as well. This characteristic has led a nervous 
and powerful writer into one of his striking apostrophes : — " O Anti-Slavery 
Convention/' he exclaims, 'Moud-sounding, long-eared Exeter Hall! But in 
thee too is a kind of instinct towards justice, and I will complain of nothing. Only 
black Quashee over the seas being once sufficiently attended to, wilt not thou 
perhaps open thy dull sodden eyes to the hunger-stricken, pallid, y«//oio-coloured 
' free labourers' in Lancashire, Yorkshire, Buckinghamshire, and all other shires? 
These yellow-coloured for the present absorb all my sympathies: if I had 
twenty millions, with model farms and Niger expeditions, it is to these that I 
would give them. Quashee has already victuals, clothing ; Quashee is not dying 
of such despair as the yellow-coloured pale man's. Quashee, it must be owned, is 
hitherto a kind of blockhead. The Haiti Duke of Marmalade, educated now for 
almost half a century, seems to have next to no sense in him. Why, in one of those 
Lancashire weavers, dying of hunger, there is more thought and heart, a greater 
arithmetical amount of misery and desperation, than in whole gangs of Quashees. 
It must be owned, thy eyes are of the sodden sort ; and with thy emancipations, 
and thy twenty-millionings, and long^eared clamourings, thou, like Bobespierre 
with his pasteboard Eire Suprime, threatenest to become a bore to us, ' jivec ion 
Eire Supreme iu commences m'embSter!* "* Thus much it may be remarked in 
defence of Exeter Hall, — that as the consideration of domestic evils can rarely be 
separated from questions to which a political character, whether rightly or wrongly, 
is given, it may be that most of those who, in moral and religious qusstionsj dis- 

* Mr. Cftrlyle't < Past and Present.* 


play such strong and fervid feelings^ fear nevertheless to plunge into the 
waters of politics, and content themselves with exertions of a private nature. 

We have, however, paused too long on the threshold, and will now notice 
Sxeter Hall itself. In 1629 the Strand was deformed by an ill-shaped clnmsy 
building called Exeter 'Change, of which an account has already been given** 
The wild beasts at Exeter 'Change were lions of the town quite as much as those 
of the Tower. The menagerie was removed in 1832. " Passing one day,*' says 
Mr. Leigh Hunt, " by Exeter 'Change, we beheld a sight strange enough to wit- 
neas in a great thoroughfare — ^afine horse startled, and pawing the ground, at the 
roar of lions and tigers. It was at the time probably when the beasts were being 
fed." When it was determined to pull down the old 'Change and widen the 
street, several persons of influence in the religious world proposed a scheme for 
building a large edifice, which should contain rooms of different sices, to be ap- 
propriated exclusively to the uses of religious and benevolent societies, especially 
for their anniversary meetings^ with committee-rooms and ofiices for several 
societies whose apartments were at that time crowded in houses taken for the 
purpose, as is the case at present with several scientific bodies, who might take a 
hint on the subject, and erect a large building for their joint accommodation. 
Exeter Hall was completed in 1831. It attracts little attention from the pas* 
senger, as the frontage is very narrow, and the exterior simply consists of a lofty 
portico formed of two handsome Corinthian pillars, with a flight of steps from 
the street to the Hall door. But when any great meeting is assembled, or is 
about to break up, there is no mistaking the place. The building stretches 
backward and extends to tho right and left a considerable space. The Strand 
entrance leads to a wide passage, which at the extremity branches off into 
transverse passages. Two flights of steps, which meet above, lead to the 
grreat Hall, ninety feet broad, one hundred and thirty-eight long, and forty-eight 
high. It will hold four thousand persons, and, with scarcely any discomfort, 
a much larger number. The ranges of one half the seats rise in an amphi« 
theatrical form, and the platform, at one end, is raised about six feet, and will 
accommodate five hundred persons. The " chair " in the front is not unlike 
that of Edward the Confessor in Westminster Abbey. The speakers, near the 
front, are accommodated with chairs, behind which rise rows of benches. Two 
flights of steps extend from the front row to the entrances at the back. Eight 
or nine years ago the capacity of the g^eat Hall was enlarged by the erection of 
a gallery at the end opposite the platform, and two or three years afterwards the 
curve of the platform on each side was extended into galleries reaching a con- 
siderable distance into the middle of the room along the walls. When the Hall 
is quite filled the sight is grand and striking. An habitual attendant at Exeter 
Hidl, in his ' BeooUections,' has described the (to him) familiar aspect of the 
place on these occasions : — *' The finest view is from the deep recesses behind the 
platform. Below you Ues the platform, slanting downwards, and extending into 
a crescent shape, with its crowds sitting or standing ; beyond them is the large 
flat surface of the area, its close benches all filled, and the avenues among them 
occupied by chairs or by persons who are fain to stand for want of sitting-room. 
Behind this are the raised seats, gradually appearing one behind another, and 
occupying a space equal to half the size of the whole room; all again fully 

* No, XXXVL, ToL ii, p. 174. 

250 LONDON. 

crowded, and the descending steps among the benches filled by the standing 
multitude. Over their heads, the whole scene is crowned by the back gallery, 
at a height of many feet. Those who wish to realise the idea of ' a sea of heads ' 
should take this view of Exeter Hall on some popular occasion. When sucb an 
assembly rises, for prayer or praise, at the beginning or end of a meeting, the 
sight is still more stupendous^ and the degree of sound they are able to produce, 
in the way of cheering or singing, is almost incredible. There have been occa- 
sions when that vast room has rung with the voices of those assembled within its 
walls ; and a second peal of cheers succeeding, before the echos of the first have 
died away, the noise altogether has been of a nature that few persons could hear 
unmoved.'* Underneath the great Hall is a smaller one, with a gallery and 
platform adapted to the size of the apartment, but it has no raised seats. There 
are sometimes meetings in both halls at the same time, and the acclamations of 
the larger audience reverberating in the smaller hall, a speaker unaccustomed 
to the place perhaps pauses until the plaudits have died away, thinking they 
proceeded from the audience he was addressing. From April to the end of May 
about thirty different societies hold their anniversary meetings at Exeter Hall, 
either in the larger or smaller hall, the latter of which will hold about a 
thousand persons; and there is one still smaller which will hold about a 
fourth of this number. On great occasions the street entrance is often crowded 
for some time before the doors are opened, which is usually about two hours 
before the chair is taken. Instances have occurred in which persons have 
been waiting for the opening of the doors from the early hour of seven in the 
morning. To fill up the vacant time, books and newspapers are resorted to, and 
even needle-work is taken out; but in general, if the visitor arrive an hour 
before the chair is taken, there will be no difiiculty in obtaining room. The 
number of tickets issued is always greater than the Hall will contain, as those 
experienced in such matters are able to form a tolerably correct fatimaftft of the 
number who, from various circumstances, will not be able to attend. A singular 
instance of mistaken reckoning on this point occurred on Thursday, the 1st of 
June, 1843, when the largest meeting assembled which had ever been known at 
Exeter Hall. The weather had been for some time so unfavourable that about 
ten thousand tickets were issued, under the idea that a full meeting would not 
be obtained without making an unusually large allowance for the absence of 
those whose attendance would be prevented by the weather ; but the object of 
the meeting was felt to be so important that the muster was two or three times 
as great as was anticipated, and though the smaller hall received the overflow* 
ings of the larger one, there were still two or three thousand persons who could 
not gain admittance after the doors were opened at eight o'clock in the morning. 
Many of these assembled at Great Queen Street Chapel, which was filled by about 
fifteen hundred persons. The object of the meeting is interesting as an illustration 
of the Exeter Hall spirit, being for the purpose of promoting Christian union 
among the different religious bodies in this country. On the platform were to 
be seen clergymen of the Established Church and ministers of all the dissenting 
comtnunities of Christians, A report was read in which the desire was expressed 
that the meeting should " forget their distinctive opinions in the contemplation 
of their common Christianity as a suflScient ground of fraternal regard and con- 
fidenc^t" Th^ document went on to say that '' no practical object is connected 


with this meeting. It has been felt to be necessary^ firsts to raise the tone of 
Christian feeling and communion^ by confining attention to the object already 
stated ; and by exercises of a hallowed nature, adapted to promote it, in the 
hope that our combining together in any great movement, either for the defence 
or propagation of the common faith, might thus be rendered more practical, and 
more likely to be of a sound and lasting character.'* The enthusiasm which pre* 
vails at meetings of this kind, and at the ^' May meetings" generally, would sur- 
prise most persons. A large proportion of those present arc females of that 
portion of the middle classes who are in easy circumstances, who arc shut out by 
their views, opinions, and habits from many of the common sources of emotion. 
At Exeter Hall, their sympathies are powerfully exercised ; the range of subjects 
in which they are most conversant are dwelt upon with exciting interest ; the 
imagination is awakened, and distant objects are viewed in an enchanted light. 
Considering the topics of declamation which abound at Exeter Hall, many of 
them truly grand in their scope and character, it is not at all wonderful that 
their discussion should inflame the mind and kindle the religious and moral 
feelings of the hearers. In scenes like those witnessed at Exeter Hall, there is, 
as Wilberforce remarks, " a moral sublimity which, if duly estimated, would be 
worthy of the tongues of angels.*' The artist finds in such scenes a great sub- 
ject for the pencil. It is sufficient to refer to Haydon*s Picture of the Great 
Meeting of Delegates for the Abolition of Slavery and the Slave Trade through- 
out the World, held in June, 1840, under the presidency of the venerable 
Clarkson. The artist left his painting-room unwillingly, in the belief that the 
scene would be one of a very common-place character. The account of his visit 
is graphic and striking, and we' give an extract from it as being calculated to 
familiarize the reader with the general spirit of a great religious meeting. " In 
a few minutes an unaffected man got up, and informed the meeting that Thomas 
Clarkson would attend shortly : he begged no tumultuous applause would greet 
his entrance, as his infirmities were great, and he was too nervous to bear, 
without risk of injury to his healthy any such expressions of their good feeling 
towards him. The Friend who addressed them was Joseph Sturge, a man Avhose 
whole life has been devoted to ameliorate the condition of the unhappy. In a 
few minutes^ the aged Clarkson came in, grey and bent, leaning on Joseph Sturge 
for support, and approached with feeble and tottering steps the middle of the 
convention. I had never seen him before, nor had most of the foreigners 
present ; and the anxiety to look on him, betrayed by all, was exceedingly un- 
affected and sincere. Immediately behind Thomas Clarkson were his daughter- 
in-law, the widow of his son, and his little grandson. Aided by Joseph Sturge 
and his daughter, Clarkson mounted to the chair, sat down in it as if to rest, 
and then, in a tender, feeble voice, appealed to the assembly for a few minutes* 
meditation before he opened the convention. The venerable old man put his 
hand simply to his forehead, as if in prayer, and the whole assembly followed his 
example ; for a minute there was the most intense silence I ever felt. Having 
inwardly uttered a short prayer, he was again helped up ; and bending forward, 
leaning on the table, he spoke to the great assembly as a patriarch standing 
near the grave^ or as a kind father who felt an interest for his children. Every 
word he uttered was from his heart — he spoke tenderly^ tremulously ; and, in 
alluding to Wilberforce, acknowledged, just as an aged man would acknowledge. 

252 LONDON. 

his decay of memory in forgetting many other dear friends whom he oould not 
then recollect. After solemnly urging the members to persevere to the last, till 
slavery was extinct, lifting his arm and pointing to heaven (his face quivering 
with emotion), he ended by saying, * May the Supreme Ruler of all human 
events, at whose disposal are not only the hearts but the intellects of men — ^may 
He, in His abundant mercy, guide your councils and give His blessing upon 
your labours/ There was a pause of a moment, and then, without an inter- 
change of thought or even of look, the whole of this vast meeting, men and 
women^ said, in a tone of subdued and deep feeling, ' Amen ! Amen !' To the 
reader not present it is scarcely possible to convey without affectation the effect 
on the imagination of one who, like myself, had never attended benevolent 
meetings, had no notion of such deep sincerity in any body of men, or of the 

awful and unaffected piety of the class I had been brought amongst I 

have seen the most af&icting tragedies, imitative and real ; but never did I wit* 
ness, in life or in the drama, so deep, so touching, so pathetic an effect produced 
on any great assembly as by the few, unaffected, unsophisticated, natural^ and 
honest words of this aged and agitated person* The women wept — the men 
shook off their tears, unable to prevent their flowing ; for myself, I was so affected 
and so astonished, that it was many minutes before I recovered, sufiiciently to 
perceive the moment of interest I had longed for had come to pass — and this 
was the moment I immediately chose for the picture." This Anti-Slavery 
Convention was succeeded by the annual meeting of the British and Foreign 
Anti-Slavery Society, at which the late Duke of Sussex presided. Clarkson 
was present, also Monsieur Guizot and Mrs. Fry, and many persons whose 
services in the Anti-Slavery cause are known in every part of the world. 
Amongst the speakers were an American judge, an English missionary, a French 
philanthropist, and a man of colour. In the following year Prince Albert made 
his first appearance at any public meeting in England. The great hall was filled 
two hours before the proceedings commenced, and the platform was crowded by 
some of the most distinguished men in England. The meeting was that of the 
Society for the Extinction of the Slave Trade, and the Civilization of Africa. 

The speakers at the " May meetings** comprise a few of the Members of both 
Houses of Parliament ; at the Church Missionary Society, and the Bible Society 
anniversaries, some of the bishops ; at the meetings of other denominations, 
the leading men in each. Persons of provincial celebrity make their debUi before 
a London audience ; and the variety and peculiarities of the speakers are a suffi- 
ciently tempting theme to the critical among the fair sex. In one year Wilberforce 
attended ten of these meetings in as many days, and spoke twelve times. To a 
man of strong philanthropic feelings, and of sufiicient consideration to attract the 
public eye, especially also if he be a fluent speaker, and have the business habits 
which constitute a good " committee-man,*' the various religious and benevolent 
institutions in London open a very active field of exertion and usefulness. The 
Exeter Hall class of societies so entirely depend upon the principle of aggrega^ 
tion, that to gain influence in the direction of their operations and affairs neces- 
sarily presumes the existence in some degree of qualifications which in another 
popular body leads to the highest distinctions. But however eminent and influ- 
ential any of the well-known speakers and leaders at Exeter Hall may be, their 
fame is circumscribed and limited to a world of its own, unless they happen to 


have achieved importance in some other sphere ; and out of their own region they 
would he unknown if the newspapers did not make the puhlic familiar with their 
names ; though a large territory, no doubt it is, in which they find enthusiastic 
admirers^ and wherein they are appreciated. Then again, to the world at large, 
Exeter Hall is only regarded as a single arena, whereas it is one field with many 
encampments of distinct tribes ; or, as a writer lately remarked, '* The manner 
in which they club and congregate, and yet keep apart in distinct groups, reminds 
one of the rival orders in the Church of Borne. Jesuits, Franciscans, Dominicans, 
Monks, Friars, and Canons-regular — all had their independent organization ; all 
were rivals, though zealous members and supporters of one Church. And Wes- 
leyan. Church, Baptist Missionary Societies — all maintain a certain degree of 
reserve towards each other ; all are jealous of the claims of rival sects ; and yet 
are all attracted by a common sense of religious earnestness. The independent 
and often mutually repelling bodies who congregate in Exeter Hall are one in 
spirit, with all their differences. Without a pervading organization, they are a 
Church." ♦ 

The first three days of May in the present year (1843) were each the anniver- 
saries of one of the great religious societies. On the 1st, the Wesleyan Missionary 
Society held its meeting, which was addressed by a converted American Indian 
in his native costume. The income of the Society for the preceding year was 
98,252/., and the Beport stated that it supports 265 principal mission stations. 
On the following day the meeting of the Church Missionary Society took place. 
The income for 1842-3 was 115,000/. The next day was the anniversary of the 
British and Foreign Bible Society, the most Catholic of all the religious societies. 
On the 12th of March, 1804, when a committee met to complete the organization 
of the new institution, a motion was made to appoint the Bev. Joseph Hughes 
to the office of secretary, but was opposed by the Bev. J. Owen, who urged the 
impolicy of constituting a dissenting minister the secretary of an institution 
which was to unite the whole body of Christians. This led to an arrangement, 
the principle of which was at once so judicious and liberal that it has constituted 
one of the chief comer-stones of the Society's stability and success. Three secre- 
taries were appointed-^a clergyman, a dissenting minister^ and a foreign secretary^ 
in order that the foreign churches might be represented in the Society. Thus, as 
Mr. Owen, the historian of the Bible Society, remarks, " The progress of an hour 
carried the committee on, from the hasty suggestions of a short*sighted attach- 
ment to the wise determination of a liberal policy." At the same time, the future 
proportion of churchmen, dissenters, and foreigners in the governing body was 
distinctly defined. It consists of six foreigners resident in or near the metropolis, 
fifteen churchmen, and fifteen dissenters, the whole of the thirty-six being lay- 
men. The first meeting of the Society was held on the 2nd of May, 1804^ when 
Lord Teignmouth was appointed president, and on the following day four of 
the bishops sent in their names as subscribers. The Bible Society has 2870 
affiliated societies in this country^ of which 101 were formed in 1842. In 1810, 
six years after the establishment of the Parent Society, there were but eleven 
branch Societies in existence, and the annual income was only 18,543/. Ten 
years afterwardsj in W2,Q, the income amounted to 123^547/. The Bible So- 

• * Spectator.' 

254 LONDON. 

ciety has issued about fifteen million copies of the Scriptures, and it has caused 
them to be translated^ either wholly or in part^ into the languages '' of every 
nation under heaven." The Baptist Missionary Society celebrated its fiftieth 
anniversary in 184'2, by the collection of a fund called the Jubilee Fund, which 
amounted to 32,500/., and the ordinary receipts for 1842-3 were 21,198/., making 
a total of upwards of 53,000/. raised by a comparatively small and not wealthy 
body. The Baptist Missionary Society was the first which sprung up in England 
after an interval of nearly a century from the establishment of the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel. It was succeeded in 1795 by the London Missionary^ 
which also holds its anniversaries at Exeter Hall. At the last meeting, May 1 1th, 
the income of this Society for the past year was stated to be 78,450/., and its ex- 
penditure 85,442/. Altogether a sum of about 400,000/. a-year is annually col- 
lected for missions, and as a very large amount is obtained in small sums, the 
number of contributors must be prodigious. In 1822, the income of the Church, 
Wesleyan, and London Missionary Societies was 98,000/. ; but it is now triple 
this amount. Besides the Missionary Societies, there are kindred institutions, 
whose object is to supply the want of religious instruction at home. The Bap- 
tist Home Missionary Society has an income of above 5000/., and the Home 
Missionary Society of above 9000/. The Church Pastoral Aid Society (income 
19,000/.), and the Clerical Aid Society (income 7818/.), both in connexion with 
the Established Church, are designed to provide more adequately for the reli- 
gious wants of the people in populous districts. The Society for the Pro- 
pagation of Christianity amongst the Jews has an income of 25,000/. a-year. 
The Bible Society circulates the Scriptures alone, but there are other Societies 
which undertake the distribution of works of a religious and moral nature. 
The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, with an annual income of 
about I00,000/.| circulates nearly four million publications in the course of the 
year, of which about three millions are tracts. The Religious Tract Society, 
established in 1798, has an income of above 50,000/., of which less than 6000/. 
is derived from voluntary contributions, the remainder being the produce of 
sales of publications, which comprise every variety, from a hand-bill and 
*' broadside '* for cottage walls to a commentary on the Bible. In 1842-3 the 
number of publications issued exceeded sixteen millions, and above two hundred 
new ones were added to the Society's list. Since the formation of the Society, 
377,000,000 publications have been circulated in ninety different languages. 
There is one series of tracts adapted for sale by hawkers, in which improvements 
have been successively made at various intervals during the last forty years as 
the popular taste advanced ; and as some notice of this change will probably 
be interesting to many readers, we give it in the form of a note.* The Sunday 
School Union, established in 1802, has an income of nearly 9000/. a year from 

* Soon after the fonnatioii of the Society, small pablicatiom usually sold by itineiaDt Tendon were found 
for the most part, immoral and disgusting in their contents ; the best among them were absurd and puerile. In 
1805, the attention of the Oimmittee was especially directed to these publications, when it was deemed expedient 
to supply a better article at a lower price to the rendors. The Committee were obliged, in the first instance, to 
prepare tracts with striking titles, and jn some degree inferior in their contents, to prerent too great a discrepancy 
from thoM they were designed to supplant The titles of some of them fully evince this : — * The Fortune TeUer's 
Conjunng Cap,* * The Wonderful Cure of General Naaman,* < The Stingy Farmer's Dream,* * Tom Toper*s Tisle 
over his Jug of Ale,* ' Rhyming Dick and the Strolling Player,* all indicate that it was necessary to catch at 


the sale of publications. The City Mission and District Visiting Societies are 
recently established institutions, for the purpose of relieving the spiritual and 
temporal necessities of the poor in London. The London City Mission has an 
income of 6700/. a year ; and during the year preceding the last report, 364,369 
visits were made amongst the poor, in a population exceeding two millions, within 
eight miles of St. Paul's. We here place before the reader a summary of the 
Receipts and Expenditure of Religious and Benevolent Societies for 1841-2, 
taken from the ' Christian Almanac' for 1843 : — 

African Civilization Society • 3,692 Hibernian 7,050 

Aged Pilgrim's Friend • • 1,600 Home and Colonial Infant 

Anti-Slavery* 2,840 School (1841) . . . . 1,905 

Baptist Missionary . . • 22,727 Home Missionary • . . 9,402 

Baptist Home Missionary • 5,153 Irish 4,136 

Baptist Irish 2,300 Irish Evangelical, about . 2,000 

Baptist Colonial Missionary . 507 Jews^ for Propagation of 

Bible Translation (Baptist) • 1,600 Christianity among the . 24.699 

British and Foreign Bible* • 95,095 Operative Converts' 

British and Foreign Sailors* . 2,500 Institution .... 799 

British and Foreign School • 7,080 London City Mission . . 5,534 

British and Foreign Tempo- London Missionary . . 80,874 

ranee* 1,100 Lord's Day Observance • 513 

British Reformation* . • • 1,508 Moravian Missionary . . 10,651 
Christian Knowledge* • . 90,476 National School, annual sub- 
Christian Instruction . • . 1,428 scriptions, about . • . 6,000 
Church Missionary . . . 93,592 Naval and Military Bible* 2,809 
Church of Scotland Missions , 4,577 New British and Foreign 

— Jewish Mission . . 5,839 Temperance* . . 2,137 

Colonial . . .4,160 Newfoundland School . . 3,470 

Education Scheme 5,684 Peace * 768 

Church Extension . 3,403 Prayer Book and Homily* . 2,496 

Ditto Supplementary Protestant Association • . 1,376 

Fund 1,240 Religious Tract * . . . • 56,014 

Church Pastoral Aid . . . 18,900 Sailors' Home . . . • 2,81 1 

Clerical Aid 7,818 Scottish United Secession 

Colonial Church .... 1,700 Mission Fund . . . . 4,196 

Colonial Missionary . . • 2,200 Sunday School Union * . . 10,241 

District Visiting .... 250 Suppression of Intemperance 908 

Foreign Aid 1,935 Trinitarian Bible • . . . 2,201 

Gospel Propagation • . . 66,213 Wesleyan Missionary . 101,618 

rerj uninforaaed mindi ; there were^ however, many ot a better dcKription. By degrees, the wortt of the pro&ne 
and Ticioiu publicationf were luppUnted. The eupply fkom the Society, of Hawkers* Tracts, fairly met them in 
the general market, and was generally preferred wberaver education had extended ; but it was plain that, had not 
a superior article been supplied, the old wretched tracts would still have been forced upon the Sunday school 
scholars, and others who were acquiring the ability to read. And in the year 1818, the public cry was changed ; 
it was then generally said, this series must be improved. This was done ; several of the old tracts were discon- 
tinued; and many others were introduced much superior.— il6ri(fyMf/rom<A« CAmiMM ^^to^orybr/Wy, 1839. 
* The total of the receipts of the Societies thus marked includes ndes of publications. 

256 LONDON. 

The Hanover Square rooms are occauonaUy a>ed for the meetings of religious 
societiea, but the place la not so favourable as Exeter Hall to the enthuaiasm of 
an audience, at least any warmth of feeling which is excited is expressed far less 
lustily, if with more decorum. Freemasons' Hall, a very fine room for the pur- 
pose, is also still used by religious bodies ; but there is an increasing disposition 
to assemble at Exeter Hall, which combines every convenience necessary, and ia 
in a good situation with regard to other parts of the town. Our view of the in- 
terior of the great hall represents the great exhibition of Mr. Hullah's system of 
popular singing, when 2000 pupils combined their voices in the performances. 
Concerts not unfrequently take place at Exeter Hall, besides being the place 
where Mr. Hullah's musical classes and the drawing classes (both under the 
Committee of Privy Council on Education) assemble for instruction. 


[TlHCiitBlTanTann, MvlB«oiin*gC*twtl(w.] 


If one were desired to name the most delightful lounge in the metropolis, 
difficult as the task of selection might seem to be amidst so many attractive 
spots, the Zoological Gardens in the Regent's Park must, we think, be the chosen 
place. Equally Boited to the young and the old, the solitary and the gregarious, 
the cheerful and the melancholy, the ignorant and the learned, all arc hero sure 
of enjoyment at least, and it will be strange indeed if instruction, in some shape 
or other, docs not follow. Pacing its broad terrace-walks, or winding about 
among its leafy passages; here idly pausing to glance at some newly-blown 
flower, there (where the unoccupied seat wooes us) at some picturesque com- 
bination of tall waving trees, reflected with all their restless lights and shadows 
in the clear waters of the little lake at their feet, like a second green world 
below ; leaning now against the parapet of the bridge over the tunnel to gaze on 
the comparatively comprchcnHive view of the demesne thence obtained, with 
the mounts, and dells, and islands, and lawns, and parterres, and rustic habitations 
so harmoniously intermingled ; and, now, descending to the stern-looking depths 
beneath, where, with the carriages of fashionable London rolling incessantly over 
your head at the distance of but a few feet, you may imagine, without any great 
exertion of the fancy, that you have accidentally wandered into the remote sub- 
terranean habitation of some hermit, who, in this gloom, finds his eyes more 
naturally turn their glance inwards to the contemplation of his own nature, to 
whom this deep silence is dear, since it enables him the better to hear the voice 
of his own heart; — thus or similarly occupied, we might saunter through the 

VOL v. 8 

258 LONDON. 

Gardens without missing or desiring any other sources of interest. But the 
beautiful place has its own proper inhabitants : turn that corner^ and you are 
tete-a-tete with a tall dromedary ; cross that velvet lawn, with its richly blooming 
beds of flowers> and you are suddenly arrested by a couching lioness ; here yon 
open the door of a pretty -looking piece of Swiss architecture^ and are in a kind 
of domestic " wilderness of monkeys ;" there, as you are trying to make out what 
forms there are in the cages on one side of a dark passage, a tap on the shoulder 
makes you suddenly turn in alarm towards the other, where you perceive dimly 
some vast moving bulk, to find the outlines of which your eyes rise higher and 
higher, till at last an elephant*s gigantic frame becomes visible, his trunk near 
enough to take you up, so that he may more conveniently see who you are, should 
he be so minded : it is not till we are out of that narrow passage, and secure 
from any more such surprises, that we can satisfy ourselves that a friendly shake 
of the hand, in elephant-fashion, was most probably all that was desired, unless 
indeed we chose to add thereto any little delicacies from the adjoining refectory — 
trifling but satisfactory proo& of our friendship, which the elephant, in his cordial 
good-nature, never takes amiss. But the number and variety of these inhabit- 
ants ! — there really seems no end to them. A visiter who, after spending some 
hours here, sauntering hither and thither, just as curiosity or impulse guided^ 
should discover a good half of the collection, would deserve every praise for his 
industry and tact. Still more surprising, rightly considered, than even the num- 
ber and variety of the families that compose this strangest of villages, are the 
differences as to the quarters of the globe from whence they have respectively 
come. Listen but to the characteristic sounds that rise from time to time : the 
low growl of the bears from the eternal snows of the Polar regions ; the hoarse 
screams and piercing cries of the tropical birds, whose plumage speaks them the 
children of the sun ; the magnificent bay of the Spanish bloodhound ; — but, in short» 
the whole world has been ransacked to people these few acres of soil, where the 
magic of skill and enterprise has overcome all difficulties — ^reconciled conflicting 
seasons, and tempers, and habits — formed, from the most heterogeneous of ma- 
terials, one of the most thriving* and orderly, and happiest of communities. How 
admirably man can govern everything but himself I 

At the very entrance-gates of the Gardens, we meet with an amusing illustration 
of the oddities, to say the least of them, that characterise the dealings of men 
with each other, even here. Admission to the Gardens, it may be necessary to 
inform our country readers, is obtained by the presentation of a ticket (admitting 
any number), signed by a fellow of the Society, and on payment of a shilling for 
each person. Two young genteel-looking females have been waiting for some 
time, looking with a peculiar air of curiosity in the faces of those who enter ; at 
last, seeing a party of ladies and gentlemen stop for the same purpose — one of them 
modestly steps up and begs permission to enter as part of their company. Sur- 
prise appears on the face of the lady addressed, but another steps forward, remark- 
ing, ** O, yes ! it is a common request ;** and the whole enter ; the money-taker 
at the lodge, who could hardly avoid seeing what passed, making no comment 
Musing upon this, and remembering our own mode of obtaining a ticket — ^that 
is, by simply asking for it at a neighbouring tavern — one must be in a serious 


mood to bo able to avoid a hearty laugh aa we read the announcement care- 
fully set up over the gates, requesting^ on the part of the Society, that the 
fellows would not give tickets except to persons with whom they were acquainted ! 
The effect therefore of this very sensible arrangement is, that uninformed, or 
peculiarly scrupulous persons, have frequently to put themselves to inoonveni* 
ence to obtain introductions to fellows of the Society, whilst those of a more 
doubtful character^ the very persons whom it might be supposed the Society 
wished to keep out, have only to put on their hat, see that they have got a shil- 
ling in their pockets, and, if they don't choose to trouble the tavern-keeper, trust 
with perfect confidence to the passing in, under cover of some other person or 
party *8 ticket at the gate. If any of the attendants of the animals were to 
exhibit eccentricities of this character in their treatment of them^ we wonder how 
long they would remain the Society's servants ? We are in, however, and more 
agreeable subjects for thought await us. A broad terrace walk extends from the 
little rustic lodges at the entrance, in a straight line onwards, bordered by flowers, 
shrubs, and trees on each side> and which is now continued at the same level for 
some distance, over the lower ground, by a handsome viaduct, which, when com* 
pleted, and all its roomy cages beneath occupied, will form the most striking 
feature of the Gardens. Here the carnivorous animals, — ^the lions, tigers, 
leopards, &c. are to be located, instead of, as at present, in the Repository, in a 
distant part of the grounds ; and it is considered by having a largo space for 
exercise and for the admission of fresh air, set apart for each animal, with a small 
sleeping place behind, that artificial warmth may be dispensed with, to the advan- 
tage of the animal's health: hence the size of the cages shown in our engraving. 
Branching to the right of the terrace- walk, immediately on our entering, we find 
a winding path among lofty bushes and trees, presently opening on our left, and 
presenting a fine view over the Park, in the foreground of which the beautiful 
zebra, known as Burchell's, is seen grazing among other novel-looking inhabitants 
for an English pasture ground; and continuing along the same path, on our 
right, appears a series of tall broad aviaries, containing some of those splendid 
domestic birds of the farm-yards of Peru and Mexico, the curassows ; and which, 
in a wild state, are so common in the woods of Guiana that a hungry traveller 
looks upon them as a certain resource when ordinary provisions fail, for their 
flesh is white and excellent, and their disposition so accommodating that they 
will remain perfectly quiet on their perches in the trees whilst he helps himself 
to his mind and appetite. It may not be generally known that these birds may 
be bred with as much ease in England as our own poultry. Ketuming to the 
terrace, we may remark by the way, that the accurate ' List of the Animals,' sold 
in the Gardens, occupies no less than twenty-eight closely printed octavo pages ; 
and therefore, that in our notice of the Gardens, we can aim only to give a kind 
of general view of their contents, pausing hero and there over such details only 
as seem to us of peculiar interest and moment. At the point of junction of tho 
terrace walk and the Camivora Terrace on the right, in a deep square pit, are 
those two amusing climbers, tho cinnamon bearSj male and female. They are 
idle this afternoon, and not even a cake will tempt them to mount the tall pole. 
Their prenomen is derived from their handsome brown coats, in which, as well as 

s 2 

260 LONDON. 

in locality and in greater ferocity in their natural state, they differ from tlie Ame- 
rican blacli bears, of which species they are considered to be a variety : specimens 
of the latter arc also to bo found in the Gardens, It is these last-mentioned 
animals whose fars constitute so important a portion of the business of the 
Hudson's Bay Company. They are caught chiefly in their winter retreats, places 
scooped out by thcmsclres beneath fallen trees, where they retire as the snow- 
storms begin to fall, and arc soon as snugly enveloped as any bear can desire. 
Unfortunately, however, the Eagactous hunter has a mode of discovering them even 
here : their breath makes a small opening in the snow, round which the hoar- 
frost gathers ; the hunter sees that, and his prey is secure. Descending by a cir- 
cuitous path on the left of the terrace, commanding a charming little bit of 
scenery, with a lawn and pond in the foreground at the bottom, we find a large 
octagonal cage, splendid with macaws, in all their red and yellow and red and 
blue plumage ; and who, by their most un-bird-like tumult, seem desirous to show 
that there is some truth in the philosopher's idea of a kind of compensating prin- 
ciple in nature : it seems we must not expect the songs of the nightingale, the 
larh, or the blackbird from such magnificently arranged exteriors, or that the 
last-named birds, whilst enchanting oar ears, should at the same time dazzle our 
eyes. The path, now running between the macaws' cage and the llama-house 
opposite, conducts us to the lawn rich with purple beech, and with its sparkling 
little piece of water, dotted over with aquatic birds — among which black swans 
are conspicuous— and with little raised nests or boxes. In the centre a fountain 

" Shakes its loosening silver in the sun." 
A beautifal and very familiar species of Coreopsis geese, from New Holland, 
deservedly attract much attention. They arc numerous, and have been all bred 
from a single pair. These might be naturalised in onr farm-yards, and their 
fiesh is said, by some travellers, to be more delicate than that of the English 
bird. The following drawing was made from a pair batched in the Gardens. 


Wkittling ducks, sheldrakes, and garganey teal, are here also to be found. 
The llama house has its large court-yard behind, and both arc on a scale be- 
fitting personages of such importance. At present we see a pair of dromedaries 
are taking the air in the latter, and putting their heads over the palings to make 
acquaintance with us, and who could refuse anything to such gentle and expres- 
aive looks ? Finely has the dromedary been called the Ship of the Desert^ not 
simply from his being the grand agent of commerce and travel over the vast 
seas of sand^ but from his very appearance ; that long curving neck, and loftily- 
borne, outstretched head, might have been the origin of the prow of an ancient 
galley. As they here slowly move to and fro, one would hardly suppose they 
are the animals so famous for their speed as well as power ; whose fleetness^ 
indeed^ has passed into a proverb, in a country distinguished at the same time for 
the finest horses in the world. '^ When thou shalt meet a heirie/' say the 
Arabs, referring to the dromedary, " and say to the rider, ' Salem Alcik,' ere he 
shall have answered thee ' Aleik Salem,' he will be afar off, and nearly out of 
sight, for his swiftness is like the wind.*' In the centre of a piece of pasture- 
ground, adjoining the llama precincts, is a curious little open hut, with projecting 
eaves, raised upon large masses of rock. A horned sheep, the mouflon, is confined 
in it ; an animal so little like its parents (for it is supposed to be originally but 
the descendant of some of the common sheep that had escaped from human do- 
minion), as to require to be strongly chained up, where he can do no harm with 
that tremendous butt of his, which is so powerful as to break down the strongest 
ordinary fences. To the right of the llama house, is a court-yard surrounding 
the base of the viaduct at this end, and lined with cages. Here is the Siberian 
bear, with a broad white band round its neck, and its small sharp-pointed nose, 
forming a marked contrast with its gigantic round body and head. Here, too, are 
the wolves, the original, according to our best naturalists, of all the varieties of dog. 
One of the most interesting, though of course by no means the most conclusive 
evidence to be given of this^ is its capability of an attachment to man, as strong 
as that of the dog. These Gardens furnish one very striking illustration, where 
a she-wolf some years ago actually killed all her young, in the warmth of her 
zeal, in bringing them to the front of the cage, and rubbing them against the 
bars, to receive the caresses of those persons she knew, among whom Mr. Bell, 
the naturalist, from whom the account is derived, was an especial favourite. 
Among its descendants of the dog kind, if descendants they be, two of the most 
interesting are to be found in close approximation to the wolves — the Esquimaux 
dog, and the Cuba bloodhound, whose deep, yet loud bay, we have before referred 
to. This clean limbed, handsome-looking animal, with his light fawn-coloured 
skin, suggests but little in his appearance, of the terror his very name yet ex- 
cites, under certain circumstances ; and which led to the introduction of a great 
number of them, during the Maroon war in Jamaica in the last century, to which 
their very presence put an entire stop, the Maroons being too much alarmed to 
continue the contest. The ordinary use to which these dogs are put by the 
Spaniards is to drive the wild bullocks from the more inaccessible parts of the 
country, to spots convenient for the hunters, who slaughter them for the sake of 
the hide. They thus obtain the skill and habits desired for the more terrible 

262 LONDON. 

ptirpoBCB which they occaaionally aubserve under the care of their masters, the 
ChaaseuTs, as they arc called ; such are the pnrBuit of murderers and felona, whom 
it is said Uiey will not harm, unless resistance be offered. Having stopped the 
fugitive, they crouch near him, and by barking occasionally, guide the Chassenrs 
to the spot ; should the miserabls wretch but stir, there is a most ferocious growl 
by way of warning. In Dallas' ' History of the Maroons,' an anecdote is giren 
of the extentof their accomplishmenta in this way, which seems truly marvellous. 
A ship, attached to a fleet under convoy to England, was manned chiefly by 
Spanish sailors, who, aa they passed Cuba, took the opportunity of running the 
vessel on shore, when they murdered the officers, and other Englishmen on board, 
and carried off all the available plunder into the mountains of the interior. The 
place was wild and unfrequented, and they Aitly expected to elude all puranit. 
The moment, however, the news reached the Havanna, a detachment of twelve 
Chasseurs, with their dogs, was sent off. The result was that in a few days the 
whole of the murderers were brought in and executed, not a man having been 
injured by the dogs in the capture. 

{duMooi ind Culat DUMdhonruU-] 

Near these dogs, are a miscellaneous collection of American and Indian fuxes, 
racoons, the American black bear, and the brown bear, so well known to visiten 
for its amusing antics. It ia a bear of excellent sense at the same time. As wo 
approach its cage, it reminds at of a very proper preliminary by thruating its 


nose between the bars, and opening iti jaws as wide as possible ; but our stock 
of delicacies is exhausted, so, having waited a reasonable time, without any re- 
salty it moves awav with an air of philosophic indifference, and gets rid of any 
little disappointment it may feel, by a short walk. We are not much accustomed 
to look on these animals with any feeling of respect or gratitude for their services 
to man, yet ask the Kamtchatkan what ho thinks of the brown bear ; or rather 
ask him what he does with it, and you will know well enough how he must esti- 
mate it. He will tell yon he not only eats the flesh, but with a relish ; that he 
makes its skin serve for bed, bedding, hat, gloves, and overalls ; that its stretched 
intestines serve him at once for glass to his windows, and masks to his face, pro- 
tecting it from the sun's glare in the spring ; lastly, that the very shoulder 
blades become useful in the cutting of grass. This is the same bear which was, at 
one time, common in our own country, where however we have found no other use 
for it than such as the bear gardens could furnish, or those itinerating bear-lead- 
ers so often seen even but a few years ago in our streets, who, taking advantage 
of the peculiar formation of the sole of the animaVs foot, taught it to dance for 
exhibition. Several temporary cages and buildings of enclosure are scattered 
about this part of the grounds, in which are gnu antelopes^ Mexican and other 
deer (among which the beautiful roebuck delights the eye by its feminine grace 
and delicacy), sloth bears and Malayan sun-bears, the last, the veriest epicures, 
perhaps, of the menagerie. In their wild state, the tender young shoots of the 
cocoa nut tree, and honey, form their chief enjoyments, but when domesticated, 
nothing less than the choicest luxuries of the table will suffice. Sir Stamford 
Raffles, the founder of the Gardens, had one, which he kept in the nursery with 
his children, and occasionally admitted to his table, where he partook of the finest 
wines and fruit. Sir Stamford says, the only times he knew him out of temper 
was when there was no champagne forthcoming. In the same building with the 
bears are some beautifully spotted Asiatic leopards, and several of those sub- 
jects alike of ancient and modem fable, the hyaenas, both spotted and striped, 
from Africa. Some of the old stories have a touch of poetry about them ; 
according to one, the hyeena was accustomed to imitate the language of men, in 
order to attract wandering shepherds, whom it then devoured. As to modern no- 
tions, one of the females here gives a sufficient proof of their incorrectness : it is, 
in the words of the catalogue, '' remarkably tame." After all, it is not unworthy 
of notice, that the popular faith in marvels generally has some foundation, even 
if that foundation and the superstructure do not particularly harmonize. The 
true account of the hyaena, by one who had studied the animal well in all its 
habits, would need no adventitious aid to give it interest. The real stories told 
of it are most appalling ; especially those relating to its love of human flesh, 
as in the case of children, whom it can manage to carry off without difficulty. 
" To show clearly," says Mr. Steedman, in his ' Wanderings and Adirenturcs in 
the Interior of Southern Africa,' "the preference of the wolf (Spotted Hysena) for 
human flesh, it will be necessary to notice, that when the Mambookies build their 
houses, which are in form like bee-hives, and tolerably large, often eighteen or 
twenty feet in diameter, the floor is raised at the higher or back part of the 
honse» until within three or four feet of the front, where it suddenly terminates, 

264 LONDON. 

leaving an area from thence to the wall, in which every night the calves are tied 
to protect them from the storms or wild beasts. Now it would be natural to 
suppose, that should the wolf enter, he would seize the first object for his prey, 
especially as the natives always lie with the fire at their feet; but notwith- 
standing this, the constant practice of this animal has been, in every instance, to 
pass by the calves in the area, and even by the fire, and to take the children from 
under the mother's kaross, and this in such a gentle and cautious manner, that 
the poor parent has been unconscious of the loss, until the cries of her poor little 
innocent have reached her from without when a close prisoner in the jaws of the 

At some distance beyond the termination of the viaduct, and in the same line, 
a piece of water attracts attention, even more by its own beauty than by the 
variety of its aquatic inhabitants. Small but luxuriantly-wooded islands are 
scattered about the centre, the banks are thickly fringed with reeds, and bordered 
by elegantly-flowering shrubs, suitable to the kind of scenery indicated ; and 
altogether it is impossible to imagine a much happier existence than these 
waddling, and swimming, and diving rogues here enjoy — these Brent, and Cana- 
dian, and Chinese, and Egyptian, and laughing geese — these tufted, and cross- 
bred pintail, and penguin ducks — these teal, and shovellers, and pochards. In 
his way, too, the polar bear, in the neighbourhood of the pond, is luxuriantly 
lodged ; he has got his comfortable den, and his pool of water, where he may 
swim about, and fancy he is once more breasting the seas of the polar regions, 
swimming his thirty or forty miles at a time, as they have been seen in Barrow's 
Straits. It is true a seal now and then would perhaps make him more comfort- 
able, of which animal he is the great tormentor ; but CatCt-be is the most per* 
suasive of practical philosophers, and seldom fails in teaching resignation. The 
monkey-poles, close by, are as yet unoccupied, through the coldness of the season, 
so we pass on to the condor's cage. This bird's real size, which is among the 
largest of the vulture family, measuring occasionally no less than fourteen feet 
from tip to tip of wing, when outspread, is perfectly insignificant compared to its 
old repute, when it was esteemed to be the veritable roc of the ' Arabian Nights.' 
And that there was such a bird who could doubt, after seeing or reading of that 
famous " claw of the bird roc, who, as authors report, is able to trusse an ele* 
phant/' which was in the famous museum of the Tradescants? there was no 
resisting the claw. Fortunately, however, the roc still keeps in his mysterious 
solitude, and the condor proves to be a very different bird ; which is also fortu- 
nate, for as there is scarcely any killing him, but that, such as he is, he must 
remain till he pleases in his own good time to die, there is no saying what 
would become of the world had a race of immortal rocs taken possession of it. 
As an instance of this remarkable tenacity of life in the condor, we remember 
that Humboldt describes some Indians strangling one with a lasso, who after- 
wards hung it upon a tree, and pulled it forcibly by the feet for some time. 
They then took it down, removed the lasso, and the condor got up and walked 
about as though nothing particular had happened. 

But what is this great pile of rock-work, almost big enough for a human 
habitation, covered with foliage, and surrounded by its own little but deep lake 


of water ? The tenant most be of sadly vagrant habits to desire to leave such a 
complete little estate^ yet the wire-work over the whole seems to indicate as 
much. That is the otter *s home> one of the great centres of attraction in the 
(hardens at the animal's dinner-time, when live fish are thrown into the water, 
which he catches with astonishing skill and rapidity. The means at his disposal 
for this purpose have been thus beautifully described : *' How silently is the 
water entered ! The eyes are so placed that, whether the animal is swimming 
below its prey> behind it, above it, or beside it, their situation, or, at most, the 
least motion of the head and neck, brings it within the sphere of the pursuer*s 
vision. The whole framework of the animal — its short fin-like legs, oary feet, 
and rudder of a tail — enable it to make the swiftest turns, nay, almost bounds, 
in the water, according as the rapidity of its agile prey demands a sudden down- 
ward dive, an upward spring, or a side snap. The short fur, which is close and 
fine, keeps the body at a proper temperature, and the longer and outer hairs, 
directed backwards, enable it to glide through the water, when propelled hori- 
zontally by its webbed feet beneath the surface, noiselessly and speedily. Easy 
and elegant in its motions, there are few objects more attractive in menageries 
than the pond, especially if it be kept dean and supplied with clear water, 
wherein the otter is seen to hunt its living prey;*'* as is the case in the 
interesting little spot before us. An enclosure eastward of the otter's cage con- 
tains two weazel-headed armadillos, from South America, where the carcases of 
the wild buffaloes, slaughtered as before mentioned, form a never-ending feast 
for these little gluttons, who go on eating and eating, and fattening and fatten- 
ing, till their plump condition attracts the eyes of the human inhabitants of the 
district, who tJhen, placing them on the fire in their shell, make the (for them) 
most delicious of all roasts. 

We have now reached a kind of central spot of the portion of the gardens that 
lies on this side of the Park- road, and a charming little place it is, with walks 
branching off in different directions, each between its own high green and blooming 
banks, with lawns, and beds of flowers in the centre, a pretty -looking and elegantly 
furnished-building for refreshment on one side, the monkey-house on another, 
the otter and other cages, just mentioned, on a third. The monkey-house has a 
wired enclosure, extending all along one side, for their out-door enjojrments in 
the summer ; but as, it appears, we are not to have any of that almost forgotten 
season, in this year of 1843, we must step into the house, if wc wish to pay 
our respects to these most amusing of organised beings. For our part, wc do 
not understand how it is physicians are so often puzzled by cases of hypochondria : 
why do they not send their patients here ? Look at that beau, examining his 
nails with as much attention as if to have a fine hand were the end and aim of 
monkey existence. Another, after a series of gambols, for your especial benefit, 
apparently, as a stranger, stops suddenly, and cocks his eye, and tail circling over 
his head, at you with the most irresistible effect. This little fellow here appears 
to be puzzled to know what we are doing with our note-book and pencil, so 
mounts quietly up the wires, till he can look down upon the paper. As to their 

* < Penny Cyclo|NMii8|' artia« Otter. 

gambolfl, a school broke up for the holiday! •eemi but a fiuot imitation. Their 
power of locomotion is familiar to every one, but really, the amazing distance to 
which some of these monlteys can throw themselves (for that word expresses bat 
the character of many of these movements), scarcely appears less wonderful 
for the fiftieth than for the first time. Among the other striking features of 
the monlcey-house, that our space alone admits of oar noticing, is the sonorous bark 
-ofoae of the baboons, the human-like character of that cluster of facet of the 
bonnet monkeys, and the exceeding grace and prettiness of the dtminatave 
marmozets. A variety of objects must here be passed summarily over, such u 
the ponds for the American teal, ducks, &c. ; the beaver enclosure, not yet oc- 
cupied by beavers, or we must have paused there; the building containing the 
family of birds, in which the dcslractive power has been developed to its highest 
extent, the vultures and eagles, — some of the latter, as the Brazilian Caracara 
eagles, remarkably beautiful; the parrot-house, containing tho finest living col- 
lection is the world of the most beautiful of all birds, macaws, cockatoos, parra- 
keets, which combine with the loveliest of known tints, great docility, imitative 
power, and attachment to those who are kind to them, in a state of domesticity, 
and where, in cages, are specimens of the terrible tiger boa, and of the siren, a 
kind of serpent, with short arms, hands, and feet ; and the aviary for small Inds, 
a handsome-looking semicircular piece of architecture, where among weaver 
birds, and Paradise grackles, and rice- birds, and mocking-birds, a brilliant scarlet 
ibis especially attracts the eye. We now cross the bridge over the mouth of the 
tunnel, from which the following view is taken, and then pass on to the owls' cages, 
where, at this moment, three are sitting in one compartment, side by side, so grave, 

[Vltw of tha Gudtu tarn th< BiUk.] 


aolemn, and Judge-like, as to provoke tlio remembrance of the old Jest of their 
likeness to a bench of magistrates ; thence to the dove-cote ; and to the cattle-sheds, 
where with a Sing-sing antelope^ and a paco, is kept a bison, a formidable look- 
ing animal, seen thus solitary and in captivity, but which must be indeed terrible 
when beheld almost covering, with their immense numbers, the savannahs of the 
remoter districts of North America, or as when Lewis and Clarke watched them, 
crossing a river in such multitudes that, although the river was a mile broad, 
the herd stretched, as thick as they could swim together^ from side to side. 
In the eagle aviary, among other specimens of the genera, are golden eagles, and 
white-headed sea eagles; from the former of which the young Indian warrior 
has been accustomed to^obtain he plume which he so much prizes, that instances 
have been known of his exchanging a valuable horse for the tail feathers of a 
single bird, whilst, from the latter, the United States have borrowed their 
national emblem. Franklin has a delightful passage on the habits of this bird, 
and its unfitness for the honour done to it* He says, ^' For my part, I wish the 
bald e^le had not been chosen as the representative of our country* He is a bird 
of bad moral character; he does not get his living honestly. You may have seen 
him perched on some dead tree, where, too lazy to fish for himself, he watches 
the labours of the fishing-hawk ; and when that diligent bird has at length taken 
a fish, and is bearing it to his nest, for the support of his mate and young ones, 
the bald eagle pursues him and takes it from him. With all this injustice, he is 
never in good case, but like those among men who live by sharping and robbing, 
he is generally poor, and often very lousy. Besides, he is a rank coward : the 
little king-bird^ not bigger than a sparrow, attacks him boldly, and drives him 
put of the district. He is therefore by no means a proper emblem for the brave 
and honest Cincinnati of America, who have driven all king'birds from our coun* 
try, though exactly fit for that order of knights which the French call Chevaliers 
d" Industrie f' and also, for that order, undreamt of by the philosopher and patriot 
and honest man, from whose writings we have transcribed the foregoing passage 
(fortunately for his peace of mind), and as yet unnamed in scientific books, though 
too generally known, by this time^ the world over, as the repudiatars. Near the 
aviary is another pond for geese, where the wild swans should not be passed without 
notice, not simply as natives of Great Britain which have occupied in past times so 
much Royal attention, but as the species which has in all probability given rise to 
the beautiful fable, so celebrated by our poets, of its dying amid the sounds of its 
own music. And here, again, it seems there is the slightest possible groundwork for 
the idea ; its note, which resembles the word hoop uttered several times in suc- 
cession, is said not to be unmusical heard from above, as the birds sweep along 
in their wedge-shaped array. The last of the objects on this side of the park- 
road, that we shall notice, are the emus, kept in an enclosure just behind the ter- 
race-walk, toward which we have been circuitously returning. These are among 
the wonders of the animal creation — creatures with wings, that cannot fly, birds 
with the habits and strength of limb of quadrupeds. The emus, for instance, 
kick out like a horse, and the blow is strong enough to break a limb. The 
family of emus includes also the ostrich, of which an individual specimen has just 
in the Qardens, the^cassowary, and the dodo, once thought to be fabulous. 

268 LONDON. 

but now pretty well proved to have existed, though^ it is to be feared^ existing 
no longer. 

Having passed through the tunnel, by which the grounds on the opposite sides 
of the park-road are connected, we reach the secluded-looking spot, completely 
embosomed in lofty trees, and with steep banks sloping down towards the waters 
of the Regent*s Canal, where the repository is situated in which carnivorous 
animals are at present kept during the erection of the terrace already mentioned. 
On their removal, the present structure, with a new one now building by its side, 
will contain the Museum, which is rich in materials illustrative of the general 
objects of the Society. In the Repository wc find additional specimens of the 
leopards, whose tastes, when opportunity is given for their development, seem to 
be in harmony with their appearance. A lady, Mrs. Bowdich, now Mrs. Lee, 
won the heart of one of these animals by lavender water, which it was so extra- 
vagantly fond of, as to be trained into the habitual sheathing of its claws, by the 
mere punishment of the loss of this luxury when it did not. Here, too, are 
pumas, or panthers, often erroneously called lions, as in the case of the late 
Mr. Kean*s favourite animal, which was a puma, and a very interesting specimen, 
as showing the erroneousness of the received opinion that the puma was irre- 
claimable. No dog could be tamer or more docile than Mr. Kean s Tom, which 
it will be remembered was the gift of Lord Byron. Ocelots, cheetahs, or hunt- 
ing leopards, with lions and tigers, are to be found also in the Repository. Models 
of strength, and of that beauty at least which results from extraordinary fitness 
of means for an end, as one gazes long and earnestly upon these latter named 
animals, which have from the earliest ages engaged so much of the world's attention, 
we can partly understand the almost miraculous feats attributed to them. Leaps 
of twenty feet or so are mere bagatelles with both the lion and the tiger; man is 
like a plaything in their grasp ; the powerful Indian^buffalo can be carried off by 
them without difficulty. No wonder, then, that the sound of their roar in their 
native forests inspires terror in the bravest man, as well as in the most timid 
beast. Perhaps the most curious proof of the alarm excited by these animals 
is the existence of a little community, whose residence and entire mode of life is 
specially arranged for the avoidance of their attacks. When two travellers, 
Messrs. Schoon and M'Luckie, penetrated into a certain portion of the interior 
of South Africa, in 1829, they found a large tree containing seventeen huts of a 
conical form, built in three tiers on the branches, which were supported by poles, 
the lowest tier about nine feet above the ground. It appeared they were the 
dormitories of natives, who had built them there in consequence of the great 
increase of the lions in the district, after an incursion of a neighbouring tribe, 
when many thousand persons were slain. The ascent was by means of notches 
in the poles, the huts were regularly thatched, and would hold two persons 
conveniently. During the heat of the day, the space beneath the tree afforded 
a very pleasant shade for the owners to sit in. Several deserted villages, built 
in the same way, were also seen by the travellers. Yet who, as they look 
upon the noble creature before us, as we see him at this moment, answering with 
a kind of proud gentleness the fondling of the lioness, would suppose this to be 
the animal so much dreaded ? He may not deserve the character for magnani* 


mity he has enjoyed ; but he certainly looks *' every inch a king*' of the animal 

Near the Repository is a long range of kennels, for a most complete and valu- 
able collection of dogs, who are at present enjoying the air at the length of their 
tethers in front. Here are the watch-dogs from Thibet, the Grecian greyhound, 
the Persian sheep-dog, Spanish bloodhounds, a dog from the Celestial Empire, 
a Spanish mastiff, the famous dog of Mount St. Bernard (of which so many 
romantic stories are told, in relation to its services to travellers and others 
lost in the snows of those Alpine regions), Australian and Newfoundland dogs, 
&c.^ Our way now lies through a long and narrow leafy avenue, the extremity of 
which is lost in the distant foliage, and from which we turn off to the ostrich- 
house, where at present are kept a pair of nyl-ghaus, the largest and most mag- 
nificent of antelopes, and whose strength is commensurate with their appearance. 
Their temper, unfortunately, is none of the best, and woe to that animal who, 
meeting them in their own dense Indian forests, shall be the object of their 
wrath, as they bend their fore-knees, and advance in that position to the spot 
from whence they make their tremendous spring. The wapiti deer (the ass of his 
family, both in stupidity and voice, which is not unlike the bray) is still grander 
in his appearance than the nyl-ghau antelope, his common height being four feet 
and a half at the shoulder, or a foot higher than the common stag. This deer is 
kept in the building, with a dark passage running through the centre, before inci- 
dentally alluded to, which lies still farther westward (the direction we have been 
pursuing), with other deer, the elephant, the Brahmin bull and cows (most inte* 
resting animals), and a Cape buffalo, which, unlike the lion, carries, as it were, 
written upon his visage and entire appearance, a most suggestive history of 
ferocity and irresistible violence. That solid mass of horn covering his forehead, 
like a broad band rising toward the centre into a kind of double hemispherical 
shape, must make his head impregnable, a perfect battering-ram, whenever it 
shall please him so to use it. And many are the stories told by Thunberg, 
Bruce, and other travellers, showing that the buffalo has not the smallest indis- 
position to do so with or without provocation. The elephant-house is the next 
object of attraction, in which wo find the stupendous Indian elephant, and 
that comparatively rare animal in England, the one-homed, or Indian rhinoceros 
— the original, no doubt, of the popular unicorn. The horn of the animal 
here is merely a bony protuberance over his nose, in consequence of his habit of 
rubbing it against the sides of the cage ; in other respects it is one of the largest 
and finest animals of the kind ever exhibited in England. The horn is shown in 
its natural state in the following engraving. A curious trait of this animal—^ 
a portion, no doubt, of those natural instincts given to it for its defence in its 
oidinary state of life — is its liability to excitement from hearing any unusual noise. 
When in the yard at the back, the sound of the roller on an adjoining walk has 
made it rush towards the fence in that direction with great violence, and rear 
itself up. Considering its alleged hostility to the elephant^ the juxtaposition 
here is curious ; and has led, through accident, to a very striking disproof of the 
notion. One day the rhinoceros got into the elephant's apartment, and so far from 
quarrelling, the two seem to have made a sudden and eternal friendship. One 

[RUbocom, bain ths ipaalBeo la tlw Oudeu. 

of the most entertaining things in the Gardens is to see the tno enjoying a bathe 
in their pond in the spacious court-yard behind, or to see, what we ourselves 
mined on our visit, but has been described by others, how quiet the rhinoceiot 
will stand whilst his great friend scrubs his back with his trunk, and occasionally 
gratifies himself by a sly pull at his tail, to make the rhinoceros turn hia head, if 
his attention be taken off by visitors. 

Wfi arc now approaching the extremity of the G-ardcns, where, completely em- 
bosomed in the green wood, are various buildings scattered about, as that for the 
peccary sties, where are two of the most interesting of the swine family — the 
famous wild boar of our royal and noble hunters, for killing which a Saxon lost his 
eyes, under the rule of the Conqueror — and the collared peccary, from South Ame- 
rica — really a beautiful little pig, with slender delicate legs and feet, intelligent 
aspect, and particularly clean appearance. Here also are the houses of the auperin- 
tendent and head keeper ; the former having one of ita rooms devoted to tho re- 
ception of a variety of small tender quadrupeds, as the flying opossum, the brown 
coati-mundi, the golden agouti, porcupine, Indian tiger-cat, jerboas. Sec. &c. And, 
lastly, a remarkably lofty building appears before us, with an enclosed yard on the 
left, where the trees, fenced to a most unusual height, and with a projecting guard 
at the top of each fence, seems to imply we hare got among some creatures 
fVom the scene of Swift's geographical discoveries —that mysterious land of Brob- 
dignag, which not all British skill, and capital, and enterprise, have yet been 
able to find the way to. And when we do get within the building, and behold 
tho scene shown in our engraving, when we perceive it ia the gira&e-house 
and park that we have been gazing on, it is difficult to resist the impression, 
that these most beautiful and delicate, but, to tho very eyes that behold 
them, almost incredibly tall creatures cannot belong to any part of our 
planet with which we have been hitherto familiar. There are now four here; 
two adult males and one female, and one young one born in the Gardens, and 
enjoying, we are happy to say, excellent health. The female also is again with 


}-oung. In the same bouse with the girafies is an animal that more than divides 
with them the attention and curiosity of visitors ; this is the female ourang-outan, 
which, as the Society's Report for the present year informs us, has now lived 
nearly three years &nd a half in the Gardens, or nearly twice as long as any in- 
dividual of the species was ever known to live in Europe before. Lady Jane, as 
she is here called, is altogether of a higher grade than her kindred of the mon- 
key tribe. She does not condescend much to gambols ; but ask her to do any- 
thing sensible, as, for instance, to sit down and take a comfortable cup of tea, 
and she will do it with the most amnsing gravity and precision. But tea- 
drinking with her is altogether a solemn and ceremonious, albeit daily, proceed- 
ing ; so she first submits herself to her keeper, to have a befitting dress for the 
occasion put on, and then places her table, lays the cloth, sits down, and sips the 
tea from the cup and saucer, holding a kind of conversation with the keeper at the 
eame time. The peculiar low noise with which she intimates her assent to his 
notions, when she approves of them, is more than entertaining ; it really seems 
to suggest so much of what she would say, had not speech been denied. The 
affectionatcncss of her disposition is very touching. As the keeper leans over 
her, she will put up her long arm, and clasp him round the neck, as though she 
really felt all his attentions and kindness. We have yet much to learn as to the 
true mental powers and characteristics of such animals, and as to their relation 
with our own. 

It will be seen from the foregoing account, that the available funds of the So- 
ciety must have been of no ordinary amount. From the financial accounts now 
before us, it appears that the expenditure on the Gardens from 1R25, the year of 
commencement, up to the end of 1840, was in general terms 188,000^. This im- 
mense sum has been derived chiefly from two sources, in very nearly equal pro- 

272 LONDON. 

portions, namely, the payments of the members or fellows (each 5/. for admission 
and 3/. annually)^ and the shilling admission fees of visitors. In the year 1842, 
the receipts from the former source have been 4542/. 139., and from the latter, 
4021/. 13s, The number of fellows, and fellows elect, at the present time, is 
2478, or 412 less than 1839. The falling off in this respect is attributed^ no 
doubt correctly, to the retirement of such of the earlier members as cared simply 
for the place as a fashionable Sunday lounge, and the similar decline in the num- 
ber of visitors, to those casual influences, which all exhibitions are liable to. The 
removal of the Museum to the Gardens, the erection of the new Camivora Terrace, 
and the proposed addition of an excellent military band, will no doubt do much to 
remedy both these causes of decline. But at all events, the Society can now rely 
upon a certain amount of permanent support, which we are happy to say is amply 
sufficient to keep these beautiful and interesting Gardens in all their present re- 
putation and value. 

[Viaimf Um oM Sugg and Bukony.] 


Scarcely less surprising than tho greatness of the drama of the Elizabethan 
era, is the suddenness of its growth, and the extraordinary contrast presented by 
it to all that had gone before : growth, indeed, seems hardly a fitting word to 
characterise so instantaneous and important and complete a change. Up to the 
year 1580, and probably a little later, not a single dramatic writer or a single 
dramatic piece had appeared, the names of which now excite any interest beyond 
that of their position as links between the old moral plays and the modern drama ; 
fifteen years elapse, and behold ! — Munday, Chettle, Kyd, Lodge, Greene, Lyly, 
Nash, and Peele, are familiar names ; Marlowe has written ' Tamburlaine,' 'Dr. 
Faustus,' 'The Jew of Malta,' and ' Edward II. ;' above all, Shakspere has given 
to the world nearly one half of his entire works. The fact is established, in the 
opinion of the writer of this article, in the recent pictorial edition of his works, 
that Shakspere, instead of being, as we have hitherto generally supposed, a fol- 
lower in point of time of the Peeles and Greenes and Marlowes, and therefore 
deriving no inconsiderable advantage from their works and example, was really 
strictly contemporary with them. It has been shown in the work referred to, 
that whilst we know of the existence, in 1598, of at least sixteen of Shakspere's 
plays, some of these, of high excellence, must have been produced considerably 
before 1 59 1 , when Spenser, in the ' Tears of the Muses,' laments the temporary 
withdrawal of some one who had 

" the comic stage. 
With Beason'd wit, and goodly pleaauie, graced," 

and describes the writer thus unmistakcnbly, as 

VOL. V. T 

274 LONDON. 

'* the man whom Nature self had made 
To mock herself, and Truth to imitate 
With kindly counter, under mimic shade : 
Our pleasant Willi/, ah, is dead of late/* &c. 

Lastly, it is now known, through Mr. Collier's researches, that Shakspere, so early 
as 1589, was a shareholder in the Blackfriars Theatre, with a fourth of the other 
sharers below him on the proprietors' list. Now there is nothing in Shakspere's 
subsequent career as an actor to lead us to suppose he could have obtained such 
a position as this at the age of twenty-five from the exercise of his talents that 
^^y I yet look at him as a writer, and the matter is at once explained. But 
then there is that odd idea of the older commentators, that every body rather 
than he began to write early. Few persons would suppose, from merely reading 
their speculations, that whilst the three writers we have mentioned were all 
about Shakspere's own age, the greatest of them, Marlowe, is supposed to have 
been a year younger ;* and secondly, that after all, there is every reason to sup- 
pose they had done very little at the period when it is all but certain that Shak- 
spere had done much : by 1589 Marlowe had written ' Tamburlaine the Great,' 
and probably the ' Massacre of Paris,' and Peele and Greene may have each 
produced one or two pieces for the stage, as they are supposed to have connected 
themselves with it a year or two before ; but this is pretty well all that can be 
said for the precedence of these early contemporaries of Shakspere, and proves, in 
connexion with what has been previously advanced, to our mind, something very 
like the reverse. On the whole, then, it will be seen that Dryden knew perfectly 
well what he was about when he said, Shakspere " created the stage among us." 
Up to the period we have referred to, 1595, it was still, however, but the basis 
of the wonderful structure of the English national drama that had been laid ; for 
the completion of the work wc must look a few years further on, — to a time when 
Shakspere had closed his career, and when a host of other writers had arisen, im- 
bued generally, though of course in a lower degree, with the same lofty spirit, 
and kindred talents. Many of these, indeed, for their own permanent popularity 
had better have appeared at any other time : a Shakspere only could have over- 
shadowed them. Considering how little these writers arc now generally read in 
comparison with their extraordinary excellence, one cannot but remark how dif- 
ferent would be the fate of almost any one of them, could his lot have been cast 
in the nineteenth instead of the seventeenth century. What should not we think 
of a Ben Jonson, or a pair of Beaumonts and Fletchers, or a Massinger now ? 
What might not be the effect of their writings on the present fortunes of the 
national theatres ? Yet even these are but removed by the faintest possible lines 
of demarcation of rank from Ford, whom Lamb calls of '' the first order of poets;" 
or Webster, with that " wild, solemn, preternatural cast of grief which bewilders 
us in the 'Duchess of Malfy' " of which the same critic speaks ; or George Chap- 
man, with his "full heightened style," as his brother poet Webster calls it; 
or Hey wood, the "prose Shakspere;" or Dekker, or Rowley, or Middleton, or 
Daniel, or Shirley, — but there is no end to the list, and it is almost as idle 
to attempt now to familiarise them separately to the public, as to point out the 
stars of the milky way. Let us now turn our attention to an instructive com* 

* He was born, according to Malone, iu 1565. 


mentary apon all this amaziDg variety and height of intellectual power, the 
state of the theatres in London in which that power was exhibited. 

Although the earlieat public Theatres seem to have been established during 
the continuance of a pertinacious struggle between the players and play-lovers 
on the one side, and the civic power on the other (who held the stage and every- 
thing connected with it in especial dislike), they had become very numerous by 
the time the great writers we have mentioned were prepared to raise them into 
their true importance and value. For their success in this struggle, the players 
were evidently indebted to the court favour they enjoyed, which, in 1583, was 
signalised by Elizabeth's choosing, from among the different companies ac- 
customed to perform before her, twelve of the best actors, and forming them 
into a company, under her own especial patronage. The chief London theatres 
at that period were these : — The Theatre, especially so called, in Shoreditch, 
and the Curtain close by ; Paris Garden, Bankside, chiefly used as a Bear 

IThe Piili Oanlni Thatn, S«Dlli<rirk,J 

Garden, but also for the performance of plays, as Dekker, in his satire upon 
Jonson, makes the latter say he had played Zulziman there ; the Blackfriars, 
Whitefriars, Salisbury Court, Kose, Hope, Swan, Newington, Red Bull, and 
Cockpit or Phoenix in Drury Lane. Various places of minor importance were also 
dignified by the name of Theatre, as the Inn Yard of the ' Bel Savage," remark- 
able, according to Prynne, " for the visible apparition of the Devil upon tho 
stage," on one occasion, during Elizabeth's reign. We learn what was tho 
number of actors at the same time in the metropolis, from a letter to Secretary 
Walsingham, in 1586, which, after referring to the different companies, as the 
Queen's, Lord Leicester's, Lord Oxford's, Lord Nottingham's, and other noble- 
men's then performing, states the number of players as not less than two hundred. 
Of these theatres, the Blackfriars is the one that most deeply interesU us : 
it was there, in all probability, Shakspere made his first appearance both as 

276 LONDON. 

actor and writer ; it was there, certainly, that he established his reputation. The 
Blackfriars (and, it is supposed, others also of those we have mentioned, as the 
Curtain) were erected immediately after — and inconsequence of the entire expul- 
sion of players from the limits of the City by the Lord Mayor and Aldermen in 
1575; who, however, gained little more by the movement than the exhibition of 
a kind of successful contempt of their authority, in the erection of such houses as 
the Theatre in the Blackfriars, under their very noses, but, owing to the old mo- 
nastic privileges, beyond their jurisdiction. Two companies^ it appears, had the 
right of playing at this house, the one that Shakspcre belonged to (the Lord 
Chamberlain's) and that of the Children of the Chapel, afterwards (on James's 
accession) known as the Children of her Majesty's Bevels, who played regular 
pieces the same as their older rivals ; as, for instance, Ben Jonson*s ' Case is 
Altered ' in 1599, and his ' Cynthia's Revels ' in 1600. The proprietor of 
the Blackfriars, in fee, was Richard Burbage ; and he probably let the theatre 
to the Children of the Revels, in the summer season, whilst he and his brother 
shareholders acted at the Globe. The noticeable passage in * Hamlet* refers 
to them, and to the neglect experienced by the players at some particular 
period, through the overweening admiration of the public for these tiny re- 
presentatives of the drama ; who, it should seem, also, had been accustomed to 
injure the regular theatres by more direct modes of attack. *' There is^ sir," 
says Rosencrantz, '' an aiery of children, little eyases, that cry out on the 
top of question, and are most tyrannically clapped for *t : these are now the 
fashion; and so berattle the common stages (so they call them), that many, 
wearing rapiers, arc afraid of goose-quills, and dare scarce come thither.'' And 
in the kindly and thoughtful spirit of Hamlet's reply there is evidence that the 
complaint may have been made in no selfish spirit: — "Will they pursue the 
quality no longer than they can sing?*' he asks. *' Will they not say afterwards, 
if they should grow themselves to common players (as it is like most, if their 
means are no better), their writers do them wrong, to make them exclaim against 
their own succession?** The Blackfriars was one of those theatres distinguished 
by the title of private, and which were entirely roofed over, instead of, as in those 
which were public, merely the stage portion; which had a pit instead of a mere 
enclosed yard ; in which performances took place by candle light; and where the 
visitors, being altogether of a higher class, enjoyed especial accommodations; 
among which, the right to sit on the stage during the progress of the play was 
the feature most peculiar to the time. In the public theatres this last-men- 
tioned custom also prevailed ; influential persons no doubt being permitted to do 
so without comment, and impudent ones taking permission in order to show their 
impudence, or to display their new dresses to the audience in all their bravery. 
The stools used by such persons were hired at sixpence each. The Blackfriars 
was probably pulled down soon after the permanent close of the Theatres, during 
the Commonwealth, by the Puritans ; the locality is still marked by the name 
Playhouse Yard, near Apothecaries' Hall. 

The other Theatre which Shakspere has bound so closely up with his own his- 
tory, and to which, therefore, a similar kind of interest *is attached, was the 
Globe, erected about 1593; and, it is highly probable, in consequence of the 
growing prosperity of the Lord Chamberlain's servants, who desired a roomier 
house, a more public field for exertion. This was the largest and best of the 


theatres yet raised ; as is clear from the care of Alleyn and Henslowe, in the 
erection of the Fortune, soon after, on a Btill larger scale, to imitate all its ar- 
rangements, excepting the shape. Yet what the Globe was, Shakspere himself has 
told us in the preliminary chorus to ' Henry the Fifth :' — 

" Pardon, gentles all, 

Tlie flat UDraised spirit, that lialh dared 

On this uunorthy scafTold to bring forth 

So great an object : Can thia cockpit hold 

The vasty fields of France ? or may we cmm 

Within this voaden the very casques 

That did affriglit the air at Agincouit ?" 
What then ? 

" Piece out our imperfections with your thoughts,'' 
is the bidding of the poet ; and he spoke to an audience who could do even 
better than that, who could forget them altogether, in their apprehension of the 
■]>iritua1 grandeur and magnificence that was then with them in the cockpit. 

There is something, it must be owned, occasionally amusing as well as delightful 
in the simplicity of the old stage : in Greene's ' Pinner of Wakefield * two parties 
are quarrelling, and one of them says, " Come, sir, will you come to the town's 
end, now ?" in order to fight. " Aye, sir, come," answers the other; and both 
then, we presume, move a few feet across the stage to another part, but evidently 
that is all, for in the next line the same speaker continues, " Now wo are at the 
town's end — what shall we say now ?" But if the audiences of the sixteenth cen- 
tury were by no means critical about the appliances of the drama, the case was 
very different as to the drama itself. Jonson gives us a pleasant peep into the 
interior of a theatre of the time on the first night of a new piece : " But the 
sport ia at a new play to observe the sway and variety of opinion that passcth it. 
A man shall have such a confused mixture of judgment poured out in the throng 
there, as ridiculous as laughter itself One says he likes not the writing, another 
likes not the plot, another not the playing ; and sometimes a fellow that comes 
not there past once in five years, at a Parliament time or so, will be as deep 
mixed in censuring as the best, and swear by God's foot he would never stir his 

278 LONDON. 

foot to see a hundred such as that is." * Then, as now^ it seems, managers, in 
bringing out new pieces, were not insensible to the advantages of accompanying 
them with novel or greatly improved theatrical effects. It was possibly one of 
these that led to the catastrophe at the Globe Theatre in 1613, on an important 
occasion of thiskind, when there was no doubt an unusually brilliant audience assem- 
bled. Jonson was among them, as we learn from his ' Execration of Vulcan' for his 
doings in the affair ; which are thus described by Sir Henry Wotton, in a letter 
to his nephew, dated the 29th of June : *' Now, to let matters of state sleep, I 
will entertain you at present with what hath happened this week at the Bank- 
side. The King*6 players had a new play, called ' All is True,' representing 
some principal pieces of the reign of Henry VIII., which was set forth with many 
extraordinary circumstances of pomp and majesty, even to the matting of the 
stage; the knights of the order with their Georges and garters, the guards with 
their embroidered coats, and the like ; sufficient, in truth, within a while, to 
make greatness very familiar, if not ridiculous. Now King Henry, making a 
mask at the Cardinal Wolsey's house, and certain cannons being shot off at his 
entry, some of the paper or other stuff wherewith one of them was stopped did 
light on the thatch, where, being thought at first but an idle smoke, and their 
eyes more attentive to the show, it kindled inwardly, and ran round like a train, 
consuming, within less than an hour, the whole house to the very grounds. 
This was the fatal period of that virtuous fabric, wherein yet nothing did perish 
but wood and straw and a few forsaken cloaks ; only one man had his breeches 
set on fire, that perhaps had broiled him, if he had not, by the benefit of a provi- 
dent wit, put it out with bottle ale." This play, there is little doubt, was 
Shakspere*s ' Henry VIII.,* having perhaps ' All is True * for a first title ; for 
not only does the prologue contain various passages illustrative of the idea the 
author desired to impress of the truth of the story, but another recorder of the 
event, Thomas Lorkin, in a letter to Sir Thomas Puckering, expressly calls 
it ' Henry VIII.* ; and, lastly, we read in the original stage directions of Shak- 
spere's play. Act I., Scene 4, '^ drums and trumpets, chambers discharged,'* under 
the precise circumstances described by Sir Henry Wotton. The Globe was 
rebuilt next year, when Taylor, the water-poet, noticing it, says — 

" — where before it had a thatched hide 
Now to a stately theatre is tum'd." 

Like the Blackfriars, it was most probably pulled down during the Common- 

The Fortune Theatre, built about 1599, proved truly a fortune to its chief 
owner, AUeyn, the actor and founder of Dulwich College. Here the Lord 
Admiral's servants performed. From the indenture between Alleyn and Hens- 
lowe, his co-partner, on the one side, and the builder. Street, on the other, we 
learn that the house had three tiers, consisting of boxes, rooms, and galleries ; that 
there were " two-penny rooms," and *' gentlemen's;'' that the width of the stage 
was forty-three feet, and the depth thirty-nine and a half, including, however, we 
should presume, the 'tiring house at the back. In connexion with these particulars, 
the view of the old stage we have given, with that important and most useful por- 
tion of it, the balcony, copied from an engraving in the title-page of ' Roxana,' a 

* < Case k Altered,' Act ii. Sc. 4. 


LAtin play, by William Alabaster, 1632, may not be unacceptable. The balcony 
appears to have been ao managed, that when not in use by the players, it might 
be occupied by some of the audience. Wc see at a glance in this design, the means 
by which many of the old stage directions were fulfilled, as " Enter Borneo and 
Juliet at the window." In the balcony, too, would sit the Court in ' Hamlet ' dur- 
ing the performance of the play, and in similar cases of a play within a play. It 
haa been supposed that the names of the theatres were borrowed from their re- 
spective signs, or, at least, that they had signs exhibited without of the nature 
indicated by their titles. This was certainly the case as regards AUcyn's 
theatre, as Heywood speaks of — 

"—the picture of dame Fortune 
Before the Fortune playhouse." 

[Tlie Fartnu'niaUrtiGoMaiil.iiM, Bublnn, u 11 ippfuril 11)11.] 

There was, however, a much more useful and characteristic sign of the theatres. 
As the time of performance approaches, about three in the afternoon, "each play- 
house advanceth his flags in the air, whither quickly, at (he waving thereof, are 
summoned whole troops of men, women, and children."* To the particulars 
already incidentally given, we may now add a few others. And first as to actors, 
many of whom, we need hardly remind our readers, were poets also, like their 
great exemplar, Shakspcre ; and were generally, there ia every reason to be- 
lieve, worthy of the dramas they represented. The chief men of note, besides 
Shakspere himself, whose names have been preserved in connexion with 
his plays, were Burbage, the original Richard the Third; Heminge and 
Condell, Sbabspere'a friends and literary executors, who, " without ambition 
either of self-profit or fame — only to keep the memory of so worthy a friend and 
fellow alive as was our Shakspore," published the first edition of bis collected 
works; Taylor, the original Hamlet ; Kemp; Sly; Lowin; Field, &c. Actors 

* WiUiun Paikel' • Curtain Drawn of Ibc World, 1612. 

280 LONDON. 

of this rank generally participated in the profits of the company to which they 
belonged, as whole sharers, three-quarter sharers, or half-sharers; whilst the 
remaining performers were either hired at regular weekly salaries (six shillings 
seems to have been an ordinary rate of payment), or were apprenticed to par- 
ticular members of the company. The emoluments of the sharers were, no doubt, 
considerable, as, in addition to their ordinary public business, they were frequently 
called upon to play before the Court, for which the usual payment, at one time, 
was ten pounds ; and at the mansions of the nobility on extraordinary cases of 
state, at christenings, and at marriages. The price of admission seems to have 
varied not only at the different theatres, but at different times in the same 
theatre. Ben Jonson has told us in an amusing passage what they were in 1614, 
when his ' Bartholomew Fair ' was acted at the Hope. In the Induction he says, 
*' It shall be lawful for any man to judge his six-pennyworth, his twelve-penny- 
worth^ so to his eighteenpence, two shillings, half-a-crown, to the value of his 
place, provided always his place get not above his wit.*' But Dekker speaks of 
your groundling and gallery commoner buying his sport for a penny ; and other 
writers also of the " penny bench theatres," referring most likely to theatres of 
a lower grade than any we have enumerated. Of moveable painted scenes, the 
theatres of the Shaksperian era were not entirely deficient ; but in the earliest pe- 
riod we had '' Thebes written in great letters on an old door,*' when the audience 
were desired to understand the scene lay in that place, and which Sir Philip Sidney 
ridicules. Hence the briefest, but most significant of stage directions in ' Selimus, 
Emperor of the Turks,' published in 1594, where, when the hero is conveying 
his father's dead body in solemn state to the Temple of Mahomet,